Items filtered by date: March 2016
Thursday, 17 March 2016 08:03

Bacteria Resistance

In this article, Gail presents a strong case why bacteria resistance should be given global attentions. However, the contents of the article are contrary to the heading of the article. A huge part of the article has been dedicated to explaining resistance and how to control it rather than the health threat of antibiotic resistance. Below is a summary of his article.


Clinicians all over the world use antibiotic to treat bacterial diseases. However, a large number of individuals are suffering from antibiotic resistance. This largely affected the treatment of complex bacterial diseases. The European center for disease control (ECDC) conducts annual awareness day. The aim of the day is to increase and keep responsible use of antibiotics all over the world. The need to increase awareness about antibiotic resistance emanate from the fact that the number of patients using antibiotics keeps on increasing. Apart from organizing this annual event, other strategies have been employed by different organizations to reduce misuse of antibiotic. It is important for an individual t o understand the nature and types of bacteria for him or her to understand drug resistance.


Bacteria are one of the most populous organisms in the world. They are classified using four major ways. The first classification is based on the response of bacteria to gram stain. According to this classification, there are gram –negative and gram positive Cocci. Some of the most common Cocci that affect human n life include Streptococcus, Clostridium and Listeria. Gram-negative bacteria do not retain gram-negative stain. They include bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp, helicobacter pylori, Shigella spp and other pathogens such as hemophilic influenza. Bacteria can also be classified as either aerobes or anaerobes. Aerobes survive in non-oxygenated environments such as the gut, genital tract and mouth. Bacteriodes is a classical example of anaerobes. Atypical bacteria differ from other bacteria through the presence of thick lipid cell wall. They include Chlamydia and other intercellular organisms.

Antibiotic drugs

Once ingested, antibiotics act on bacteria in several ways. Pencillin and cephalosporin bind with the peptidoglycan cell wall, weakening the bacterium and preventing it from reproduction. Quinoles interferences with the DNA of the bacteria reducing its ability to reproduce. Macrolids interferences with the protein synthesis of bacteria. Others such as trimethoprim act as folate antagonists.

Antibiotics can be categorized into the broad spectrum and narrow spectrum. Broad spectrum fights a range number of bacteria while narrow spectrums are more specific. Bacteria live with other commensals, which aggravate the effects of bacteria. Broad spectrum antibiotic are disadvantageous because the kill all flora in the gut. This gives chance to antibiotic resistant bacterias such as Clostridium difficile to thrive. Clindamycin, ciproflaxicin, cephalosporins and amoxiclax are some of the broad spectrum antibiotics which cause aftermath infections. They are called “high risk” antibiotics. Amoxicillin and clarithromycin are some of the commonly prescribed antibiotics. These antibiotics are classified as medium risk. However, any antibiotic has the potential of increasing the risk of C. difficile.


The history of resistance to antibiotics can be traced to one of the first antibiotic (penicillin) during the second world. Frantic efforts were done to reverse the phenomenon, but with no avail. Consequent antibiotics faced the same challenges of mutating bacteria that have the potential of evading antibiotics. The ability of bacteria to evolve is attributed to their simple structure and their ability to reproduce very fast. Bacteria have developed several strategies to survive antibiotic treatments. Some have responded by acquiring genes that produce various enzymes that neutralize antibiotics such as lactamases.
Others find alternative metabolic pathways or site of attack that antibiotics cannot attach. Some species of bacteria respond to antibiotic by decreasing the permeability of their cell wall while others develop efflux pumps that remove the antibiotic from the bacterium. Antibiotic resistance is not an individual patient problem, but it is also a societal problem. A lot of efforts have to be dedicated to reducing antibiotic resistance to protect some of the most developed medical procedures such as transplant that are dependent on the success of antibiotics. Anti-biotic resistance has been declared as of the treated threat facing world health.


Some of the strategies that can be used to minimize antibiotic resistance include:

One of the areas that practitioners can effectively fight antibiotic resistance is the prescription of antibiotic for self-limiting illnesses. It is crucial for practitioners to pay attention on ensuring they give the right prescription, the right dose and the right length of time. Antibiotics should be used in marginal infections only when there is evidence of symptomatic benefit. Scientific evidence has shown that use of antibiotics to treat upper respiratory infections is not always effective. For example, using antibiotics to treat sore throat only shorten the duration of illness by 16 hours. The use of antibiotic to treat acute otitis among children has huge shortcomings than benefits. However, clinicians can be forced to use antibiotics for self-limiting illness in cases of busy surgeries, pressure from a client, and short appointments.
Practitioners should never use antibiotics as placebos. Many clinicians belief they are not engaging in unethical practices by using antibiotics to please patients. Use of placebo is high among practitioners ranging from 17% to 99%. Clinicians should come together to develop a strategy to fight placebo.

As a clinician, it is crucial to be able to inform the patient in a polite manner that antibiotics are not necessary in his or her case. It is important to base your judgment on a detailed history of the patient and a thorough analysis of the patient’s demand for antibiotics. It is imperative to reassure the patient in case of self-limiting illnesses. The clinician should explain to the patient that antibiotics are not harmful, but they have side effects. Inform the client that antibiotics increases the risk of C. difficile, particularly among the aged, those whose immune has been suppressed and those using proton pump inhibitors. It is also vital for the patient to be aware that antibiotics causes drug interactions, and can be dangerous with other drugs.


The clinician should also strive to explain to the patient the effect of antibiotic resistance. They should use individual level as a reference to make sure the patient resonate with the elucidation. It is imperative to explain to the patient the individualized effects of antibiotic resistance. Always make them understand that use of antibiotic regularly could increase their susceptibility to a host of bacteria and infections.


However, clinicians have been given discretion to use antibiotics to elderly people suffering from two or more co-morbidities. Clinicians should use this discretion to assess the situation of the patient and make informed judgment whether antibiotic prescription is essential. Clinicians are always advised to provide a safety net that will create confidence in patient. This is an effective way of reassuring them. According to Spurling et al (2007) delayed prescription in one of the effective methods of reducing overall antibiotic use without detriment to safety.


Reference

Gail Haddock (2012). The health threat of antibiotic resistance. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group.

Published in Social Sciences
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:57

American Express


Introduction
Motivation is a process that is indicated to initiate and maintain goal oriented behaviors. In a business organization, motivation of employees is important because it makes them much productive. Several strategies are used with an aim of motivating employees of an organization, and these motivational factors are normally rewards that are given to the employees in order to encourage their productivity. Money has been viewed as a reward for at least so many people, and this is more important than anything else that an organization can give to the employees. Perhaps, many organizations have several strategies of rewarding their employees. American express is one of the organizations that reward its customer service agents through incentives. These incentives are awarded based on the influence that American express’s employees have on their customers. This paper observes American Express motivational strategies towards the customer care employees.


Body
Business organizations normally give incentives to their employees based on their performance. American Express has a pay for performance system that awards customer service agents who deliver satisfactory services. These rewards are based on the level at, which customers recommend American Express services to their friends. Therefore, a significant part of employees’ bonuses are tied to the customers’ willingness to recommend the company to their friends. This idea is motivational to the customer care employees because they are able to earn according to the quality of work that they deliver. It, therefore, means that the customer care employees need to work hard for clients to get satisfactory services.

 


The advantage that is associated with this form of incentive is that an employee will be able to be rewarded any time that he/she delivers quality service to the client. The employee, therefore, will benefit from the extra earning that are generated from delivering satisfactory services, an idea that will make such an individual work harder for excellent recommendations. However, on a condition that an employee is not able to meet customer’s expectation, it means that such employee will not get any reward. Lack of reward may be discouraging on the employee’s part and may lead to laxity in service provision eventually making the business organization perform poor.
Perhaps, American express provides several relationship care strategies.

 


The most motivational strategy that this organization provides to the customer care employees is the additional training and coaching from supervisors that are experts in this area. This is because this idea has made many customer care employees gain interpersonal skills, in addition to their technical skills. When customer care employees have adequate interpersonal employees, they are eventually able to deliver quality services since they know how to adequately handle their clients. This improve on their general performance, therefore, meaning increased rewards.

 


Several motivational theories apply to the case of American Express. The theories that are most applicable here, therefore, include expectancy theory, psychological empowerment, and goal setting theory. There are goals that have been set for the customer care agents (to influence clients to recommend American Express to their friends). The employees are also expected to meet certain target in order to get the reward. Additionally employees are psychologically empowered through interpersonal training and incentives. Equity theory is the least present in this case because employees are rewarded based on their performance. Therefore, this company need to ensure that there are other parameters used to give rewards in addition to the “ability to make clients recommend friends,” in order to motivate all customer care employees.


Reference
Inkling, (2013). Case: American Express. Retrieved From, https://www.inkling.com/read/organizational-behavior-colquitt-3rd/chapter-6/case-american-express On June 4, 2013.

Published in Business Studies
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:53

Soccer and effects in Brazil culture


Introduction
Soccer sport in Brazil is considered as their national sport. Brazil is normally considered as the premier country of soccer where it is the means of life for millions of people. In turn for a person to be able to understand Brazilian soccer, it is necessary for one to understand the Brazilian people. Soccer in Brazil is now considered more than a game but as a culture (Karon 2004). According to the Brazilian culture, soccer is magical and impacts people on a personal level, and the shared persona experiences tend to drive the role of soccer in the national culture. The Brazilian soccer unlike any other cultural interpretation in a certain sport has the ability of conjuring up in a person’s mind essence of carnival, mystery, unadulterated freedom and joy, and rhythm.


Soccer in Brazil is somewhat similar to Basketball in United States in that the cultural environment tends to be characterized by the extensive and intensive pursuit of the sport and people are shaped by their environment to wanting to play soccer. Brazil is a country with more professional soccer teams than in any other country, in the globe (Wachelke, 2008). This paper will provide an argument of soccer and its effects to the Brazilian culture. The paper is aimed at providing a more thorough discussion of discussion of how Soccer has influenced culture in Brazil. This is a game that has never gone down and this paper will examine its effect on culture in Brazil.

Soccer Effects

The growth of soccer in Brazil is a cultural phenomenon and a significant occurrence which can only be analyzed, recognized, and interpreted by the people who follow soccer. Soccer has held promise of affecting our communities, countries, families, character, and our international relations (Karon, 2004). Soccer tends to reflect the culture of the nation because it permeates all levels of society. Soccer in Brazilians normally comes as a saving element in the sensation of taking part in the collective undertaking that is rich in emotions. This is a game that is a source of joy to many people in Brazil, and many want to be associated with this culture which most Brazilians take pride

Impact on family

Soccer has had an impact on the family life in Brazil. In most families, fathers were considered as the dominant sports roles models with their influence in their sons and the team sports. Today, we have more than twenty five percent of all the youngsters who are playing soccer composed of girls and women now equal men in the leadership positions, in the sports. When women and girls compete successfully in the positions that were considered as male dominated and mostly in sporting roles and in soccer, it appears that soccer tend to have an effect on differentiation of the role in families and also the relationship of male and female as kids are growing up (Wachelke, 2008).

Soccer has had an influence in the Brazilian culture where the relationship can be considered as healthy with mutual respect of competitiveness, enthusiasm, and skill wherever found unless when the male egos are fragile that the competition is threatening, but I do not believe this can happen. When women get involved in soccer sports, it helps poor families in contributing to financial support as women can also be able to support their families through their earnings.


Effect on children

The Brazilian soccer style is much of an art as a sport as people who bequeath it value both creativity of choreography and complexity of rhythms. An important aspect of soccer, which has influenced the history in Brazil, is that the game is easy to play and has simple rules with no requirements for elaborate equipment or even special playing locations. Soccer tends to affect the Brazilian culture as it is claimed that it possesses more influence on the lives of Brazilians than even the economic or political aspects (Wachelke, 2008). The media coverage tends to play a role because the media idols appear to be very much imitated by children. Many of the idols learnt to play soccer in the dirt under harsh poverty conditions. Soccer in this culture appears to be a mixture of joy in playing and also suffering from being poor.

Across the streets of Brazil, boys from ethnic groups can be seen kicking the ball with a dream of becoming media idol (Alvito 2007). This is a dream that motivates million of children and soccer appears to be the only hope that the children have in the future outside poverty. It has been observed that every time a poor child succeeds through soccer, the national soccer culture in Brazil become more deeply ingrained. When the boys mature, their passion, skills, and drive for the game also matures. The boys later become professionals and the discipline and determination that the famous Brazil soccer players show is a reason why soccer is one of the most popular game in the Brazilian society (Karon, 2004). The determination and drive have shown to every single child growing up that it is possible, and has had an impact to the lives of many children.


Wachelke, (2008) state that, there are a number of players in the national soccer team in Brazil who has followed a common path. Soccer has had an influence in the lives of many as very poor people with limited schooling are becoming more than idols. Soccer as it is considered in Brazil as a culture has helped in improving the lifestyles of hundreds of people as these individuals become owners of surprising wealth. The individuals pursue their soccer playing intensively and skills which they develop strengthen soccer in Brazil which adds to its worldwide fame. Soccer has had an impact on Brazil culture as Brazilians tend to believe in soccer as their way up socially and economically (Karon, 2004). Among the Brazilian poorest teens and children, the importance of soccer to daily life tends to transcend simple recreation.


Soccer has the ability of preparing the young children for adult life. It is through team work that soccer helps in providing a kind of social cement, brotherhood, loyalty, and persistence (Karon, 2004). When Brazilian children are exposed to the soccer culture, they are able have independent and creative minds and this have helped Brazilian children as they grow up being visionary and they see and take advantage of the opportunities that they get.


Effect on economic gain

When young players involve in soccer, they dream of becoming famous soccer players because of the money that can be gained from the game. When watching Brazil soccer game being played by children in the streets, it is possible to observe many traits, which are propelled by famous soccer players such as Pele into the international arena. This is a game that many children play for fun with passion, energy, and a dream that, at one day, they will become the best. Soccer is a seed that is planted in among the youth in Brazil (Karon, 2004). This is a seed that is possible for them as well, and that is why Brazil soccer has continued to flourish in the streets. This can be seen in the integration that soccer has in many lives of teens, and most of the children who learn playing soccer at a young age have the change of leading a better life more that they could have imagined.

Soccer has turned to be the flagship of the entertainment industry. This is something that can be observed in the entertainment industry, in Brazil. It has an effect on the culture in Brazil as it has become the central focus of the countless advertising campaigns where it has now been used in selling anything which can be imagined. The flexibility of the soccer merchandise allows it to being advertised in a variety of the different forms including various types of video games, TV, magazines, streaming wireless, sites exclusively dedicated to games, and trading cards (Alvito 2007). The Brazilian culture appears to be much into soccer such that soccer has been migrating from the sports page in the newspapers and is now in the economic sections. These are sections that are about the financial market and also the stock exchanges. Reading the sport page now feels like just reading the economic sections because of stories about purchases, sales, licensing, loans, marketing, and mortgages.


Brazil also has a newspaper known as Lance which has been influenced by the soccer culture which has a column dealing exclusively with soccer related business. For good coverage of soccer, it is necessary to include the economic aspects of the game. With every news story, fans tend to grow accustomed to the soccer idea as being a business. Investors in the Soccer teams are a proof of the reality that soccer clubs are moving beyond the traditional revenue streams like TV rights (Alvito 2007). Certain jerseys are now being sold in Brazil for particular teams, which shows the impact that soccer has on the economy. Television programs and also newspapers have been affected by the soccer culture as they closely follow the performances and careers of the Brazilian players so that they can nourish their soccer nationalism.


Effect on society

Soccer has a major effect on culture in Brazil as it is a favorite pastime for youngsters playing soccer in the streets. This is a game that normally draws many Brazilians together where some of them skip work so that to view national team play and even employers tend to set up places so that employees can watch the game. In Brazil, the general election normally take place in the same year like the World cup, and it is argued that political parties normally try and take advantage of the surge that is created by soccer and bringing it to politics. Soccer has made Brazil to be a passionate nation. This is a passionate nation where everything that is done is normally done with enthusiasm and pride (Alvito 2007). In the Brazilian culture, soccer is ranked as the game high above everything else in the lives of the Brazilians.

Since its introduction, Brazilians have embraced this game, and they love and support it. Typically, Brazil was a poor country and for Brazilians to have something that they can believe in had a huge impact in the lives of these people. The Brazilians ladies have also contributed to a stir over the years. These are Brazil soccer fans that are normally considered as the sexiest in the world. With their vibrant attitude to the game and also the small soccer shirts, it has made men to be very much interested in soccer, and this has completely changed the Brazilians culture (Sommers, 2010). The undying support is normally seen through the face paints, costumes, and the electric atmosphere which the fans bring to the game. The soccer fans have helped in proving to people that this is also a sexy game to be enjoyed by everyone.


Soccer is considered as one of the Brazil’s people vehicle of expression. Soccer is in a relationship with consonance with the way the Brazilian society normally organize itself and some other elements of the popular culture. Soccer expresses the Brazilian culture symbolically as the soccer that is practiced here tends to glorify individualism, improvise, and skill (Karon, 2004). Brazilian soccer fans affiliate themselves with soccer teams or clubs. When a fan affiliates himself with a club, soccer now becomes the guiding behavior and also belief in many areas of his life. Soccer has had a positive impact to some people because some fans consider supporting a soccer team as serious leisure, which is an important activity with extremely serious implications to the life of the fan.

Soccer has developed a certain culture in Brazil where the Brazilians are very proud of their soccer idols. It appears to be very easy to find people wearing Kaka jersey than it is to find another person wearing a jersey from any footballer playing in Brazil (Sommers, 2010). This is a reflection of how soccer has typically developed pride among people because the fans have seen their starts playing victoriously in extremely essential leagues, in the planet.

Conclusion

Brazil occupies a pivotal place in soccer worldwide and soccer has had a positive impact to the Brazilian culture. Soccer is magical and impacts people on the personal level, and the shared persona experiences tend to drive the role of soccer in the national culture. Soccer has shown certain effects on the Brazilian culture in the economy, families, the society, children, and also transformed how Brazilians culture to fit in the soccer environment. The significant impact that soccer has had on this culture has been of benefit to the people in Brazil. Soccer is a source of joy to many people in Brazil, and many want to be associated with this culture which most Brazilians take pride. Soccer has affected our communities, countries, families, character, and our international relations. The culture that soccer has created in this country has made people to always be truly competitive with other nations, and this is an indication of how soccer has had an impact in the lives of millions of people which has also helped in the growth of the country.


Reference

Alvito M (2007). Our piece of the pie Soccer & Society8 (4)
Karon, T (2004). What soccer means to the world Time entertainment
Sommers, A (2010). Great national soccer teams Rosen Publishing group
Wachelke, F (2008). Brazilian fans social representation on soccer International journal of sport science 13 (4)

Published in Sociology
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:48

Type II Diabetes

 

Lee, TC, et al. (2011) “Socioeconomic status and incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Data from the Women’s Health Study” PLoS One, 6(12): e27670
In this article, Timothy Lee and eight other scientists from medical schools and hospital medical departments discuss the findings of a study conducted to examine the potential of socio economic status to predict the incidence of Type II Diabetes, a public health epidemic among women. The socio economic status was measured by income and education categories. According to the article, increasing income and advanced education are inversely associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus. This association was measured through the observation of behavioral factors, specifically the body mass index.


This study indicates that socio economic status is a vital predictive factor for incident Type II Diabetes. This conclusion will be helpful in supporting the argument provided as the second reason in my thesis that the onset of Type II Diabetes can be explained by consideration of other factors particularly socioeconomic factors and genetic factors.

Miller, CK, Gutshcall, MD, Mitchell, DC (2009) “Change in food choices following a glycemic load intervention in adults with Type II Diabetes: Research and Professional Brief” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(2): 319-324

This article discusses the outcome of an intervention study on the influence of the change in food choices on the dietary glycemic index of persons. The glycemic index indicates the postprandial glucose response of foods containing carbohydrates. The study observed an immediate decline in dietary GI among participants upon consumption of non fat food items and more servings of fruits and vegetables. Adoption of foods with low glycemic index is beneficial in the management of Type II Diabetes.
Nutrition education can facilitate adoption of foods with low glycemic index. However, maintaining a healthy change in diet requires further interventions. This supports my claim that Type II Diabetes is not entirely a lifestyle disease. An integrated approach that takes into account socio economic factors, food choices, and genetic influence is necessary to curb the burden that the disease places on the population and public health resources.

O’Rahilly, S, Barroso, I., and Wareham, N. (2005) “Genetic factors in Type II Diabetes: The end of the beginning?” Science, 305(2005): 370-373

In this 2005 journal article, Stephen O’Rahilly, Ines Barroso, and Nicholas Wareham present an exploration into the scientific examination of the genetic variants that predispose people to Type II Diabetes. O’Rahilly is a lecturer at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of the University of Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s Hospital Cambridge, United Kingdom while Barroso and Wareham are renowned researchers at various institutes and research councils in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Although there is no comprehensive information to conclude the genetic causation of the public health burden, a few gene variants which influence susceptibility to Type II Diabetes have been identified. Knowledge of the techniques required to detect such gene variants has been advanced.


The article concludes that knowledge of gene variants makes genetic information relevant to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Type II Diabetes.
Gene variation is an essential consideration for the management of the disease. Therefore, this information is helpful in supporting my argument that the diagnosis and treatment of Type II Diabetes depends on consideration of factor alongside observation of food choices.

Published in Physiology

 

Introduction
Coffee is a brewed beverage that is prepared from roasted coffee berries of the coffee plant. Coffee has continued to dominate as a preferred beverage compared to other beverages such as tea and chocolate. With its origins being from Africa, coffee is a beverage that has stood the test of time and has endeared million of drinkers globally. There are two species of coffee; Arabica and Robusta coffee. The Arabica species of coffee is highly preferred for the brewing of coffee due to its high quality taste. With history indicating the origins of coffee to be in Ethiopia, Africa, the number of coffee drinkers has increased globally. Coffee has been adopted by many cultures as a preferred drink. There are many factors associated with the increased popularity of coffee. Some of these factors include the entry of coffee into the commercial filed, the benefits of coffee from the social perspective and the health benefits of the beverage.


Discussion
Entry of coffee in the commercial Field
According to Laws (2011) coffee has had transforming effects on history. The discovery of coffee in Ethiopian led to the introduction of the coffee beverage to the world. Coffee came to be acknowledged as the black gold due to the high value and demand that it was accorded. The Arab world had already begun to trade their coffee beans. The Arabs had realized the value of coffee and had already begun to purchase more of it for themselves. Coffee is an old beverage, and by 1615 other regions such as Venice had also began brewing coffee. The introduction of the coffee beverage led to increased competition as other beverages such as chocolate and tea had become popular among beverage drinkers. By 1616, the Dutch had already propagated the first coffee tree in their land hence began cultivating the plant.
The French also adopted the beverage from 1720 with the planting of the first tree (Civitello, 2011). With its origin traced to Ethiopia, increasing coffee consumption led to a rise of third world economies. Third world economies were ill-prepared for the high demand of coffee hence the need to ship the trees to developed countries. The rise of coffee plantation in developed countries, as well as the rise of coffee factories saw a rise in consumption as the beverage became readily available.
The passion for the coffee beverage saw coffee lovers and entrepreneur’s think of ingenuous ways to introduce the beverage the public.
As a new beverage, it would be difficult to attract customers who had already cut out their preference in drinks such as tea and chocolate.
Early coffee sellers adopted strategies such as the door to door coffee services. The promotion strategy was to take the coffee drink to potential customers, and the irresistible aroma would make customers taste the coffee. The door to door sale involved selling ready to drink coffee which proved successful in introducing people to the beverage. Soon, coffee houses began to be established and expand as the need for the beverage heightened. Records indicate coffee houses, regarded as important political institutions, were established as early as the 15th century (Harrison, & Gauthier, 2005). Coffee houses and cafes turned out to be a meeting point for ship owners and a starting place for insurance companies. To-date the establishment of coffee houses has continued. Establishments such as Starbucks coffee house have risen to become global coffee companies with coffeehouse chains across the globe. The establishment of Starbucks coffeehouse in china has, for instance, been seen as a North American concept exported to Asia (Harrison, & Gauthier, 2005). Starbucks was established, in 1971 to sell coffee, tea and spice, but as the business grew there was realization that customers were drawn to
Starbucks coffee. Starbucks thus began to specialize in coffee production.
Starbuck has also established itself in Japan as well as in other close to 1000 international outlets. The expansion of Starbucks into the international market is an indicator that the love for coffee is not about to cease (Gordon, 2011). The discovery of coffee also led to different trials to discover the best coffee beverage. The first people to experiment with coffee berries attempted to eaten the coffee berries by crashing them eating them raw; however, the taste was unpleasant. They then decided to boil the crushed coffee berries; however, it was still unpleasant. Later, they decided to roast, crush and mix the coffee kernels with water. The liquid mixture was then sieved and sweetened when mixed with honey. This discovery led to the introduction of coffee and its varieties.
Coffee varieties are dependent on factors such as species of coffee. The Arabica brewed coffee is preferred over the Robusta. Arabica is highly favored and less acidic that Robusta with is considered highly acidic. The increased popularity of Arabica over other varieties of coffee has seen 70% of coffee production being Arabica (Harrison, & Gauthier2005). Other varieties such as liberica, excelsa, Jamaican blue and Brazil mundo novo trail behind with regard to taste and quality. It should be noted that the different varieties are named according to their place of origin. Taste and quality vary due to other environmental factors depending on whether the coffee plant is grown.
The Positive Impact of Coffee: Social Perspective
The effects of coffee greatly depend on the coffee beans used and how the beans were roasted. Compared to beverages such as tea, coffee has more caffeine than tea; decaffeinated coffee has 2-4mg of caffeine hence quite insignificant compared to caffeinated coffee. Caffeine found in coffee is classified as a drug and excessive consumption is considered lethal. A hundred cups of coffee i.e. 10grams of caffeine is considered dangerous and instead of initiating beneficial effects; it can be lethal. A reasonable amount of coffee e.g. 2-4 cups is considered reasonable. As mentioned earlier, the introduction of coffee into different countries led to increased competition with other drinks such as tea and chocolate. Earlier established coffee houses became the meeting place for groups of people such as sailors. Coffee thus became the symbol of social interactions. People would meet for a cup of coffee as they discussed other business and personal matter.

From a social perspective coffee has become a beverage that gives families and friends an opportunity to gather. In the modern world today, busy schedules have turned human beings into island such that there is no time for social relations. The situation has been worsened with the emergence of technology where the need for face to face interaction has further dwindled. Coffee houses and coffee shops have become joints for interaction where people make new friends and bind with others. Friends can meet at coffee houses for a cup of coffee hence strengthens their friendship bond. Similarly, family members overwhelmed by work and personal responsibilities can organize, for coffee gathering to enhance family unit. Friends, as well as family members get together to discuss their personal live, their progresses in life and catch up on events. Coffee meetings at the workplace are also ideal ways to reduce formality and tension associated with workplaces.

The increasing consumption of coffee has also led to the rise of the coffee culture. Coffee drinkers identify themselves as people who appreciate the stimulating effect as well as the grand taste of coffee. The emergence and increased popularity of coffee led to increased social interaction as people began to meet and sit for a cup of coffee (Harvard Health publications, 2013). Gradually, coffee became the symbol of social interaction i.e. where people are gathered, then they must be coffee. Historically, coffee was considered a drink for intellectual and among the Arabs; it was considered a drink for thinkers and chess players. Coffee houses and coffee shops continue to flourish as the popularity of the drink persists. People still meet, in these shops to interact over a cup of coffee. Coffee thus remains a symbol of social interaction and strives to retain individuals in societies closely woven.
The demand for coffee has also infiltrated homes, and it is almost impossible to find a home without coffee. Coffee is the ultimate drink that is offered to visitors who visit other people in their homes. The presence of coffee in homes is based on the known fact that a majority of people cannot go for a day without coffee (Bell, 2009). Coffee is a first choice for many hence the symbol of hospitality in homes. Coffee has been used to welcome people to homes, relax them and ensure that they have enjoyed their visit.

Health Benefits

According to Brody (2012) coffee has the ability to extend life. Brody (2012) makes these claims based on a 14 year study that reveals that coffee drinkers live longer than those who do not take the beverage. The study’s further revealed that the more coffee a person takes the higher the likelihood to live longer. The study revealed that the death rate coffee drinkers was 10-15% lower than death rates among non-coffee drinkers. With US being one of the leading nations in terms of coffee consumptions, these figures as a relief to many who cannot live a day without a cup or two of coffee. Critics have argued that some of the chemicals found in coffee are harmful. Critics pinpoint chemicals such as cafestol and kahweol as harmful chemicals found in coffee beans. These chemicals have been found to increase the blood level of cholesterol. However, most coffee sold is filtered, and through filtration these harmful chemicals are eliminated. There have also been concerns that coffee can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. However, long term, studies have revealed a significantly low rate of heart disease among coffee drinkers (Harvard Health publications, 2013).
Caffeine from coffee has been found to enhance the performance of drugs such as aspirin. Caffeine does not necessarily make the pain relieving effects of aspiring powerful; instead, it speeds up the relief process. As mentioned earlier, caffeine speeds heart rate which in turn increases speed of blood flow into the system. The fast flow of blood means that the aspirin components will reach the entire body fast.

Greenberg & Geliebter (2006) indicates that coffee is closely linked to aspects of weight gain and weight control. Greenberg & Geliebter (2006) conducted a study to determine whether coffee as found in coffee contributes to weight loss. Using rodents as their sample, the study revealed that caffeine plays a significant role in decreases the body weight of rodents. The study reveals that long term consumption of coffee can significant result to weight loss in human beings. Caffeine has been found to have thermogenesis effects and enhance lipolysis and fat oxidations. The ability of caffeine to increases thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and lipolysis has also been attributed to the ability of individuals to avert obesity. Obesity is turning to be a global pandemic due to life style changes. Individuals that are overweight and at risk of being obese can rely on caffeine from coffee to avert the occurrence of obesity. Caffeine does not directly burn fats, but it functions with other constituents of the body such as epinephrine found in human beings to increase activities resulting to increase the burning of fats.
Instantaneous Feeling
The discovery of coffee as a brew was almost like an accident. First discovered in Ethiopia, herders reported that their goats ate some red cherries and instead of remaining calm; they became hyper active. This is a unique quality of coffee; coffee acts as a stimulant and can rejuvenate a drinker and restore energy. Coffee makes a drinker alert and improves concentration. In fact, it is believed that the earlier brewers of coffee used to drink it so that they can stay up late for the night prayers (as per the Islam tenets). Coffee with caffeine has also been found to be beneficial to individual engaging in strenuous activities.
Strenuous activities are known to wear out someone. However, research indicates that individuals taking coffee with caffeine are able to remain energized for long durations. Caffeine in the coffee enables muscles to burn fatty acids and convert them to energy. Coffee drinkers exposed to strenuous task tire less quickly than non-coffee drinkers. Coffee drinkers also recover faster from fatigue. According to Greenberg & Geliebter (2006) caffeine in coffee increases physical activity in human beings. Caffeine also increases exercise performance hence encouraging increased physical activity. Increased physical activity keeps individual’s healthy and keeps diseases such as obesity at bay.

Conclusion

The entry of coffee in the commercial field was purely by chance. From a group of goat-herders, coffee was discovered and brewed locally then internationally. Coffee was introduced in society and took over the beverage industry trouncing existing beverages such as tea and coffee. The emergence of coffee as a preference beverage led to the establishment of coffee houses and coffee shops where coffee lovers gather to enjoy their cup of coffee and have funs. The coffee shop and coffee houses became the meeting point for friends and families hence improved social relations among members of communities. Components of coffee such as caffeine have been found to have beneficial health benefits. Caffeine is a stimulant that enhances concentration, enhances endurance in the face of strenuous activities and enhances the performance of medication such as aspirin. Coffee also offers other instantaneous benefits such as the ability to remain focused for long. Coffee also enables the drinker to remain alert and activity for a longer duration that a non-coffee drinker.


Reference

Bell, A. (2009). A history of food. John Wiley & Sons
Brody, J. (2012). Have a second cup! Latest study suggests coffee extends life. Herald-Tribune
Civitello, L. (2011). Cuisine and culture. John Wiley & sons
Gordon, J. (2011). How Starbucks fought for its life without losing its soul. Howard Schultz
Greenberg, J. & Geliebter, A. (2006). Coffee, diabetes and weight control. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Vol. 84: 682-93
Harrison, J. & Gauthier, C. (2005). Exporting a North American concept to Asia. Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly. Vol. 46: 275
Harvard Health publications, (2013). What is it about coffee? Harvard University
Laws, B. (2011). Fifty plants that changed the course of history. Caid Publishing

Published in History
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:40

Nursing Practice


Transformational Leadership
If there is something vital in any field, call it leadership. Leadership aspect is one of the key factors that assist in the growth a given setting. This type of leadership is used in nursing where leaders engage with employees in a way of evaluating and raising their level of working conditions, motivation, and performance. Leaders become the role model where they lead others on how they are supposed to conduct themselves in the healthcare setting. It’s the work of the leader to develop and challenge the followers to be creative and innovative nurturing independent thinking. Transformational leadership helps in inspiring followers by establishing a strong vision on providing quality services to the community. Evidence shows that this type of leadership helps leader become concerned about the needs of the employees in order to train them effectively, (Sherman, 2012).


Structural Empowerment
Empowerment in nursing is something that has gone several developments in the last few decades. This is developing nurse’s psychological state where it helps an individual get the required skills and knowledge required in his or her everyday activities. It helps in establishing strong professional environment in the nursing industry thus creating a situation where professionals are developed. Evidence shows that nurses lack power in their areas of practice thus structural empowerment will help come up with some strategies that allow nurses have some authority in their areas of practice. Power and opportunity are necessary according to the theory of structural empowerment because it helps in maximizing success and effectiveness within the organization, (Manojlovich, 2007).


Reference:

Manojlovich, M. (2007). Power and Empowerment in Nursing: Looking Backward to Inform the Future. Retrieved from, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553403_5, on June 3, 2013
Sherman, O. R. (2012). Becoming a Transformational Nurse Leader. Retrieved from, http://www.emergingrnleader.com/transformational-nurse-leader/, on June 3, 2013

Published in Nursing


To The Editor
I have read about the rules that the Obama administration finally issued on 29th may, 2013 which are designed to help companies that are discriminating the sick. This is a wise approach, but we should also remember that companies are part of the society, and they should be left to come up with their own strategies of corporate wellness programs. The programs in the recent years have gained popularity simply because they are believed to give incentive to the employee for the purpose of improving their health.


Most companies are trying to practice exactly what these rules are saying in order to regulate and prevent employees from unhealthy conditions. This is a way of helping companies cut medical expenses for their employees and improve the working conditions. A good number of businesses are those who are responsible and take care of their employees. Those businesses, which do not mind about their employees, have seen an approach that betters their actions. It is true that firms that were doing this for the right reasons will not be shown.

There is a lot that is required in order effectively apply and work on these rules for the safety of employees in the working environment. Most companies are relying on these programs so as to encourage their employees on how to stay healthier and also encourage them adopt healthier lifestyles that will assist them reduce health cost both at work and at home. It is true that these programs have enabled most companies reduce health cost of employees and have assisted employees improve their health aspects in many ways.


Introduction
Americans have a culture of guns. In 2009 about 124 million households owned over 270 million guns. Guns pervade our debates on crime and are constantly present in movies and news. How many times have we read about shootings, or how many times have we heard about tragic gun accidents, bad guys shooting innocent victims, members of warring gangs exchanging fire, police shooting or even shootings in the name of self-defense. Incidences of rogue shooting have increased in the recent past. A case in study is the Sandy Hook Elementary school massacre, which left 20 innocent children dead. Despite the defeat of Barrack Obama move to institute gun control, it is my strongest convictions that the government and other stakeholders should make up with some regulations to control the use of guns in the country. Background check should be incorporated in gun control measures to ensure arms are in the right hands.


The strongest opposers of gun control are the conservatives, who argue that the right to have arms is laid down in the second amendment of the U.S constitution and as such controlling guns would be an infringement of individual rights. They also argue that control of guns, whatever their political impacts they have only a marginal effect on firearms violence. There have also been arguments that gun control will not keep firm arms out of the hands of criminals and other high-risk individuals. Lastly, conservatives argue that the widespread gun ownership is one of the best deterrents to and defends against crime (Squires, 2000).
According to Gischler (2004), united state is the only modern democracy that does not impose strict guns control. The country experiences a much higher crime rate than those nations that impose strict gun controls. Therefore adopting gun controls like other democracies will lower the American crime rate.

Let’s explore some of the argument opposing gun control. First, opponents of gun control argue that gun control legislations by the government are aimed at “taking away our guns.” This notion is misguided. None of the current efforts by the government to control gun targets obtaining guns from citizens. The president had proposed the banning of assault weapons, and he did not intend to confiscate assault weapons currently owned by citizens.


It is a common believe among American citizens that the second amendment is intended to protect them from a tyrannical government. They believe guns provide a way through which they can rebel against the government. A thorough evaluation of the second amendment will shed light o these citizens. The amendment reads “a well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the citizenry to keep firearms, shall not be infringed.” A well regulated militia refers to a group of citizens who assume the role of the military. The second portion addresses protection of the national interest while the last portion gives the citizens the right to keep arms.
The intent of the amendment was to rally citizens to help the government in times of war or rebellion. It is also crucial to assess the context in which the amendment was enacted. At the time, the southern were fighting to control slaves. Therefore, the amendment could have served to increase the control of the southerners of slave uprisings.

Opponents of gun control argue that regulating guns will take away guns from the citizens exposing them to armed citizen. This is a baseless argument and a fallacy. The intent of gun control is to conduct a thorough background check on any individual intending to own a weapon. Why are people afraid of background check? It is through a background check that the government can identify past offenders, mentally unstable individuals and criminals.

Another common fallacy about guns is the argument that guns do not kill; it is the people who kill. True, it is the people who kill, but does that address the key issue? Guns provide an effective tool of killing. It facilitates the act of killing. Consider the skills and efforts that one need in order to kill using a gun. A person requires very minimal effort or even training to use a gun. The ease of killing using a gun varies with the type of gun. You cannot compare a pistol with an Ak-47 rifle (Shapiro, 2013).

In conclusion, a time for action has come when the American citizens and the government to reflect gun/arms ownership. It is crucial for people to prevent future Sandy Hook Elementary school massacre by effecting gun control. It is imperative for citizens to realize that gun control does not mean confiscating guns from citizens, and it does not infringe their rights. The idea behind gun control is to ensure arms are in the right hands. This can only be achieved through thorough background check that is conducted within the law and expeditiously.

References
Katrin Gischler (2004). Why has gun control become such a contentious issue in American politics? Auflage Publishers. New York, USA.
Robert Shapiro (2013). Main arguments against gun control lacks logic. Retrieved from http://heraldnews.suntimes.com on 8/6/2013
Peter Squires (2013). Gun culture or gun control? Firearms, violence and society. Routledge, New York USA.

Published in Education
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:29

Gender Inequality

 


Introduction
Perhaps, there is no society in the world that treats its women the same way as it does to the men. That is why in the contemporary society the term gender equality has become an order of the day whereby people all over fight for equal rights. Indeed, gender inequality is deep rooted in the society, and the female gender normally fall victim of it. This paper observes gender inequality issue by providing relevant data and how this issue affects the society.


Body
Gender Inequality as an Issue
Gender inequality is an issue because it presents unlawful violence against the victims. This has caused several individuals to lose important opportunities, undergo traumatizing or even fetal conditions. Therefore, gender inequality not only holds back the growth of an individual, but it adversely affects the evolution of societies and the development of countries, which disadvantage both men and women. It is a matter that affects human rights and development priorities. Perhaps, other issues that affect human population can never be solved if gender inequality as a problem that affects individual is unsettled. Therefore, gender inequality need to be addressed at all means in order to enhance a balanced society that is effective for development (NCBI, 2012).


In the society where we live, at least there are several incidences whereby individuals experience gender inequality. This is usually a disillusioning event because one is treated unfairly because of the gender. As a girl, I have encountered several situations of gender inequality. The most devastating situation that I underwent is when I was playing outdoors with my childhood friends from the neighborhood most of whom were boys. There were fewer games that were dominated by girls, and boys played more competitive games than those played by girls. In fact, if it happened that girls join the boys groups, boys would always play games that lasted long. At times, boys in the neighborhood would even disrupt girls’ game falsely claiming that girls are using their play yards. Taking play-things to the play yard was also a risky event for girls because boys always would get away with them or even spoil them. At some point, I was forced to stay indoors rather than playing in the play yard because of the annoying boys’ behavior towards girls in the neighborhood.
There are several real-life cases regarding to gender inequality. Sex selection abortion is one of the situations that violate gender rights. Some parents may deliberately abort a fetus having known that it is of the gender that they do not want. For example, in China, may families opt for boys as opposed to girls. Some countries also pay males more money than women for the same work done despite equal skills that they have.


Effects of Gender Inequality to the Society
Gender inequality has enormous adverse effects to the society. This has been felt in terms of economic development, health, and other aspects of society. When individuals are not given equal rights and are consequently subjected to suffering and despair, the economy of the society will be poor because such alienated individuals might have been skillful and innovative. Health of the society is also affected by gender inequality because members of the society undergo trauma and lack of appropriate services (Academia, 2009).

Conclusion

Gender Inequality is a situation whereby one gender is favored over the other one. This is a common event in most of the societies. However, it is not a good idea because it subjects some group of individuals to sufferings, which eventually lead to the general suffering of the society due to poor economic conditions, health, and other factors. Therefore, gender inequality need to be eliminated by all means in order to enhance development in the society.


References
NCBI, (2012). Gender Inequality as a Global Problem. Retrieved From, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1173418/ On June 6, 2013.
Huff Post, (2013). The Global Problem of Gender Inequality. Retrieved From, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/nake-m-kamrany/gender-inequality_b_1417535.html On June 6, 2013.
Academia, (2009). Dimensions of Gender Inequality. Tanzim, J: Author. Retrieved From, http://www.academia.edu/663453/Dimensions_of_gender_inequality_and_Its_impact_on_society On June 6, 2013.
Discovery, (2013). Gender and Sexuality. Retrieved From, http://dsc.discovery.com/tv shows/curiosity/topics/examples-gender-inequality-around-world.htm On June 6, 2013.

Published in Sociology
Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:24

Football hooliganism


Introduction
All over the world, sports matter. They hold a singular position among leisure time activities and have unparalleled impact on the everyday lives of billions of people. According to Markovits and Rensmann (2010; Pg 124-127), sports shape and stabilize social and even political entities around the globe. Sports have been known to unite nations, warring factions, and even the worst enemies. The globe has set up international competitions that bring thousands of individuals together. These individuals exchange culture and build bonds between nations. One of such games is soccer. Soccer or football as it is popularly known is the game/sport that has the largest following in the world. Football in many countries is run and club and international level.


Soccer and politics are often inseparable because soccer is part of most community life (which in turn is run by local and regional politics). Soccer politics are dynamics that shape the sport of soccer, and can be roughly divided into those aspects internal to soccer authority all over the globe and those external to soccer authorities (Witzig, 2006; 37). Both national and club football are dominated by behind-the scene politics, which affects the operation and management of football. Football has taken political role in different parts of the world. The relationship between politics and football emanate from some characteristics shared by both politics and football. Politics and football have huge audiences they generate extreme tribalism and ethnicity, and they share huge expectations and involve a lot of rivalry (Rotherman, 2012).


Football has been associated with hooliganism of different forms (Guilianotti, 1994). The political origin of football can be traced in the mid 1960s. The period between 1968 and 1970 witnessed the “maturation” of football hooliganism from irregular disturbances into definite social policy area (Jardine, 2011). Hooliganism gained international attention after various bloody incidences in England. A lot of government and police efforts have been dedicated to reducing the scale of hooliganism in football. However, hooliganism persists to date. According to an online journal published by http://www.politics.co.uk/, England is reputed as the country with the worst for m of football hooliganism. However, according to Cawthorne (2001; Pg 87), football hooliganism is widespread and nowhere has the game spread is not affected by football hooliganism.


A good example of football hooliganism occurred in 1984 Manchester united fans confronted Juventus fan during a European cup-winners cup semifinals. However, some of the historic football hooliganism include the Burnden park disaster of 1946 which left 33 people dead, the Heysel Disaster of 1985, which resulted into 39 deaths, the Orkey disaster in 1991 (42 causalities) and Ellis park stadium disaster of 2001, which resulted into 43 deaths (http://oddculture.com). The worst incidences of football hooliganism were witnessed during 1980s and 1990s. In 1996, over 80 people died in Guatemala disaster (cnn.com), in 1988, approximately a hundred people perished in Katmandu disaster, the Hillsborough disaster of 1989 resulted into 96 deaths and in 2001, over 126 individuals died in the Ghana disaster.


Recent incidences of football hooliganism have been witnessed Egypt, Argentine and Colombia (http://www.dailymail.co.uk). Arguably the most serious contemporary football related disorder still take place in south America, where mass rioting, often inside stadiums, is a frequent occurrence (as it is in south Sahara Africa). The scale and severity of this violence is such that fatalities are a regular consequence due to the widespread use of guns and knives (Fisher & Steven, 2003; Pg 54). In Argentinean football, violence is endemic. There have been incidents of violence in the US, where soccer is considered a family game (http://soccerlens.com). In 2008, some thirty West Ham fans took on over a hundred supporters of Columbus Crew in Columbus, Ohio, marring an international friendly. Football hooliganism periodically generates widespread political and public anxiety in numerous European and non-European countries. In spite of efforts and resources invested over the past decades, football hooliganism is still perceived by politicians, policy makers, media and other acts as a disturbing social problem (Spaaj, 2006; 13). Much of these hooliganism acts tend to occur during national and international matches.

Over the years, football hooliganism has been portrayed in films, though many critics condemn them for glamorizing violence. However, this remains as one of the effective way of communicating to the audience on the vices of football hooliganism. The documentary intends to cover hooliganism incidences in major leagues, in the world. The target will include the English premier league, Spain la Liga, Germany boundersliga, Italy league, argentine league, Brazil league and American football league. Due to limitation of resources, the documentary will concentrate major international and national hooliganism incidences that have happened in the past ten years. Clips of these incidences will be combined to form one video film that will highlight the evils of hooliganism. The intent of the documentary will be to sensitize individuals who participate in the vice on the negative effects of hooliganism. The film will also insight football organizers who have assumed that football hooliganism has receded due to lack of media highlights. The documentary will seek to bring into light unseen incidences that take place in clothing tunnels, local pubs and entertainment centers, and off-the-field incidences that have continued to taint the wonderful game of football. Football is one the sporting activities that attracts the highest number of spectators. It is, therefore, expected that the documentary will not only capture the huge fan base, but it will draw the interest of policy makers and activists who are fighting the vice of football hooliganism. The film will be based on research done on historic football hooliganism incidences in the world that have been recorded.


Work cited
Richard Witzig. The global art of soccer. CusiBoy Publishing. L A, USA. 2006; Pg 37
Football and politics: a unique relationship. Retrieved from http://www.progressonline.org.uk
Markovits A. & Rensmann L. The gaming world. Princeton university press. New Jersey, USA. 2010; Pg 124-127
Giulianotti R., Bonney N and Hepworth Football violence and social identity. Routledge Publishers. London UK. 1994; Pg 361
Luton V millwall cup draw brings back chilling memories from football’s dark days. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk on 4/6/2013.
Ramon Spaaj. (2006; 13)Understanding football hooliganism: a comparison of six western European countries.
History’s top 15 worst soccer disasters. Retrieved from http://oddculture.com on 4/6/2013.
Fisher B. & Steven L. (2010; 121). Encyclopedia of victimology and crime prevention, volume 1. SAGE publications, Inc.
Neil Jones. Football violence & Top 10 worst football riots. Retrieved from http://soccerlens.com on 4/6/2013.
Football Hooliganism. Retrieved from http://www.politics.co.uk on 4/6/2013.
UK 70/80’s football hooligan riots. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=px0wlQhOxNc on 4/6/2013.
Nick Jardine. Bruising, burning and beatings: Europe’s worst soccer hooligans. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com on 4/6/2013.
Http://www.telegraph.co.uk
British football hooligans/casuals. Retrieved from http://www.dailymotion.com/video on 4/6/2013.
Football violence. Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk on 4/6/2013.
Football hooliganism. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/channel/HCBR4cu-8IU2M on 4/6/2013.
Argentine football hooligans’ growing clout. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wEzm6twTLSU on 4/6/2013.
The barra bravas: the violent Argentinean gangs controlling football. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk on 4/6/2013.

Published in Sociology
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