Items filtered by date: May 2016
Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:35

Copy General Corporation


To provide excellent services to clients while ensuring that their respective needs and expectations are met. The company also seeks to foster an exemplary culture among its employees in order to boost livelihoods. Through these kinds of values, the Copy General Corporations seeks to make a positive impact in the society.


Copy General Corporation faced numerous challenges during its establishment and also while rolling out across different jurisdictions in Eastern Europe.  Among the most outstanding problems is the issue of language barriers. As Paul sought to identify a suitable location for his new company, language was a notable challenge. Most people in Budapest could barely speak in English.

This served as a massive barrier for communication. In the establishment of any business in foreign markets, communication is usually a critical challenge (Bruton, 2010). Apart from language, another notable problem pertains to the acquisition of space in Budapest and also the other locations across Eastern Europe. These countries were recovering from communist regimes, and this complicated space acquisition for business. In any business, the acquisition of space is among the most essential steps towards success. This underlines the problem faced by Copy General Corporation as it sought to venture into the new markets across Eastern Europe (Rugman, 2009).

The issue of government bureaucracy is another notable problem in the case. This is a glaring attribute of socialist and communist regimes. These kinds of bureaucracies hampered the entire process of establishing the new business in cities such as Budapest and Prague. The different aspects highlight the numerous problems which are notable in the case as directly pertains to the organization.


There are various assumptions which can be drawn from this case. The first assumption pertains to the issue of capital. In line with this framework, there is an assumption that Paul and his compatriots had sufficient financial resources to establish the first office in Budapest. Without such resources, it would have been, massively challenging for Paul and his colleague to actualize the different logistics of establishing a new company (Hooper, 2009).

Another assumption hinges on the consideration that Copy General Corporation is a profit based company. While this aspect has not been addressed in this case, it is pertinent to make an assumption that Copy General is a profit-based entity. This helps in demystifying the extensive strategies to expand the company across the Eastern European region.


The case presents numerous contexts that most concern the subject matter relative to cross cultural management. One of such situations is the scenario involving an interpreter as Paul and his colleague were seeking business space in Budapest. Interpretation is an outstanding aspect of cross cultural management. This is largely because of the language differences notable in the foreign markets.

Apart from language, culture is another pertinent management scenario that encompasses the cross-cultural aspects in this case. In the management of international business activities, cultural perspectives must be taken into account. Such an approach enables the business to conform to the different stipulations and expectations of the new culture (Kelly, 2009).
This is a pertinent reason why Copy General Corporation performed brilliantly in the Eastern European region. Connecting with a people’s standard of living is also a notable cross-cultural management aspect depicted in the case. The company did not encourage extravagant lifestyles in order to avert any kind of dissent among the local employees. This aspect is an essential dimension with regard to cross cultural management.

Functional Policies

Different companies are characterized by different functional policies. In line with such stipulations, Copy General Corporation is not an exception. Among the most pertinent areas of functional policies is financial planning and control. The company has an excellent policy which bars the employees from spending extravagantly. Marketing is another pertinent area of analysis with regard to the functional policies of Copy General Corporation.

The framework for marketing in this company is intertwined with the advertising policy in order to minimize operational costs (Bruton, 2010). Online marketing platforms have been widely employed by the company. The company has invested extensively in product development and research. These aspects enhance its competitiveness. In terms of human resources, the company trains its employees regularly. It also maintains exemplar standards of fairness while hiring new employees.


In order to solve the challenge of language barrier, the company must invest heavily on local employees. These can connect easily with the respective clients. The challenge of government bureaucracy can be averted by establishing a neutral policy on political issues (Hooper, 2009). This can easily protect the Copy General Corporation from political controversies.

Plan for Action

In order to address the issue of cultural diversity, Copy General Corporation must develop a culturally-sensitive organizational culture. This kind of action would streamline the company’s efficiency while handling or serving clients from diverse backgrounds (Rugman, 2009).

The company’s extensive establishments in countries across Europe and Asia should serve as the platform for fine-tuning the organizational culture. Additionally, all employees must be familiarized with the different benefits of maintaining cultural diversity within a multinational organization like Copy General Corporation.


Bruton, G. D. (2010). International management: Strategy and culture in an emerging       world, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning

Hooper, M. J. (2009). The global business handbook, Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing   Company

Kelly, P. (2009). International business and management, Mason, OH: Cengage     Learning

Rugman, A. M. (2009). The Oxford handbook of international business, Oxford: Oxford   University Press

Published in Management
Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:27

Appreciating Language Diversity


How to tame a wild Tongue is an article by Gloria Anzaldua. Anzaldua’s essay focuses on the aspect of an individual losing his or her accent so as to conform to a set environment. Anzaldua presents a scenario where language variation can be a challenging aspect in a person’s life. This is commonly the case if the person speaks an unpopular language. Anzaldua’s essays bring out the essence of language as a form of personal identity. She indicates the need for societies to appreciate linguistic differences among individuals.

She points out that the differences between one language and another should not be used as a form of judgment and criticism, but as a type of acceptance of the diversity of cultures.  It is vital to appreciate linguistics diversity and avoid perceptions of superiority and inferiority with regard to language.


In the essays how to tame a wild tongue, Gloria Anzaldua speaks of her struggle to speak in Chicano Spanish, yet she resided in America. America is an English speaking nation and Anzaldua had a difficult time living in an English speaking environment, yet she was not English. Anzaldua recalls her struggles in school, for instance, when she was punished for speaking Spanish at recess and the comments of her teacher “if you want to be American, speak American, if you don’t’ like it go back to Mexico” (Anzaldua, 34).

Her life at the university was not easy either as she was required to take two speech classes so as to rid her Chicano Spanish accent. Anzaldua experienced great difficulty as a Chicano Spanish speaker. Chicano Spanish was not the true Spanish language, and it evolved tremendously. Chicano Spanish was also considered Spanish for the uneducated hence the dire need to eliminate it.

Anzaldua’s essay attempts to point out how wrong it is, for individuals in society to undermine one language over another. She indicates that ethnic identity, and linguistic identity are intertwined thus efforts to make someone drop their language is an attempt to make them lose their ethnic identity. The language that one speaks is a form of personal identification. An individual is able to identify with fellow speakers of the same language regardless of their geographical locations. Language variation and language differences should not be used as a determinant of authenticity.
The debate on the use of first language in formal settings has been rampant as societies stipulate the official language of communication in school, offices and other formal institutions. The selection of one language over others creates the perception of superiority. However, critics argue that the determination of official language of use creates a uniform environment in terms of language, communication and identity.

Bucholtz Mary in the article identity and interaction: a socio-cultural linguistic approach mentions that an individual’s identity is housed within an individual’s mind. An individual is able to express what is on his mind using language. Language is thus used as a tool to express an individual’s mental state. Language permits an individual to have an ideal comprehension of him/herself. It is by understanding oneself that an individual is capable of expressing her/himself using language. The ideas presented by Bucholtz (2005) auger well with the idea that Anzaldua attempts to put across. An individual is best capable of expressing himself using his own language. Anzaldua recalls when she was penalized for attempting to correct a teacher’s pronunciation of their name. In such a scenario, it was easier for Anzaldua to detect the wrong pronunciation of her name that the teacher who was a native English speaker.

Tove Sutnabb-Kangas in the article the stake: linguistic diversity, linguistic human rights and mother tongue based multi-lingual education reviews the emerging trend in most endangered language. Naturally, English turned out to be the language with the highest volume of words hence commonly used as a form of expression across societies. Tove’s main idea is that the increasing need to suppressing other minority language over perceived superior languages such as English is leading to the endangering of other languages.
Endangered languages are those that are either, dead, they are dying or have been neglected (Tove, 2009). The ability of a society to encourage diversity in language ensures that there is diversity, partnership and that members of a community are able to express their fundamental human rights of expression. The definition of linguistic diversity needs to be broadened to integrate all languages spoken in a society.
 Currently, linguistic diversity has been narrowed down to include only those languages that are considered to have a future. This is unfortunate considering that all languages irrespective of the few people speaking it have an equal chance of growing if permitted. Anzaldua indicates how her language, Chicano Spanish, began a language for the uneducated, but is now spoken widely to the extent that it is almost perceived as its own culture. Partnership in language diversity refers to the relationship between different language speakers.

There is a need to appreciate and accommodate the different languages that we encounter (Tove, 2009). A native Spanish speaker in America will attempt to learn a few English language words so that it is possible to communicate with the English speaking population. Similarly, the native English speakers should strive to accommodate the minority non-English speaking groups. With regard to human rights, any attempts to subdue one language over another, results to attempts of one social group to exert it dominance over another group which is morally wrong.  Nations must strive to uphold the heritage of their diverse languages as a symbol of its pride.


There is no one language that in more dominant than the other. Communities must strive to accommodate all languages that its people hold. Language diversity and acceptance encourages unity and growth as members of a community appreciate and learn about each other languages. Language is a strong identify of individuals within a community. Individuals use their language to express their thoughts hence the need to give each language equal opportunity in society.

Language is a vital component of a person’s everyday life. Language is used as a form of expression and interactions. From birth, man begins to adopt a language. He then uses this language to express his thoughts. The language acquired is thus the man identity as he uses that language to express himself.  It is vital, therefore, to appreciate linguistics diversity and avoid perceptions of superiority and inferiority with regard to language.


Anzaldua, G. How to tame a wild tongue

Bucholtz, M. (2005). Identity and interaction: a socio-cultural linguistic approach. Discourse studies. Vol. 7; 585

Tove, S. (2009). The stakes: linguistic diversity, linguistic human rights and mother tongue-based multilingual education. Presentation at Bamako International Forum on Multilingualism, Bamako, Mali,

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:23

Statistical Quality Control


  1. Engineers at a manufacturing plant have just been to a course to learn the basics of SPC (statistical process control). They have decided to set up their first charting application on a CNC turning center where a motor shaft is being machined. The table below represents the diameter of motor shafts.  (Read down, then across: total of 100 observations)
438 450 487 451 452 441 444 461 432 471
413 450 430 437 465 444 471 453 431 458
444 450 446 444 466 458 471 452 455 445
468 459 450 453 473 454 458 438 447 463
445 466 456 434 471 437 459 445 454 423
472 470 433 454 464 443 449 435 435 451
474 457 455 448 478 465 462 454 425 440
454 441 459 435 446 435 460 428 449 442
455 450 423 432 459 444 445 454 449 441
449 445 455 441 464 457 437 434 452 439
  1. Find the sample median and the lower and upper quartiles (3 points)

Median = 450

Lower quartile = 441

Upper Quartile = 487

  1. Calculate its average, mode, standard deviation of the data set. (3 points)

Average = 450.01

Mode = 454

Standard Deviation = 13.42732

  1. Construct a histogram for these data. Comment on the shape of the histogram. (10 points)
  1. Does it resemble any of the distributions? (3 points)

The distribution of the data in the histogram resembles normal distribution. The data is clustered towards the center.

  1. Construct a normal probability plot of this data. (10 points)
  1. What are the levels of 6 Sigma? How does this level measurement process work? Please fill the table below. (5 points)
  1. Define
  2. Measure
  3. Analyze
  4. Improve
  5. control

Measuring a process using Six Sigma seeks to improve a process by reducing the number of defects. Six Sigma aims to ensure continuous improvement hence facilitate customer satisfaction, profitability, and cost reduction.

Sigma level Defects per million opportunity Percent defective Percentage yield
1 691,462 69% 31%
2 308,538 30.9 69.1%
3 66,807 6.7% 93.3%
4 6,210 0.6% 99.4%
5 233 0.02% 99.98%
6 3.4 0.0003% 99.9997%
  1. Why should we reach 6 Sigma level? (5 points)

The 6 Sigma level is a level at which we are able to control a process. In the 6 sigma process, we move from defining and stating the practical problem, measuring problem by data collection, analyzing the problem through statistical procedures, improving the process through a statistical solution, and the last level which is controlling the process by converting the statistical solution to a practical solution.

  1. The average resistance of n=25100-ohm resistors, selected at random, is found to be x̄ = 100 ohms. The individual resistances are known to follow a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 10 ohms.
  2. Find the probability of a resistor to have a resistance greater than 108.9 ohms. (4 points)

P (X>108.9)

Z= x-μ/σ

= (108.9-100) / 10

= 0.89

P (Z>0.89)

= 1 – P (Z<0.89)

= 1 – 0.3133

= 0.6867

  1. Find the probability of a resistor to have a resistance smaller than 88.9 ohms. (4 points)

P (X<88.9)

Z= x-μ/σ

= (88.9-100) / 10

= - 1.11

            P (Z < -1.11)

            = 0.1190

  1. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean resistance of all manufactured resistors. (12 points)

95% of the values in a normal distribution lie within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

Therefore, the 95% confidence interval for the mean resistance = 100 - 20 ≤ x̄ ≥ 100 + 20

80 ≤ x̄ ≥ 120

  1. Control charts for  and R are maintained for an important quality characteristic.  The sample size is n= 10,  and R are computed for each sample. After 25 samples, we have found that


  1. Compute control limits of R chart. (7 points)

= 920/25

= 36.8


 = 1.777 (36.8)

= 65.39


= 0.223 (36.8)

= 8.21

  1. Assuming that R chart exhibits control, estimate the standard deviation. (7 points)

σ = R / d2 (n)

d2 for a sample size of 25 = 3.931

= 36.8 / 3.931(25)

= 9. 3615

  1. If process output is normally distributed, and if specifications are 100 ± 25, can the process meet the specifications?

UCL = 125

LCL = 75

Cp = UCL- LCL / 6 σ

 = 125-75/ 6 (9.3615)

= 0.8906

Cp < 1

Therefore, the process cannot meet the specifications.

Estimate the fraction nonconforming. (12 points)

Fraction non-conforming = P (X < 75) + P (X>125)

=     2285/25

= 91.4              

= P (Z < 75- 91.4 / 9.3615) + P (Z > 125- 91.4 / 9.3615

= P (Z < -1.7518) + P (Z > 3.5891)

= 0.0399 + (1-0.9998)

= 0.0399 +0.0002

= 0.0401


Montgomery, DC, (2008). Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

Published in Accounting


In efforts to prove that Apple has not lost its innovative ability since the demise of Steve jobs, Apple Company on Monday introduced a redesign of iOS.   The unveiling comes at a time when the corporation is under intense pressure from stakeholders as its stock value declined.  The share is trading at $ 450 compared to its value in September last year when it was $ 700.  Announcing the upgrade, company vice president Phil Schiller assured stakeholders that Apple has not lost its ability to innovate.  Speaking during the annual conference, Charles Golvin stated that the company is working on battery life improvement and enhancement of the software.

According to Timothy Cook, the new iOS is the greatest improvement to the initial iOS since the introduction of iphone. The new software was designed by John Ive, the lead hardware developer in the company.   The design introduces thin typography and the keyboard appear simple. Some of the others changes introduced in the software include removal of textures in some applications, shedding of faux weather in the calendar application, removal of green belt in the game application and wood-grain in its ibookstores

The company has introduced a new feature in the iOS (activation Lock). This feature is meant to increase the security of the phone by allowing the owner to disable it after theft. The voice controlled assistant of the operating system has been improved to include both male and female voices. The new iOS will be released by the fall of summer. The company also unveiled ne MacBook Airs and previewed its next generation Mac operating system (OS X Mavericks

Published in Information Technology
Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:15

Whistle Blower

The predicaments that follow most whistle-blowers are many and have far reaching effects on their lives.   Most of them end up losing their jobs and having it difficult to secure another job in the future. Others have to seek refugee or asylum in other countries. This destabilizes their family life, and there are at imminent danger of divorce, home foreclosures, suicides and other psychological problems.  

Most whistle-blowers are treated by most government as enemies of the state and in most cases are sought to be prosecuted.   However, whistle-blowers play a crucial role in exposing fraud, social injustices, integrity issues, sexual harassment, misuse of power and many other social evils that should be condemned with strongest terms possible.

The predicament that faces whistle-blowers in most cases threatens future whistle-blowers.  Very few people are ready to lose their job and risk being prosecuted for exposing powerful people and government.  However, it is important to know that concealing a social, economic or political in justice amounts to participating in it.  Before blowing the whistle, it is crucial to assess the damage the act you are revealing on the affected people and the likelihood that things will change after you expose the evils.  Most of the whistle-blowers who expose sensitive issues such as matters of national security are usually threatened and in some cases prosecuted. However, it is imperative to study for the voiceless and powerless by exposing social injustices such as sexual harassment.

The key point behind deciding whether to expose anything is the repercussion and effects the act will have on you and the populace you are trying to protect. It is important to remember freedom was obtained through sacrifice of some people.

Published in Sociology
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