Items filtered by date: March 2016
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:22

Mac and PC users


There are different things that bias people on whether to use Mac or PC. One of the factors that could influence users to either use Mac or PC is the processor. Mac uses a more graphic based interface and PC is more text centered. For Mac users, they are influenced by the processor of this product because it tends to offer a powerful video and graphic software like movie editors and photo and the processor are designed to enable the programs to operate smoothly and quickly. The reason as to why the Mac users will prefer using Mac is because PC is usually less geared in these areas (Reynolds, & Elferdink 2000). The interface is also something that tends to influence the preference of a person because Mac users may prefer the aesthetic of Mac where many of the users are not professional video editors or graphic users; hence, these people like the feel and look of Macintosh computers both outside and inside. The price is also a factor that can bias people on their preference to either use PC or Mac.


According to the PC users, they usually claim that Macs are normally too expensive. On the other hand, Mac users do not complain of the price because Apple has been able to introduce some other affordable computers like Mac miniseries and eMac; hence, Mac users do not have to quit, but still maintain their preference for the brand. Another thing that influences Mac user’s preference is that they counter that they get more capabilities and power that when buying a PC of the same price (Reynolds, & Elferdink 2000). The users tend to weight the capabilities, cost, and software of the computer when they are determining the model and brand that will work well for them. Compatibility also biases the preference of Mac and PC users. The reason as to why Mac users are influenced to use Mac is because PC has not made many advances on compatibility (Pogue, 2012).

Most of the computers, which are using windows, cannot open files that are in the diskettes which have been formatted specifically for Mac. However, Mac is running Mac OSX Tiger which is one of the newest versions of the operating system, and it can open PC files, and it is also possible to co-exist in local networks with PCs. Something else that could bias the Mac user’s preference over PCs is the advertisement of Apple on Mac. Apple is having a positive impact on the preference of its users as they have sharp influence on the decision that people make so that to become and also remain Mac users.


When designing survey questions, biasness on survey questions can be avoided by ensuring that only the right questions are asked, and asking questions in the correct manner. Failure to do this will result to useless information. In order to avoid biased survey questions, it is necessary to avoid making the survey cumbersome and difficult which will help the respondents in participating to the survey (Jackson, 2010). The questions should be put in the correct order which will result to results that are not biased. Biasness can be avoided by creating questions that are precise, clear, and relatively short. This will help the respondents in interpreting the meaning of the survey questions in the exact way.


Reference
Jackson, S (2010). Research methods Cengage Learning
Pogue, D (2012). Switching to the Mac O’Reilly Media, Inc
Reynolds, D & Elferdink J (2000). Appleworks 6 O’Reilly Media, Inc

Published in Information Technology
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:18

Director of Manufacturing


Introduction
Manufacturing is an essential process because, through it, raw materials can be converted into finished goods products. Finished goods are part of the essential assets of an organization because they generate cash through sales. Manufacturing as a technical process employs machinery and labor force. In a large manufacturing organization, man-machine setup with division of labor exists in order to effectively enhance large scale production. However, effective operations of the manufacturing process cannot occur without the director of operations/ Manufacturing.


The director of manufacturing an organization, therefore, plays a set of roles that enhance effective production of goods. This paper, therefore, observe the characteristics of a career as a director of manufacturing.
Director of manufacturing is one of the executives of a production business organization. A director of manufacturing, therefore, has enormous duties in an organization, which include coordination of the workers and use of machines in the production process, quality control of the production process, process improvement, and administration (Executives, (2013).

The director of manufacturing ensures that machines and workers working in the production department are in the acceptable conditions in order to enhance efficiency in production. The director of operations, therefore, supervise workers by being attentive of the production process, implements quality control programs so as to ensure that the finished products meet the acceptable standards, analyze the production process for efficiency to enhance improved output, and make an update of the costs of labor, raw materials, and equipment to the leaders of the organization, thereby performing an administrative function (eHow, 2013).

An effective director of manufacturing needs to possess both technical and functional skills. The abilities of concern in this career include effective communication, understanding, quick identification of situations, and problem solvability. A director of operations must be interest in enterprising and conventional occupations, and conversant with the certification requirements and programs. The appropriate educational requirements, therefore, must be a degree in the line relevant with the production together with graduate studies in administration. Training and experience are also important factors to consider.


References
Role of Operations Manager. Retrieved From, http://www.executivesontheweb.com/manufacturing-director-jobs On June 22, 2013.
eHow, (2013). Duties of Manufacturing Manager. Retrieved From, http://www.ehow.com/list_7544212_duties-manufacturing-manager.html On June 22, 2013.
Jobs, (2012). Career Guide for Industrial Manager. Retrieved From, http://jobs.virginia.gov/careerguides/IndustrialProMgr.htm On June 22, 2013.

Published in Business Studies

Ways in which Microsoft Office Applications are used to Support Paralegal Environment


Introduction
Being the most widely used software in the world because of its numerous and excellent software programs, Microsoft Word office has gained use in various working environments. Various professionals, therefore, use Microsoft office programs that include Word, Excel, and Power Point for accomplishing various professional tasks. Paralegal is one of the professional fields that have embraced the use of Microsoft office programs. Such programs have highly assisted paralegals to effectively run their professional tasks. This paper, therefore, observes how the skills in Microsoft Office Applications such as Microsoft Word, Power Point, and Excel support paralegal work environment.

Discussion

Perhaps, Microsoft office Applications such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel are used by individuals to accomplish many functions. They are used at home, in school, and more so at work. Microsoft office applications have gained use in nearly all the professions since they efficiently accomplish several professional tasks. Therefore, Paralegals have also found convenience in using the Microsoft office programs.

According to American Bar Association (2013), it is essential for the paralegals in the modern world to have strong computer skills. In fact, well trained paralegals must possess excellent word processing skills in order to format a variety of documents that they handle as they keep track of their attorneys records. Microsoft word, for instance, is applied by paralegals to edit clients’ cases and record relevant information. Therefore, gaining excellent skills in Microsoft word is important.


Power Point presentations also help lawyers to present court cases because the information of such cases can be effectively displayed on slides presentation. Therefore, paralegals as assistance of lawyers should always have skills on how to prepare good presentations on screens in order to assist lawyers in presentation of their cases (Courtechforum, 2012). Additionally Microsoft excel is a useful application that assist paralegals keep data such as clients’ contact address and the other information that need to be placed in a systematic order (eHow, 2013).


Conclusion

Microsoft office software is a powerful tool in the paralegal profession, and other professional fields. In the paralegal fields, Microsoft software is used to edit clients’ cases and record relevant information, present court cases, and keep systematic data. Therefore, paralegals and other professionals need to have skills in Microsoft Office Applications.


References
American Bar Association, (2013). What Paralegal Do. Retrieved From, http://apps.americanbar.org/buslaw/blt/2007-01-02/orlinsky.shtml On June 14, 2013.
Courtechforum, 2012). Why Attorneys Need Power Point. Retrieved from, http://www.courtechforum.com/2012/06/11/why-attorneys-as-well-as-paralegals-need-power-point/ On June 14, 2013.
eHow, (2013). Paralegal. Retrieved From, http://www.ehow.com/about_6122366_need-order-become-paralegal-secretary.html On June 14, 2013.

Published in Information Technology
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:04

Organization Diagnosis Theory and Model

Organization Diagnosis Theory and Model
Janicijevic N. (2010). Business Processes in Organizational Diagnosis. Management Journal. 15 (2): 85- 106


This article promotes a process focused approach in organizational diagnosis. The article suggests that managers need to include business processes into the diagnostic models that are used to manage organizational change. The author notes the role of organizational diagnosis in assisting firms to manage change. The diagnostic process helps the organization to understand the causes of change and the content of the change. The author holds the view that the diagnostic models must be based on the business process in order for the organization to have an effective diagnosis. The article goes further to point out business processes components that need to be considered when developing an organizational diagnosis model. The article divides business processes into three broad classes; back processes, middle and front processes. The article also explains action plans that may be used to improve the processes.


Hamid R. et al (2011). The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis based on Six Box Model. Higher Education Studies. 1 (1): 84- 92
This article describes the use of the six box model in conducting organizational diagnosis in a university. This article describes organizational diagnosis as a process that uses different patterns to understand organizational problems with the aim of effecting necessary modifications. This process requires the use of systematic approaches in understanding organizational problems. One of these approaches is the six box model. The six box model examines six vital elements within an organization; rewards, structure, purposes, relationships, leadership and helpful mechanism. The article creates a better understanding of this model by describing its application in a university context.

Singleton L. Anderson D. Humphrey J. Taneja S. & Pryor M. (2008). Challenges Facing Change Management Theories and Research. Delhi Business Review. 9 (1): 1-20

This article explains a number of change management models and research and addresses the challenges facing researchers and organizational researchers in implementing these models. The authors note that the relevancy of the change management theory and research in the modern business environment has been questioned. The authors hold the view that change management models are still worth and relevant. However, the complexity of the modern business environment has introduced challenges in the implementation of change management models and research. The article examines a number of models including the action research model, Lewin Three-step model, Kotter’s Strategic Eight-Step model, and Jinks Ten-Step model. The modern business environment is characterized by multiple and simultaneous changes, changes occurring at increased speed and complex changes. The article makes recommendations on how leaders and researchers can overcome these challenges during the implementation of change management models.

Bushe G. & Marshak R. (2010). Revisioning Organization Development. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 45 (3): 348- 368

This article examines contemporary forms of organizational development practice and compares the original forms of organizational development. The authors have noted that contemporary practices in organization development do not adhere to the prescriptions and assumptions created by the founders of the concept of organizational development. The article argues that the original concept of organizational development had a positivist perspective. This original concept of organization development assumed the existence of discernable and objective reality. Contemporary forms of organizational development take a constructivist perspective when addressing organization issues. This contemporary form of OD assumes that social organizations are open to multiple realities. This article helps readers to understand the origin of the concept of organizational diagnosis, and how this concept has evolved over the years.

Hassin A. (2009) Effective Diagnosis in Organization Change Management. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. 5 (2): 23- 28

This article explains how an organization can enhance the process of organizational diagnosis. The author notes the significance of the process of organizational diagnosis in the management of changes. Modern businesses operate in highly dynamic and interactive environments. This environment exerts pressure on businesses in terms of meeting stakeholders’ expectations. The organizational diagnosis process helps an organization to have an accurate assessment of it environment and identify areas that need changes. Wrong diagnosis makes the change process ineffective. Manager need to design effective organizational diagnosis mechanism in order to implement changes that are meaningful to the organization. The article points out that the choice of organizational diagnosis model is determined by the organization, its context and the type of problem.

Khan W. (2012). The Functions of Dysfunctions. Implications for Organizational Diagnosis and Change. Consulting Psychology Journal. 64 (3): 225- 241

This article explains the impact of organizational structure on change management. The author argues that a highly hierarchical system undermines the change management process as it creates multiple purposes within the organization. The author notes the significance of having a common purpose with the organization in ensuring the successful operations of the organization. However, a highly hierarchical structure creates fragmentations with an organization and divides the employees of an organization. This results in misalignment of purpose thus resulting in resistance to change.

Published in Management
Thursday, 17 March 2016 06:53

Wal-Mart Stores

 

Introduction


Wal-Mart is a multinational retail store recognized for its many discount stores and warehouses across the world. Customers throng the stores due to the incredibly low prices that the company fixes on its commodities. Wal-Mart has remained profitable since it was established in 1962 (Wal-Mart Store, 2012). The store maintains a centralized system of management allowing managers to be in control of their branches. The continued success of the company has enabled the company to keep its competitors at bay, though its faces a tough challenge of keeping its prices low. The paper analyses Wal-Mart Stores in relation to the salient factors affecting the business as well as issues that can interfere with organizational performance.

Organizational Environment
Organizational environment refers to forces that surround an organization and its ability to function properly. Wal-Mart boasts of strong tangible resources. The store has remained financially stable regardless of the harsh economic time felt worldwide (Gereffi, & Christian, 2009). In 2012, Wal-Mart reported an increase in sales of 11%. Wal-Mart also has a strong leadership at the helm of the company with leadership structured on a regional basis. The decentralized system of leadership has seen managers have the authority to manage their own staff. Wal-Mart also has adequate human and innovative resources that have enables the company remain ahead of its rivals. From the technological perspective, Wal-Mart has remained technological savvy thus able to manage its own logistics using a central hub-and-spoke system (Wal-Mart Store, 2012).

Organizational Relationships
Organizational relationships refer to the networks that an organization forms to ascertain the success of the organization. Wal-Mart strive to do business with companies that they can relate with, for instance Wal-Mart and protector and gamble have worked together in sharing data across their mutual supply chain. Such company relationships have enabled Wal-Mart to sell products that customers need. Wal-Mart is also preferred by customers due to the company’s ability to lower its prices (Basker, 2005). Wal-Mart has also engaged in efforts to provide its customers with a one-stop-shop where customers can access all that they need less than one roof.
Competitive Environment
The competitive environment is the market structure under which a company operates. Wal-Mart’s competitive environment is unique as it competes against physical companies such as Target, but also online companies such as Kindle. However, Wal-Mart has to-date emerged victorious having beaten most competitors hands down. Wal-Mart operates with the mantra “pile it high, sells it cheap” and is thus able to attract high numbers of customers throughout a financial year (Gereffi, & Christian, 2009). Wal-Mart remains unmatched on pricing due to its incredibly cheap prices that its competitors cannot match. Wal-Mart also offers a wide range of commodities hence attracting customers to its stores compared to their rivals.


Strategic Challenges
Strategic challenges refer to the pressures that influence an organizations decisions and the drive towards future success. Wal-Mart main strategic challenge is keeping the prices of its commodities low despite the economic crunch and raises prices of raw materials. Companies and individuals are all affected by economic strains hence the tendency to shop less (customers) or to hike commodity prices (organization) (Tillquist, 2002).

Performance Improvement System
Performance improvement systems are the strategies that a company adopts so as to enhance their efficiency. In Wal-Mart, the store strives to establish efficient ways to improve performance. In 2011, for instance, the store achieved 69% improvement in fleet efficiency thus reducing transportation time. Wal-Mart has embraced fleet technology that focuses on improving the efficiency of heavy duty trucks that the store uses to transport its products.

Issue affecting employee performance
Optimal employee performance is paramount for any organization that desire to be successful and remain competitive. The management has to invent effective strategies that ensure employee are satisfied with the working environment provided. Employees must be motivated to work thus ensure productivity and efficiency in their job posts. Wal-Mart is faced with numerous issues that affect employee performance. One of these issues is low wages and long working hours. Wal-Mart has faced persistent complaints that it exposes its employees to long working hours, yet pays them very little.

A 2006 study by the Los Angeles alliance for the new economy revealed that Wal-Mart has one of the poorest payment structures. Wal-Mart pays its employees and average of &10 dollars per hour, yet the employees work for 34 hours per week (Gereffi, & Christian, 2009). Wal-Mart stores have also been accused of exposing its employee to off the clock working without the surety of overtime payment. The low pay by Wal-Mart towards its employees is so severe that most of its employees depend on government aid to survive. Some employees use food stamps to access free food rations from the government.

The issue of low pay affects employee performance significantly. Salaries and benefit packages are used as incentives, and motivation strategies to encourage employees to work hard in their respective assignments. Unfortunately, Wal-Mart employees work so as to survive (Tillquist, 2002). Job opportunities are available at Wal-Mart; however, the incentive to work for the store is nonexistent due to poor pay. The theory of motivation indicates that positive human behavior can be reinforced through rewards. The payment of salaries and benefits are some of the rewards that employers can accord to employees so as to encourage performance and efficiency at their work stations. Poor pay demoralizes employees who then focus on finding alternative employment opportunities.


Mission Statement: Wal-Mart Store
Wal-Mart has a direct mission statement that reads “we help people save money so they can live better”. The issues of low pay and poor working conditions do not represent the overall mission of Wal-Mart store. Most of the employees at Wal-Mart live in deplorable conditions due to meager salaries. The company earns a lot of profit but performs poorly in terms of salaries and employee compensation packages. With the economic crunch still biting many citizens, the Wal-Mart employee suffers as his salary cannot afford him the basic commodities. The otherwise cheap, and customer friendly products offered by Wal-Mart stores are expensive for the Wal-Mart employee (Gereffi, & Christian, 2009).

From the employee perspective, Wal-Mart saves money, but its employees are living in poor states. The salaries paid by Wal-Mart are so meager that employees hardly have any left for purposes of savings. The low wage tendency by Wal-Mart has also been found to affect the American taxpayer. Employees cannot afford basic needs such as healthcare and thus sign up for publicly funded health programs that are supported by American taxes. With this in mind, Wal-Mart appears to be complicating the lives of its employees and customers rather than save. Employees cannot afford basic amenities for survival and the ordinary American has to foot these expenses through taxation (Basker, 2005).

Organizational Assessment Model
An organizational assessment model is used to determine the performance of an organization thus establish areas of weakness and strength. There are numerous types of organizational assessment model. The first is the causal model that analyzes the organizational and environmental dimensions within an organization. A company can use the causal model to determine how each function within its organization affect another hence ensures effective performance. The main advantage with the causal model is that it allows managers to make a critical review of the internal and external factors that affect performance in an organization (Fox, 2013).

Factors such as mission and strategy of the company, existing systems, motivation and organizational culture are considered. The main disadvantage with this model is that it is complex hence managers tend to avoid it. The second model that can be considered is the 7s framework model that analyzes the seven organizational variable that must be considered in any company. This model allows managers to look at the hardware and software of the organizations. The hardware represents the organization strategy and structure, whereas the software represents the organizational management style, existing systems, staff, existing skills and values within the organization. This model is excellent for resolving internal issues but fails in handling external issues of an organization. The third model is the organizational intelligence model that looks at the cause and effect of different issues affecting the organization (Basker, 2005). The model analyzes the external and internal inputs that affect performance and employee engagement within an organization. The organizational intelligence model is simple hence easy to follow. However, it fails to capture the intricate internal and external environment of an organization thus risk missing essential factors.

The causal model of organizational performance and change can best be used to analyze and resolve the issue of low pay and long working hours. This model illustrates how internal and external factors affect performance within an organization. As mentioned, low pay results to poor performance in which customers at Wal-Mart fail to attain set sales targets (Gereffi, & Christian, 2009). There is also high employee turnover as employees strive to seek other alternative opportunities that guarantee improved pays and better working conditions (Fox, 2013). The diagnosis process to resolve the problem affecting employees at Wal-Mart will entail analyzing the mission and strategy of the company and establishing whether the current issues is reflected in the missions
. Analysis will also focus on the work unit climate determining the reason why employees work for long hours. Analysis will also focus on task, and individual skills of employees. This will ensure that work is assigned according to skills that employees demonstrate. The work that an individual does will also reflect the amount of wage that he, or she receives.

Conclusion
Wal-Mart Stores is a multinational company that has proven to be a company to revere with regards to its outstanding performance and success in the face of the economic crisis. Wal-Mart continues to enjoy increased retail market growth as it ventures into other continents. The cheap cost of its commodities also gives Wal-Mart a competitive advantage as its competitors cannot lower their prices to Wal-Mart’s level. Wal-Mart has also been successful in retaining a strong customer base due to brand loyalty. Customers pleased with services offered at Wal-Mart have remained loyal to the store hence enabling the company realize profits. However, the store continues to face several problems. High employee turnover due to low pay and poor working conditions is one of the issues that are bound to affect performance. The store can use the causal model of organizational performance and change to determine how to handle and resolve the issue.


Reference
Basker E. (2005). Job creation or destruction? Labor market effects of Wal-Mart expansion. Rev. Econ. Stat. 87(1):174–83
Fox, E. (2013). Wal-Mart’s low wages cost tax payers. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2013/06/04/news/companies/walmart-medicaid/index.html
Gereffi, G. & Christian, M. (2009). The impacts of Wal-Mart. Annual reviews of sociology. Vol. 35: 573-591
Tillquist, J. (2002). Strategic connectivity in extended enterprise networks. Journal of electronic commerce research. Vol. 3(2):77
Wal-Mart Store (2012). Our company. http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/responsibility-report/2012/ourCompany.aspx

Published in Business Studies
Thursday, 17 March 2016 06:45

Characteristics of a Research Problem.


Research is the wheel that drives technological, scientific, educational, and business advancement. Through the intruding process of research, human beings have been able to solve some of the most dogmatic issues in life. This paper explores some of the characteristics of a good research problem, researchable problem, components of Statement of Research Problem and theoretical framework.
A quality research problem is the basis of a successful research. In broad terms, there are two types of research questions, those that relates to the state of nature and those which relate to t relationships between variables. Some of the fundamental characteristics of a good problem statement include:


The problem of interest should be interesting and intriguing to the researcher. The researcher should select a topic that is worthy their time and resources. The researcher should choose a topic that will add to the existing knowledge or create a new area of exploration. The findings of the study should be relevant to human beings or the society. It is crucial for students to know that their topic of choice will also reflect on their resume.
The researcher should ensure the problem is connecting to the overall goal of the research. The answer to the problem should meet the goal of the research. The selected problem should pose questions that can be answered scientifically or those other means. It is crucial for students to avoid questions that are abstract and too broad. It is imperative o be specific while selecting or
The problem should be stated plainly and succinctly. The problem must be defined unambiguously for that help discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones. A clearly stated problem statement ensures the researcher has a strong foundation of the research. The problem should be described in grammatically correct sentences that are precise and easy to understand. A lot of care must to take to ensure the background and facts concerning the problem to ensure objectivity and validity.

The second important characteristic of a good problem is that it must be feasible. The researcher should select practical ideas. Practicability of the problem is crucial in determine the feasibility of the study. The research should ensure that the research is not only financially viable but also methodologically. It is crucial for the researcher to state precisely what he or she intends to study or investigate. They should not make assumptions that the reader is abreast of the study. The choice of words should be precise and clear to a layman.

The problem should be able to raise a number of specific research questions. This turns the problem into a question format and presents various aspects or components of the problem. Singling out the research problem is one of the most fundamental set in the breakdown of the main question into several questions makes it easy to address and provide a framework for the research?

Any topic worthy commitment of resources should be a problem that is relevant to human beings. The research problem a researcher decides to solve should be have adequate literature review to help in developing a theoretical framework. The problem should be feasible within the resources of a researcher. A research problem can be fined tuned to make appropriate. A researcher should conduct a detailed literature review. This will enable him or her to generate as many questions about the topic as possible. The researcher should visualize the problem in a holistic manner. He or she should analyze the problem and concepts under investigation critically. He should investigate overview all aspects of the problem including literature review, data collection and analysis, and interpretation of results. A well-stated problem relates to a literature review. It often relates to a well-defined body of literature, written by a group of researchers and published in a small number of journals. In some instances, there are insufficient data to address the problem. Students should select to topics/problems that will not give them a lot of challenge in accessing relevant data. They should look for existing databases to offer them detailed and wide literature resources. As well as being grounded in discipline, a good research problem generally relates to some sort of standard methodology. This might be historical, or comparative or empirical, but it should build on the strengths of the investigator (Anderson, 2002).


There is a need for a student to select a problem that addressed in statistics when the student is not comfortable with statistics. A researchable problem should be new i.e. students should not select topics/problems that have been discussed exhaustively.
According to Hartas (2010), what constitutes a researchable problem is influenced by a, complex dialectical, process linking the researcher’s identity, position and experience with their understanding of themselves, their work and relationship with the society. This relationship is both an individual level and social one involving the researcher in different roles as a student, practitioner, parent and a community, that forms of social interaction that predispose the researcher to an interest in what is happening in the society.

In the process of reviewing the literature, a research comes across a lot of literature. This literature can be used to develop a theoretical framework. The primary purpose of a theoretical framework is to offer an explanation of a phenomenon, its nature, challenges and experiences that shape its existence. The researcher uses the literature to either proof or disapproves his theory or thesis. Theoretical framework provides the researcher with a coherent outlined problem to build his argument. Theoretical framework helps the researcher to breakdown the main research question into simpler questions or sub-problems. This helps the researcher to chance to have a thorough analysis of each of the concept or idea in his or her research. It is crucial for the researcher to distinguish sub-problem from pseudo sub-problems, which may divert his or her attention.


Theoretical framework of any study consists of concepts, their definitions, and existing theories that are used in the study. An effective theoretical framework must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of theories and concepts that are pertinent to the area of study. Theories developed should be based on appropriateness, simplicity of application and its explanatory. If appropriately used, theoretical framework can strengthen the study in several ways. It connects the research with the existing knowledge and arguments made concerning the topic. The research can use relevant theories to create a strong basis for the chosen thesis. It also offers a strong basis for the selection of the research method. Development of a theoretical framework enables the research to address the questions of causes and effects It allows the research to offer detailed anatomy of the problem instead of offering basic or generalized observations.


A researcher uses a theoretical framework to demonstrate how various concepts of the study are interrelated. Development of an effective theoretical framework is, therefore, a crucial process in research writing. An effective theoretical framework is based on the research problem. The entire study is anchored o an effective research problem. The researcher should brainstorm on variables he or she considers being the main concepts of the study. The researcher should find for relationship between ideas and the effects they have on the phenomenon under investigation. The researcher should use the existing theories to develop his or her theoretical framework. Such a framework should be based on a detailed literature review to reveal competency of the concept. It is crucial for a researcher to brainstorm with other parties on the framework developed.

Conclusion

Research problem is the core of research. Any researcher should take adequate time to refine problem statement because it helps the researcher to link different concepts with the overall goal of the research. Research problems should be selected from topics or areas that interest the writer. They should be stated precisely and with standard language. Theoretical framework is a crucial component of research. It offers the writer a chance to breakdown the concept under study into sub-problems. This makes it easy to study the concept under investigate. A credible theoretical framework is developed from a detailed literature review.

References

Leedy D. & ormrod E (2010). Practical research. Planning and design. 9th edition. Pearson Publisher, New York, USA.
Garry Anderson (2002)Fundamentals of educational research. Routledge Publishers. Philadelphia, USA.
Dimitra Hartas (2010). Educational research and inquiry. Continuum international publishing group. New York, USA.

Published in Education

How Microsoft Office Application Support Paralegal Work Environment


Microsoft has been the most widely used software in worldwide since it has several programs that are applied in various working environments. Therefore, as a professional using Microsoft office programs that include Word, Excel, and Power Point, is important in accomplishing various essential tasks in everyday life. This paper, therefore, observes how the skills in Microsoft Word, Power Point, and
Excel support paralegal work environment.
Microsoft office programs such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel are used by individuals to accomplish many functions. This is because such programs can be used at home, in school, and more so at work. It is used in many professions to accomplish several professional tasks. Paralegals also find convenience in using Microsoft programs.
According to American Bar Association (2013), strong computer skills are essential for the paralegals in the modern world. Therefore, a well trained paralegal must have excellent word processing skills to enable them format a variety of documents that they handle as they keep track of their attorneys records. Microsoft word, for instance, is applied by paralegals to edit clients’ cases and record relevant information.

Power Point presentations always help lawyers prepare for court cases. Therefore, paralegals should always have skills on how to prepare good presentations on screens in order to assist lawyers in presentation of their cases (Courtechforum, 2012). Microsoft excel is a useful application assisting paralegal keep data such as clients contents address and the other information that need to be placed in a systematic order (eHow, 2013). Therefore, Microsoft software such as Microsoft Word, Excel, and Power Point are powerful tools in the paralegal profession, and other professional fields.


References
American Bar Association, (2013). What Paralegal Do. Retrieved From, http://apps.americanbar.org/buslaw/blt/2007-01-02/orlinsky.shtml On June 14, 2013.
Courtechforum, 2012). Why Attorneys Need Power Point. Retrieved from, http://www.courtechforum.com/2012/06/11/why-attorneys-as-well-as-paralegals-need-power-point/ On June 14, 2013.
eHow, (2013). Paralegal. Retrieved From, http://www.ehow.com/about_6122366_need-order-become-paralegal-secretary.html On June 14, 2013.

Published in Information Technology

 


This dissertation focuses on the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace. While the dissertation focuses on current trends, it also narrows down on future aspects and areas of research based on the notable gaps. For the study, a total of 291 respondents were used. In essence, this was a representative sample of the ageing population in the workplace. There are various reasons why this population has been studied with regard to the issue of age-based discrimination. Firstly, this population is immensely prone to age discrimination across different workplaces in North America (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009).


Based on the stipulations provided by the author, most employers in North America have established human resource policies which are more or less unfavorable to the aging employees. Another reason for focusing on this population pertains to the significance of equality at the workplace. The platforms and guidelines established for equality at the workplace are massively essential in terms of streamlining the operational efficiency of organizations. Additionally, the aging population in the workplace is strongly influential from the perspective of experience. In this study, the reason why 291 participants were used is that such a sample would facilitate for adequate qualitative and quantitative analysis. This is an essential aspect as pertains to research in human resource management. The need for future study in the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace has also been identified in this publication (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). One of the identified areas of future research is the evaluation of variables which might affect the relationship between age-based discrimination and human resource practices. This is because the current studies have not focused adequately on these kinds of variables.

The second aspect of future research pertains to the reaction of different genders to age discrimination in the workplace. Based on the stipulations provided in the publication, male employees might react differently to the female employees towards age-based discrimination. Future studies must also examine the inherent associations or linkage between age-based discrimination and the framework for job satisfaction (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). These dynamics are immensely crucial in the attainment of human resource efficiency in the modern workplace settings.


Research Questions

From the gaps identified in the publication, it is immensely crucial to establish the most pertinent research questions. In essence, these research questions are significant from the perspective of addressing such gaps.
Research Question 1: What kind of demographic variables affect the linkage between human resource practice and age-based discrimination?
This research question zeros down on the pertinent dynamics of human resource practice and age based discrimination. While there are numerous potential demographic variables which influence such associations, they have not been critically addressed in current research (Morris, 2012). This underlines the significance of this research question as pertains to the topic of age discrimination in the modern workplace.

Research Question 2
: How does age discrimination influence the standards of job satisfaction in an organization?

This is another pertinent research question that relates to the identified gaps in research. The research question is helpful from the perspective of demystifying the connection between job satisfaction and age discrimination (Whitley, 2012).
Research Question 3: How can age discrimination be mitigated among the aging employees?
This also serves as a pertinent research question in view of the different gaps in research. The establishment of the most effective mitigation measures is massively influential from the perspective of streamlining human resource management (Brewster, 2012).


References
Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Lee, S. H. (2009). The effect of relational age on older Canadian employees’ perceptions of human resource practices, International Journal of Human Resource Management , 20(8), 1753-1769 Accessed on 11th June, 2012 from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/bibliographic_databases.htm?id=1820354&PHPSESSID=hk6upeesiqvd5130d0hotfc225
Brewster, C. J. (2012). Handbook of research on comparative human resource management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Morris, S. (2012). Handbook of research in international human resource management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Whitley, B. E. (2012). Principles of research in behavioral science. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis

Published in Management
Thursday, 17 March 2016 05:36

Validity, reliability, and Generalizability

Research


Validity, reliability, and Generalizability


Validity is described as the degree that a measuring procedure reflects, captures, or assesses the specific concept that a research is trying to measure. Validity usually applies to both the method and design of the research. Validity in the collection of data means that the findings of the research truly represent the phenomenon that one is claiming to measure. There are usually two types of validity including internal validity and external validity. Internal validity is normally affected by flaws in the study like not controlling some of the major variables or any problems with the research instrument. Findings can be stated to be internally valid because the findings could have been affected by other factors other than the ones thought to having caused them or even because data interpretation by the researcher has not been clearly supported (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).


External validity refers to the extent in which a person can generalize the findings to a larger group or in other contexts. In a research that lacks external validity, the findings cannot be used in any other circumstance other than the one a person carried out the research. Findings can be said to externally invalid because they cannot be applied in the context outside the one the research took place. Internal and external validity are important in analyzing the usefulness, appropriateness, and meaningfulness of the research study. It is necessary to consider the validity in doing a research study so that to ensure that the outcomes can be used effectively and that the variables which might threaten validity are controlled. Results, which are not deemed to being valid, are considered as meaningless to the research. Validity is extremely important because results, which are not valid, cannot be used in generalizing any findings and they end up being a waste of effort and time.


Reliability
Reliability is described as the regularity of the results when the experiment is replicated in the same conditions. Research normally requires dependable measurements and measurement are usually reliable to the extent that they are repeated and any influence that tends to make the measurement different is a source of measurement error. The amount of error in a measurement normally establishes the amount of reliability. High amount of error mean low reliability and low error means high reliability of the research. Reliability is a research is important because a research that is not reliable means that we cannot be able to determine if the research that is carried out is evidence to suggest that the hypothesis of the research is significant (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).


Generalization
Generalizability tends to investigate and design reliable observations. Generalizability is considered as a structure for doing and documenting qualitative research of high quality. This concept describes the extent in which the research findings can be applied in a setting other than that which it was originally tested. Sound generalizability normally requires data on a large population which provides the best foundation for production of broad generalizability (Baumgarten, 2012). In the concept of generalizability, the larger sample of the population, the more, the results can be generalized.


Survey research
A survey is defined as a tool of data collection for assessing opinions, thoughts, and feelings. Survey research is being used in different groups and sociologists and psychologists are using survey research in analyzing behavior. A survey usually consists of a predetermined set of questions that are normally given to the sample (Baumgarten, 2012). A good idea where survey research can be used is in the needs of media in evaluating public health officials. Some questions can be given to the officials when deciding to gather some information from them.


There are several advantages of survey research including high representativeness because a survey usually provides a high level of capability in representing a large population. From the large number of people, the data that are gathered tend to possess a good description of relevant characteristics of the population involved in the study. Surveys are usually able to gather data that are near to exact attribute of the population. Survey research also costs low as a person is only required to pay for production of the questionnaires. There is also convenient gathering of data because the survey can be done through a variety of methods. It is possible to set the questionnaires through email, fax or the internet. There is online survey method that tends to be a popular method for data gathering of the target population (Baumgarten, 2012). Survey research is also advantageous because of good statistical significance. Due to the high representation that is brought about by the survey, it is easy to find statistically significant results. It is possible to analyze multiple variables using survey research.


However, survey research has some disadvantages including being an inflexible design. The method of survey which is used at the start of the research cannot be changed all through the process of gathering data. Another disadvantage is the possibility of inappropriateness of questions. In a survey, questions are usually standardized before they are administered to the subject. Therefore, the research is normally forced to create questions which are enough to accommodate the entire population.


Probability sampling
Probability sampling is sampling where every person in the population has the same likelihood of getting selected. The selection of a person is usually based on some random procedure. Simple random sampling is normally considered as the simplest form of sampling which is simple to accomplish. Simple random sampling is a scheme with the chance that any subset of the sample has an identical likelihood of being the chosen sample. The method of selecting the sample is through a table of random numbers. Probability sampling techniques include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Simple random sampling cannot be able to provide samples that are more representative of the target population like the other sampling techniques. In the other probability sampling techniques, they usually require information on stratification variables, which are required for every element in the population (Boyatzis, 1998).


The information that is included in these techniques involves details on the section of the target sample which belongs to each stratum. This is information that is extremely necessary because it helps in getting the required data. When using the other techniques, there is normally limited possibility of sampling errors while in simple random has a high probability of sampling errors. An example where random sampling cannot be used is in studying the effects of drug abuse on the users. When performing this study, the researcher will be required to make sure that he uses another probability sampling technique and not simple random sampling because picking any person randomly might not represent the target population. The researcher will be required to ensure that he has target people whom have used drugs so that he can be able to gather the necessary information. Using simple random sampling may fail to yield the expected results.


Survey questions
1. Cyber crimes tend to be using increasing powerful and targeted attacks in stealing of information that range from credit cards to even personal information. The issue of cyber crime continues to being more professional, and it appears that the barriers to entry are becoming lower with the increasing emergence of powerful exploits and toolkits for sale online. However, the current general statutes are adequate to prosecuting crimes which are mediated through a computer.
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree


2. During all incidences, when the computer is the target of offense, the perpetrator normally tend to attach the computer through breaking into the computer or even attacking it from outside. Professionals tend to consider this kind of cybercrime as one of the most professional case in three of the categories of cybercrimes. According to the professionals, they claim this is because the criminal normally do the programming and uses some exploits on the computer. This is done by someone who has background information of computer science
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree


3. Digital surveillance is considered as a controversy to cybercrime and has an impact on civil liberties. It is claimed that the government surveillance networks normally monitor the enormous volumes of private communications, and it also apply artificial intelligence so that to filter out the relevant data. This is a strategy that is expected to decrease the possibility of cases of cybercrimes and doing this will require to infringe on individual privacy.
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree


4. Costs on cybercrimes are highly contested, and it is believed that for it to be possible to generate control expenditures and the power of overriding privacy, there is a need of very high figures. Cost in cybercrime is definitive, and the scale is between a slight summation of the known direct cost of the detected crimes and the speculative extrapolations from the subset the dimensions which sets are not known. Measuring the cost of cybercrime has become complicated because of having different sets of diverse acts that represent the different crime mechanisms.
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree


5. The issue of cybercrimes can be solved by raising a cyber army which is the need for a well equipped team which will be responsible of dealing with the new trends in the hi tech crime. The government is supposed to tech a new direction in constituting cyber crime cells in all the states and also the important cities. It is necessary to establish a cyber crime investigation cell that will make sure it deals with all the issue related to cybercrimes. It is also necessary for the judiciary to make sure that it shapes the enactment of the law dealing with the issue of cybercrimes.
Strongly Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree


Data
Data is referred to a set of values that are representing a concept. Data usually become information when it is analyzed and maybe combine with other data so that to extract meaning and to provide a context. Information is usually the end product of data. Data is the stream of raw facts that represent certain events that have occurred and information is that data which has been manipulated, organized, converted, and arranged and then presented in a manner that can be understood and used. The context and presentation are what usually separate data from information when conducting a survey every questionnaire usually contains data. This is data that may appear to be organized in a form, but yet it has to be given a contest and be presented in a proper manner for the intended purpose (Boyatzis, 1998). When this data is compiled, presented in the format that is recommended, this means that the data is useful and meaningful to the users or the purpose that it is intended; thus, making it useful information. Through conversion, organization, manipulation and also the transformative process, data can produce information that is of very high quality and the quality of information which is produced normally depends on outcomes of the transformation process. This is a process that normally determines whether the final information is accurate, understood, and properly communicated (Boyatzis, 1998).


Misuse of data tends to occur very much in research. The analysis of data can be done using the strategy which is not required or misinterpreted. These are incidences that usually result to misuse of information. The research can analyze the data in the wrong manner so that the results can fit what he is expecting. Therefore, the research will decide to change the data that was gathered so that it can result into something else. This is incidence that results to misuse of data because it is not being used according to what it was meant for (Denscombe, 2007). Misuse of data can also occur in the case when the data is not clear. If the research used questionnaires, when analyzing the data, it is possible for the research to find instances when certain answers are not clear; hence, ending up interpretation the data in the wrong manner. The researcher might interpret the data in a manner that he thought was what the interviewer meant, but ends up being completely wrong. In this case, the data will be misused because the data that was collected did not meet the expected results as it was wrong used when analyzing the study. The researcher can also decide to stretch the findings or even ignore some of the data which is a form of data misuse. All data that have been gathered should be used in the expected manner (Denscombe, 2007). The researcher can decide to stretch the results which end up to distortion. It is also possible for some data to be ignored; hence, fails to yield the expected results. These are some ways in which data can be misused.


Reference
Denscombe, M (2007). The good research Open University Press
Boyatzis, R (1998). Transforming qualitative information SAGE
Powell, R & Connaway, L (2010). Basic research methods for librarians ABC-CLIO
Baumgarten, M (2012). Paradigm Wars GRIN Verlag

Fashion Trend Inspired in Moulin Rouge Movie


Abstract


Moulin Rouge is a film that is bound to set the current and future fashion trends in society. The film has managed to revive garments such as corsets and fishnet in a stylish manner. Soon after the release of the movie, the sale of the products and other similar commodities rose. Fashion houses such as Bloomingdale realized increased sale of clothes designed using the film inspirations. The film has enabled fashion designers to realize that clothes and designs considered out dated can be modified and returned to the market as trendy fashions. This is exactly what Moulin Rouge helped achieved, with the return of corsets and fishnets albeit improved adjustments to have the modern appeal.



Introduction
Moulin Rouge is an American-Australian film released in 2001. The film is not only a romantic film but also a presentation of high taste for fashion and trends. Movie lovers have loved the movie not only for its excellent plot and story line, but for the great peek into fashion and beauty. Catherine Martin is the designers credited with the numerous fashion designs of costumes that the characters wore on set (IMDB, 2013). Movies are mainly reviewed based on their plot, story line and role of the characters. However, Moulin Rouge has been analyzed with regard to the fashion statements exuded by characters. Moulin Rouge is about fashion, trends and class as characters bring out a fresh perspective to fashion.

Body
Freeman Hardley of the Guardian newspaper wrote an article Can-can do in which she pinpoints the great influence that Moulin Rouge has had on the fashion industry. Moulin Rouge has altered the fashion industry, people tastes and has resulted to a change of ward robe. Characters in the film wore Bustier, corsets and tulle skirts. Other movies such as merchant Ivory also introduced viewers to another level of fashion, but the pace that Moulin rouge has set remains unmatched.

Moulin Rouge managed to bring fashion trends that had been forgotten and believed to be fashions of the past. Moulin Rouge brought the corset as a trending fashion. The corset is a garment that is mainly worn to enhance the beauty of the woman. The garment is worn on the upper body of the wearer, to bring out the curvy shape of the woman by reducing the waist, and bringing out the hips and the bust (Hadley, 2001). Corsets have been in existence for many centuries with the fist records of the use of corset being during the Victorian era in 2000 BC. Corsets have been modified and changed over as fashion trends evolved. Corsets were originally worn as outer garments, though they are now mainly worn as inner garments. The 16tyh century saw the introduction of the corset as an undergarment. The corset as an undergarment originated in Italy before being introduced in France in early 16th century.

The film also brought back the fishnet hosiery in which the main character Satine (Nicole Kidman) wore in various scenes. Fishnet hosiery refers to the light material used in stockings and tights. Fishnets are considered sexy and are mostly worn as undergarments. Fishnets define the curves of the wearer as well as accentuate her muscles. The origin of fishnets is vague, but they are known to have first been worn in Paris before spreading to America. Historically, fishnets were considered garment for loose women such as prostitutes. Some of the fishnets were held up the body using garter belts. In 1980’s and 1990’s the popularity of fishnets had risen, and the garment became a popular were among professionals (The post and Courier, 2001). Models began to wear them down runaways as a fashion statement as business women began wearing them to work. In 2000, fishnets had become acceptable forms of undergarments worn mainly on the legs. The advent of Moulin Rouge brought the flames for fishnets as they became popular once again. Moulin Rogue had numerous scenes where the main character Satine wore fishnets hosiery with her other garments. The movie has managed to inspire fashion, an achievement that is rare for many films (Hadley, 2001).

The sale of clothe lines similar to those worn by characters in Moulin Rouge have been on the rise. The film has managed to make trendy, garments that were assumed to be outdated and old fashioned. Bloomingdale store, for instance, opened Moulin Rouge shops in New York and Los Angeles soon after the release of the film. Within the first two weeks, the chain stores had sold more than 2000 special Moulin rouge t-shirts (The post and Courier, 2001). Nicole Kidman, the main characters of the film has also become increasingly popular as the modeled the unique designs from the film. The fashion taste presented in the film has inspired current fashion designers to invent new fashion designs. The senior vice president of Bloomingdale, Kal Ruttenstein states Moulin Rouge was the used as the mark of inspiration by its designers. Other than clothes, jewelry and ornaments such as chokers, chandelier earrings, and neck laces have become common due to inspiration from the costume and fashion taste of the film.

Conclusion
Catherine Martin created the costumes for characters of the film Moulin Rouge. Her fashion statements and taste are evident in her film. However, she did not anticipate the fashion statements and positive reception that her fashion taste received. Moulin Rouge set the trend for current and future fashion. The film managed to bring garments such as the corset and fishnets, which were considered outdated. Fashion accessories such as jewelries also increased in sales as their popularity increased. Fashion designers are now designing clothes based on Moulin Rouge inspiration setting the pace for emerging trends.

Reference
The post and Courier, (2001). Moulin Rouge kicks fashion trends. Retrieved from http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2482&dat=20010608&id=jZxIAAAAIBAJ&sjid=zAoNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1348,3239132
Hadley, F. (2001). Can-can do. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2001/sep/07/fashion
IMDB, (2013). Moulin Rouge. Retrieved from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0203009/

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