Sociology

Sociology (19)

Friday, 24 March 2017 09:13

Hate crimes in the US and Mongolia

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Introduction
Hate crimes encompass the traditional offenses as murder, vandalism or arson that have an added element of bias. About the issue of collecting data, hate crimes encompass offenses against an individual or property that are motivated in whole or part by the offender's bias against religion, race, disability, ethnicity, gender orientation gender or gender identity. The additional attribute about this topic is the assertion that hate in itself is not a crime as people have to enjoy their freedoms. The victims do not have to belong to the group in that anyone can fall victim to hate crime. The hate incidents appear to as crimes to the individuals suffering them and in most cases escalate to crimes or tension in the concerned society. The law enforcement agencies can only prosecute once the law has been broken but can also work with their partners in trying to prevent the possible escalation seriousness. The selection of the US and Mongolia is for the reason that the two countries have some of the most documented and publicized cases of hate crimes. Additionally, the fact that the two countries are in different parts of the globe was vital in assisting in assessing the situation as a global and not a state problem. Lastly, the U.S and Mongolia are examples of the two most dynamic economies and issues of hate crimes pose a significant threat to the success of these economies due to the negative image they generate.
Hate Crimes in the U.S



In the year 2012, there was approximately 293,000 nonfatal violent as well as property hate crime victimization that had occurred against people aged 12 years and older in the US households. The increase in the number of hate crimes from the previous one in 2011 was not insignificant (Altschiller, 2015). The findings were from the bureau of justice statistics, as well as the national crime victimization survey (NCVS) was had been collecting the data on the crimes that are motivated by hate from the year 2003. The FBI, as well as the NCVS reports on hates crime statistics program which offer the chief sources of annual information on hate crimes in the US, relies on the definition that is presented but the hate crimes statistics act. According to the Act, hate crimes indicate evidence of prejudice that is based on gender, race, religion, gender identity, disability as well as sexual orientation.



Regarding the number of hate crimes in the US, it follows that in the year 2012, the hate crimes were accountable for 1.2% of all the victimization and additionally 4.2% of all the cases of violent victimization. There was no statistically significant change that was observed in the assessment of the overall number of hate crimes as well as the hate crimes that took place between 2004 and 2012. Following the decline of the hate crimes between 2004 and 2005, the rate of property hate crimes victimization was stable from 2005 to 2012 (Altschiller, 2015). About the issue of motivation, it was evident that approximately 58% of the hate crime victims reported more than just one type of motivation in 2012. It is additionally evident that the victims perceived that bias had motivated the offender against the victim’s ethnicity in 51% of all the hate crimes.

The attribute was a statistically significant increment from the 30% of the hate crimes that were motivated by ethnicity bias in the year 2011 and 22% in the year 2004 (Altschiller, 2015). The percentage of the hate crimes that have been motivated by religious bias was nearly three times higher in the year 2012 that it was in 2004, with 28% and 10% respectively although there was statistically significant change from the year 2011 to 2012 (Altschiller, 2015). In the year 2009, the Congress passed a new legislation meant to amend the hate crimes statistics act to encompass the hate crimes that exhibit evidence of bias against a certain gender or gender identity. The bureau of statistics has also been collecting information on the hate crimes that have been motivated by gender bias from the year 2003. The proportion of the hate crimes that have been motivated by gender bias was demonstrated to be more than two times higher that it was in the year 2011 (25%) and 2012 (26%) than it was in 2004 (12%).

The murder of James Byrd along with Matthew Shepard, encompass some of the senseless acts of abhorrence, reminding the Americans that brutality based on racial along with other intolerances still occurs. Additional atrocious examples comprise of the spree of hate-motivated shootings that took place in the 1999 4th weekend in Illinois as well as Indiana. The additional massacre of two gay men in California, along with arson attacks on Sacramento synagogues. In August of 1999, one man with connected to white supremacist organizations is suspected to have opened fire at a Jewish daycare center in Los Angeles murdering a Filipino-American postal worker. Additionally, in the year 2000, J.R. Warren, a 26-year old African American, homosexual man was attacked by two 17-year old boys who brutally beat him and consequently drove back and forth above him until he was dead.

On the issue of religious hate crimes, Jews, as well as Jewish establishments, were some of the biggest objects in America again last year. However, when it comes to hate crimes in general, the solitary biggest incentive by far is not a religion but race a situation that has been in existence for several years. These are two main takeaways the public can garner from the FBI’s lately released yearly review of hate crimes for the period ending in 2014. The additional element that can be said to be good news is the assertion that the hate crimes, on the whole, went down by approximately 8% in comparison to the situation in 2013 apart from for hate crimes that were meted against the Muslims and Muslim communities which increased by 14%. A number of hate crimes that targeted the Jews population in the same period fell to some extent, by roughly 2.5%.

The critics have for a long duration cautioned against taking into consideration the yearly statistical appraisal of hate crimes as released by the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program too accurately. The review as released November 16 entails a database that is accumulated from prejudice in addition to hating crime counts that have been submitted to the FBI by local police organs across the country on a charitable basis. Every local force utilizes their techniques in counting as well as categorizing these cases. Studies that were conducted by the Justice Department’s, amongst others, propose that the FBI statistics are accordingly much inferior to the actual level of hate crimes. The diverse police units in Hawaii, for instance, do not involve themselves these program at all. Still, many parties believe the annual appraisal to be at least a useful pointer of extensive patterns. In a thus year, 86% of the nation’s almost 18,000 law enforcement organs presented hate crime reports to the FBI, making it one of the highest percentages that have been recorded in the recent years.

According to the FBI, rates for hate crimes went down by approximately 8% in the previous year, whereby more than 6,400 hate crimes were reported, in comparison to the almost 7,000 in 2013. According to the available data, 47% of these cases in 2014 hate crimes had been aggravated by racial intolerance. They were preceded by crimes that were motivated by ethnicity at 11.9%, gender identity at 1.8%, disability at 1.5% while gender had the least at gender 0.6%. In the previous years, the Jews were the most regular victims of all the reported hate crimes that targeted members of a certain religious group. Out of all the 1,140 reported sufferers of anti-religious hate crimes, 648, which is almost 57%, were Jewish. In this case out of the 1,014 reported anti-religious hate crime incidents although there are those that had more than one victim, 609 cases which are slightly over 60%, targeted Jews.

In those cases where data information that has been submitted by the local law enforcement organs allow, the FBI report recognizes perpetrators by race along with ethnicity; but not by religion. Out of the anti-Jewish hate crime executors whose ethnicity could be established, 87 of the perpetrators were white while 20 were African American. An additional 231 of the acknowledged offenders were of unknown race (Southers, 2014).The Muslims encompassed the second most regulatory target for the anti-religious crimes. The Muslims were targeted in almost 154, which are approximately 15.2%, of the reported incidents. A considerable number of the anti-Jewish hate crimes which were 451 cases encompassed of destruction as well as some additional category of property damage (Southers, 2014). The figures for more grave offenses against Jews were approximately the same as for more grave offenses which were meted against the Muslims. There were more motivated assaults as well as robberies against Muslims, furthermore more easy assaults, burglaries, thefts, intimidations, thefts as well as arson offenses against Jews.

While FBI reports have been contested over the years for undercounting hate crimes, including by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, some experts argue that the reports are still capable of signaling trends. According to the President of Southern Poverty Law Center, the diminutive FBI hate-crime statistics can be accredited to, amongst other issues, the lack of collaboration from law enforcement organs in reporting the reporting of incidents. Additionally, the fact that a hefty section of victims fail to report such crimes sometimes with the supposition that nothing will be done is accountable for the dismal number of cases reported. The SPLC contemplates that anti-Muslim acts will persist to rise in 2015 (Southers, 2014). The organization addresses the beheadings in addition to other attacks implemented by the Islamic State group as likely to stimulate anti-Muslim outlook. In the house of the attacks on Paris some time back, 25 U.S. governors have surfaced with sentiments against accommodating Syrian refugees into their states.

Every year was starting from 2004 to 2012; the violent crimes were accountable for a superior percentage of the hate crimes that the case was for the no hate crimes. The percentage of the crimes that were related to violence demonstrated an increase from 78% in the year 204 to 90% in both 2011 and 2012 (Perry, 2013). Conversely, there was no statistically significant difference that was observed in the percentage of the hate crimes that encompasses serious violence as well as simple assault in these years. In the year 2012, the serious violent crimes were accountable for a bigger percentage relating to all the crime victimizations (27%) than the non-hate crime victimization that had a percentage of 8%. There was no statically significant difference that was observed in the year 2012 between the percentages of the hate crimes (30%) along with the non-hate crimes that involved serious violence (Perry, 2013).

The evident increase in the hate crimes against the Hispanic population has a correction with the growing debate on the issue of comprehensive immigrant reform as well as the escalation in the degree of the anti-immigrant vitriol in the television on, radio as well as the internet. The common trend is that the anti-immigration fervor has been directed against a certain group and possess the potential to turn violent. The inflammatory remarks that target the immigrants have a direct input on the increase in the number of hate crimes against the Hispanics along with the others perceived to be immigrants (Southers, 2014). These inflammatory remarks additionally increase the sense of fear among the targeted group as well as the other minorities in the communities around the country.
One of the most disturbing developments relates to growth in the number of groups that oppose the immigration reforms as the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) as well as the NumbersUSA. These groups have inflamed the immigration debate via invoking the racist, dehumanizing as well as bigotry of the hate crimes. The inflammatory, anti-immigrant remarks have also successfully infiltrated the mainstream media encompassing the shrill anti-immigration reform commentaries from the high profile media personalities as talk show network’s Michael Savage and CNN’s Dobbs (Newton, 2009).

Numerous interventions have been implemented as the US tries to deal with the issue of hate crimes. Among the interventions is the fact that the local governments are continuing with the establishment of ordinances against the hate activities that are modeled on the prevalent hate crime law that relates to the crime laws in that state. The human rights commission is additionally facilitating as well as coordinating discussions; training, as well as events, mean to enable citizens to discuss their differences, hopes, commonalities as well as dreams (Newton, 2009). These forums focus on the common attributes of the community life as education, cultural as well as recreational opportunities, and community attitudes along with racial and ethnic diversity. The media has been playing a significant role also in the reduction of the hate crimes by ensuring that they report accurate, thorough as well as responsible content that has a high likelihood of promoting stability as well as harmony in the society (Newton, 2009). Strengthening the penalties for the individuals caught committing the crime has additionally produced positive results as the case of tough sentencing has increased the deterrence capabilities of the existing laws.
The interventions have been quite successful in that they managed to reduce the number and violent nature of the crimes as there has been the promotion of coexistence among the people from the different backgrounds in the society. It is additionally clear however that the abhorrent nature of comments by the politicians, however, was negating the gains that have been made by the stakeholders in the area of reducing the hate crimes.

Hate Crimes in Mongolia
Mongolia is among the fastest growing economies in the world as a result of the huge quantities of the untapped mineral wealth, an issue that has promoted the expansion of the foreign mining investment. Although the country is transforming their strategic sector, there are certain social changes as well as political reforms that are taking place. The government has embarked on the adoption of hate crime legislations as they try to integrate sweeping reforms within the country’s legal system. Hate crimes along with discrimination are still the most serious issues, and the vicious attacks against the homosexuals and foreign minorities residing in the country continue tainting the country’s human rights record. In the year 2012, the national human rights commission published a report that argued that the recent years had seen roughly 80% of the Mongolians identifying themselves as LGBT experienced some form of discrimination or abuse (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Additionally, a huge number of the LGBT persons have admitted that they have considered committing suicide as a result of the intolerance exhibited by the society.

Although statistics do not exist, the human rights commission received attention even further back to the year 2011 whereby the nationalist groups brutally attacked Mongolian migrant as well as homosexual minorities (Hall, N., (2013). The reports vary from the three foreign men who were physically assaulted in the capital to the homosexual man who was sexually assaulted. The case of the homosexual man who was sexually assaulted had tee police refuse to investigate the crimes due to the loopholes in the system as the Mongolian domestic laws do not consider the male to male rape cases as a crime. The LGBTI population, as well as the ethnic minority population, has been facing a difficult time due to the increased cased of hate crimes against their population. Thus, the government has been making efforts geared towards protecting them from being subjected to the numerous cases of hate crimes. Homosexuality has been legal in Mongolia from the year 1961, but the homophobic views have been pervasive throughout the society (Hall, 2013). The LGBTI population has been subject to numerous severe violent attacks in the recent past, in the same manner as the ethnic minorities have been since there has been an upswell in the neo-Nazi-inspired nationalist groups in the country.

There is almost a zero acceptance of the LGBTI population in Mongolia, an attribute that is exacerbated by the assertion that there is discrimination in almost all the facets and sectors of life in Mongolia. The discrimination of the LGBTI population in the country is an endemic attribute in the public, private as well as nongovernmental sectors and entails the police along with the judiciary, education, housing sector as well as the healthcare services (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The level of prejudice is so high in the country that it is only a few of the LBTI population that has been able to escape from some extent of the violence/ harassment.

The best illustration is that of the gay man who was sexually tortured by the homophobic nationalists with the police doing nothing like the male on male rape is not one of the elements covered in the criminal code. The man later died although it is not clear whether it was a murder or committed suicide following the order. In the year 2009, three transgender women were kidnapped and consequently taken to a cemetery where they were beaten and humiliated sexually (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The current proposals that are meant to deal with the situation encompass the idea that the law enforcement agencies receive training on how to recognize and consequently report the crimes that are motivated by discrimination as well as prejudice. It is additionally evident that the proposal is going to see sticker penalties being imposed on the crimes that have been motivated by discrimination. It is additionally evident that the interventions will encompass the integration of greater compensation packages for the victims who have suffered such crimes as a model of imposing deterrence.

The Mongolian government has commenced on an assortment of sweeping revisions to the country’s lawful codes, a refurbish to comprise provisions which aspire to avert crimes of hate, prejudice along with discrimination. In the middle of the proposals encompasses the motivated evaluation of the country’s anti- prejudice laws, with the civil rights groups demanding for the insertion of requirements which comprise hated-based incentives as a frustrating factor in criminal sentencing. The government has sat upon the development of an ambitious legal restructuring agenda. The reform places meticulous spotlight upon human rights along with enhanced transparency from the country’s law enforcement organs, in line with the international legal conference (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Nevertheless among some of the draft law’s most passionate supporters have apprehension emerged that the law could yet go too far, serving as an alternative to criminalizing all forms of disapproval, including pernicious, offensive or lawful difference of opinion.

Other people have articulated their apprehension that the inclusions might additionally threaten the freedom of the press, with journalists by now privy to all-encompassing anti- discrimination measures which in certain cases will suffocate legitimate critique. The topic of ‘Hate crimes’ had materialized as a grave issue in Mongolia, increasing to international prominence in the year 2011 when the nationalist groups majority of whom represent neo-Nazi ideology along with paraphernalia were established to be accountable for frequent attacks against the nation’s minority LGBT Furthermore foreign communities (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014).

Presently, no measures have been taken to reprimand perpetrators further for the alleged bias-motivated aggression, nor are law enforcement organs requested to draw round suspected intent. Although it is not yet comprehensible what the outline measures would set out as supplementary punishments for those found culpable of hate-motivated acts, the law would necessitate training of the law enforcement organs to distinguish furthermore report incidences of suspected hate. The preliminary draft, fashioned by a working group encompassing of rights groups along with the Justice Ministry officials, incorporated in its proposals precise provisions for offenses of ‘hate bias’ (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Requirements which would, in a correspondingly unparalleled move, institute penalties along with compensation which would acknowledge the psychological, and physical, damages that have been caused by such crimes. On the other hand, the Ministry of Justice, accountable for submission of the draft to Parliament, has removed the hate-oriented provisions and replacing them with the universal references to ‘discrimination’.

The subject of hate crimes in Mongolia remains to be the complicated issue to evaluate in just how the number of ‘crimes of hate’ taking place in the country on an annual basis. The circumstances are made worse because there is no statistical scrutiny that is are readily available. Additionally, while the disagreement remains as to what settles on a ‘hate-motivated’ crime, a chore made especially complex given there is no universal-use correspondent term in Mongolian establishing the parameters for either ‘hate speech’ or ‘hate crimes.' Nonetheless, discrimination, which is seen as a probable antecedent to hate crimes, remains outstanding. In the year 2013 Mongolia’s National Human Rights Commission presented their annual rights information which argued that in the year 2011, roughly 65 percent of people surveyed who categorize as LGBT had experienced some form of human rights abuse in the previous five-year period (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Etched in the most recent memory as being one of the nation‘s recent as well as incomprehensible acts of hate-motivated violence is that of the kidnapping of the three transgendered women.

In one of the 2011 documentaries entitled ‘Lies of Liberty’, one of the sufferers gave evidence that the group then drove them to a graveyard on the city’s outer edge where they found nine men were there who were beating them in different ways. The report offers an outline of how the women were viciously beaten and consequently sexually assaulted before they were forced to perform sexual acts upon their perpetrators. According to the women, they were as mainly due to their sexual identity, with the men recounting the brutal assaults as a ‘caution’ to “their kind” (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Latest efforts further make the legal reform agenda in the country complex meant to get rid of the ‘reformist’ Minister for Justice, who has lately come under attack, facing accusations of drug use along with scandalous behavior. In recent days, a local MPs started parliamentary appeals calling for the removal of the minister (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Certain people, as one of the country’s principal political commentators, describe the moves against the Justice Minister as to be a plot that has been devised by a political- business group with the objective of using the legal means to remove the minister from the position of power.
The current situation can be described as that of Mongolians desiring a legal system where the law is applicable the same to everybody not considering their power, reputation, wealth, along with connection. It is imperative that the legislature is a body that serves instead of acting as an enforcer of political deals.

One of the polarizing figures in the country, Temuujin takes pleasure in broad, from the continued support among the nation’s civil society groups. Majority fears that in the event he is to be removed from the position, the legal reforms are going to be postponed indefinitely. “The minister is a young politician, and one with the desire to transform the law. Mongolia’s parliament is full of long-standing lawyers, who have the impression that the original criminal codes they drafted is the best for the country and thus should not be changed. Consequently, the criminal code of Mongolia has for all time been a law that is tremendously complex to amend. The draft law, however, although to be expected to face considerable amendments all through the route of parliamentary sessions, has a likelihood of being passed. The individuals who possess power in the government are the preponderance Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP) (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The party has not been in government in the government for reasonably a long time. Thus, it is foreseeable why MDP is in the hurry to formulate changes. Other people articulate indecision as to whether the legislations on hate crimes needs to give precedence, considering its provisions serve for the defense of minorities.



These efforts by the government have been vital in promoting the deterrence of the possible execution of these crimes. The fact that the risk of detection along with the magnitude of the punishment has become high has resulted in the perpetrators of the crimes fearing the arrests and thus discerning from the commission. It is also evident that the promotion of the tolerance among the different group ideologies as well as nationalities has also had a positive impact on the reduction of the degree, nature as well as the number of the occurrences.


Conclusion
From the assessment of the hate crimes topic in these countries, it is apparent that there are glaring dissimilarities in the commissions and efforts to address the situation. One of these characteristics is the fact that in the US, most of the hate crimes are against the minority members of the society, with the immigrants being the main target. Mongolia, on the other hand, has a situation whereby the LGBTI population is the main target of the hate crime from the nationalist groups while the minority immigrants also face considerable violence and discrimination from the society. The fact that Mongolia does not have legislation that protects the LGBTI population, with significance being in the case of men has made the situation worse for this population, unlike the US where legislations have been in existence. While the nationalists groups are the main perpetrators of the violence against the minorities, the case of the US has seen the politicians become the main funneling elements of the hate crimes. Among the most evident attribute in the two countries, however, the fact is their legislations of the protection of the victims of hate crimes are incomplete and thus is a good thing that both are making constant legislations that offer better and complete protection of these groups.



References
Altschiller, D., (2015). Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook, 3rd Edition: A Reference Handbook. ABC-
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J., (2015). Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research. Policy Press.
CLIO. Newton,E., 2009). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO.
Hall, N., (2013). Hate Crime. Routledge.
Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P., & Grieve¸J. (2014). The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. Routledge.
Perry, B., (2013). Hate Crimes, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Southers, E., (2014). Homegrown Violent Extremism. Routledge.

Onlooker's Guide to Rowing

Types of Races

In general, competitive rowing falls into two categories

  1. Head racing
  2. Sprint racing.


Head Races

Head races take place in the fall on rivers and are three miles long. The route follows the twists and turns of the riverbed, so crews must navigate around bends and under bridges. A head race has a staggered beginning. Crews position themselves a couple hundred meters upstream from the starting line. On command from a race official, the first crew begins rowing reaching full speed as the boat passes the starting line. The interval between subsequent crews is about 15 seconds. The boat that completes the course in the shortest amount of time wins the race.


Sprint Races

Sprint races usually take place in the spring and summer on rivers or lakes. Competition at the national, world, and Olympic level are approximately 1 1/4 miles. Masters competitions are about 5/8 to 3/4 mile. Most sprint courses are divided into six buoyed lanes allowing six crews to participate at one time.  The race begins when all boats are aligned at the start.  The crews start at once, but the first crew whose bow crosses the finish line wins the race.


Basic Techniques

These are the things to observe

Continuous fluid motion: The rowing motion should not have a discernable end or beginning.

Synchronization: Rowers strive for perfect timing performing each part of stroke in unison.

Clean catches of the oar blade: Splashes as the blade enters the water means the blades are not entering the water correctly.

Even feathering: As the blades are brought out of the water, they should change from a vertical to a horizontal position and skim the surface of the water at a uniform height.

Source: US Rowing, “Official Regatta Watcher's Guide"

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:15

Whistle Blower

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The predicaments that follow most whistle-blowers are many and have far reaching effects on their lives.   Most of them end up losing their jobs and having it difficult to secure another job in the future. Others have to seek refugee or asylum in other countries. This destabilizes their family life, and there are at imminent danger of divorce, home foreclosures, suicides and other psychological problems.  


Most whistle-blowers are treated by most government as enemies of the state and in most cases are sought to be prosecuted.   However, whistle-blowers play a crucial role in exposing fraud, social injustices, integrity issues, sexual harassment, misuse of power and many other social evils that should be condemned with strongest terms possible.


The predicament that faces whistle-blowers in most cases threatens future whistle-blowers.  Very few people are ready to lose their job and risk being prosecuted for exposing powerful people and government.  However, it is important to know that concealing a social, economic or political in justice amounts to participating in it.  Before blowing the whistle, it is crucial to assess the damage the act you are revealing on the affected people and the likelihood that things will change after you expose the evils.  Most of the whistle-blowers who expose sensitive issues such as matters of national security are usually threatened and in some cases prosecuted. However, it is imperative to study for the voiceless and powerless by exposing social injustices such as sexual harassment.


The key point behind deciding whether to expose anything is the repercussion and effects the act will have on you and the populace you are trying to protect. It is important to remember freedom was obtained through sacrifice of some people.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 20:08

Stereotyping

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Introduction
Stereotyping can be defined as the general opinion someone has based on certain traits towards a group of people. Evidence shows that no room exists when dealing with the issue of stereotyping, and the only thing that exists is the assumptions towards traits of a group. Developing a given stereotype requires someone to have an idea, understand characteristics, and traits of the group referred. Studies show that stereotypes are things that are not permanent simply because they can be changed any moment. It should be noted that stereotypes are not always negative there are those which are positive. I will discuss three different stereotypes that I have encountered in life giving some of the effects they have towards others.


Gender Roles
Gender role is one of the stereotypes that I have observed practiced in my family and the community I live. It is generally defined and practiced that men are the heads of the family where they are sole providers of their families and that women are supposed to stay at home and take care of the children. Traditionally, the aspect of gender roles should be observed and respected. Young men are raised in a setting where they are taught to shoot guns and hunt. It is the work of men to train and teach boys on how to become responsible people in the society. Boys are encouraged and taught on how to be active plus they are trained on how to provide security to their families when they grow up. Girls are encouraged to stay with their mothers where they are taught on homely activities.
The society does not encourage girls to participate in sports activities or anything that relates to athletic. The argument developed by the society for girls not to engage in sports activities is that girls are not stronger than boys plus they are the weaker sex. I my view, I see this as flawed reasoning because boys and girls have the same potential thus they should be allowed to pursue and engage in activities they want. The issue of gender role and participation has a negative effect on women because they feel discriminated although this issue is currently degrading, (Mossier, 2011).

Homeless Community

The aspect on how people regard the homeless community is another type of stereotype that I have frequently encountered. The community I live has poor people who encounter or experience challenges in their life. ‘The Contributor’ is a publication published in our community, which is sold, by the less fortunate people on street corners. Purchasing this publication costs a dollar where sellers have a given percentage that they are allowed to keep. It’s my tradition to budget for the purchase even if am not going to read the paper. The main reason for this is to support the group so that they can try and meet their daily needs. In a recent discussion, we had with my neighbors I was amazed by their reaction after they realized that I support this people.
They believe that these people are lazy and they only beg money on street corners instead of looking for real jobs out there. In my view, there are many people who are homeless due to different reasons. My argument is that most of them are homeless not because they are lazy bums. Most people who do not support or fail to donate to these people have a notion that they are a drug addict, alcoholic, and lazy. Although this argument is valid, in my opinion I think they are those who are genuinely homeless and need our assistance. This notion may affect people who are ill, mentally affected, and those who lost their jobs because of many reasons. This kind of stereotyping can prevent the society from helping those who are not well and giving to charities, (Herbert, 2008).

Racial Discrimination and Prejudice

The last type of stereotyping I will discuss that I have seen is that of racial discrimination and prejudice. This mostly affects the African American community unlike in the other set of people. Recently we planned to go for a trip with my friends as it has been our tradition. One of our friends planned to come with his friend and the group had no problem with the friend’s thought. It was until we realized that the person to be invited was an African American that concern developed from all angles (including myself). The main problem was not that the person was black American but due to the fact that the place we were visiting is referred to be honky Tonk and we felt he would not love the kind of music played there. Everyone thought that the person would feel out of place and never enjoy it because the place only plays country music. It was not in order for all of us to think that he would not love country music because he was an African American person. The concern was innocent, but it eventually turned to be wrong simply because the person came with us and had the best time and enjoyed every second we spent with him, (Holmberg, 2010).


Reference:

Herbert, W. (2008). The Neurology of Stereotypes. Retrieved from, http://www.pschologicalscience.org/onlyhuman/2008/04/neurology-of-stereotypes_24.cfm, On June 17, 2013
Holmberg, C.B. (2010) Stereotypes and Stereotyping. In Encyclopedia of American Studies. Retrieved from, http://www.credoreference.com/entry/jhueas/stereotypes_and_stereotyping, On June 17, 2013
Mossier, K. (2011). An Introduction to Logic. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:51

Fallacies

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Fallacies

A fallacy is considered as a kind of error in reasoning. Fallacies are not supposed to be persuasive, but they are normally persuasive. Fallacies can be used in indicating any false belief or a cause of a false belief. Arguments that use poor reasoning are usually referred to as fallacies (Hurley, 2008). There are different fallacies, but this paper will focus on two types of fallacies, which are fallacies of false cause and fallacies of accident.


Fallacies of false cause
A fallacy of false cause is normally committed when the conclusion is resting on the assumption of a causal link existing between two phenomena when all that is shown is a correlation. This fallacy tends to improperly conclude that one thing is usually the cause of another. It is usually committed when an argument is mistakenly used in establishing a causal connection (Engel, 1994). According to the false cause fallacy, it has two kinds, which are post hoc ergo propter hoc. This is a fallacy of arguing that an event has caused another event to happen because it just occurred after the event. An example of this fallacy can be since hair comes before the growth of teeth in children, the growth of hair is the cause to the growth of teeth.

The second kind of fallacy of false cause is non causa pro causa. This is a fallacy of making a mistake concerning the attribution of some cause of the effect. The form of a false cause is that phenomenon X occurs after which Y occurred (Engel, 1994). A good example of a false cause is that Minister Willy raised taxes and then the rates of crimes increases. Therefore, Willy is responsible of the increase in crimes. An increase in the taxes could result to the rise in rates of crime, but the argument does not indicate how one caused the other. Therefore, a way that the fallacy of false cause can be avoided, it is necessary for the arguer to provide an explanation of the process that the increase in taxes resulted to increase in crime rates. In order to avoid committing the fallacy of false cause, it is important to provide an explanation.


Fallacy of accident

According to the fallacy of accident it is usually committed by an argument which tends to apply a general rule to a certain case where some special circumstances make the rule be inapplicable. A fallacy of accident usually start with a statement of some principle which is normally true as a general rule, but it goes wrong when applying the principle in a specific case which is a typical or unusual in some way. An example of a fallacy of accident is Thou shall not kill; therefore, people should not fight for their countries. When using this fallacy, people usually think from general to something that is specific (Engel, 1994). This fallacy usually arises from people believing the general premise that has a qualified meaning that apply in all circumstances with no restriction. An example to illustrate this is that United States is a true democracy; therefore, criminals and also children are supposed to be allowed to vote. This means that criminals and children should not be restricted to vote. Fallacy of accident is usually committed when a person apply generalization to a case that is irrelevant.

Difference

The fallacy of accident and fallacy of false cause have nothing in common. These are two fallacies, which are extremely different. The fallacy of accident is completely different as in its use it usually applies the principle or a general rule to a certain case. On the other hand, the fallacy of false cause usually argues that an event has caused another event to happen because it just occurred after the event. The fallacy of accident is based on a principle while the fallacy of false cause is based on the occurrence of a certain event.
The logical form of the fallacy of accident is that X is an accepted and common rule; therefore, there is no exception to X. An example for this fallacy is that I believe that people are never supposed to deliberately hurt other people, and this is the reason as to why I will never become a surgeon. The logical form of fallacy of false cause is phenomenon X occurs after which Y occurred. This means that X caused Y. An example is that, every time you come to visit me, I feel sick. Therefore, the sickness is caused by your visit. This means that I might feel better if you did not visit me.

Fallacy of equivocation

The fallacy of equivocation normally occurs when a key phrase or term in an argument is used in a way that is ambiguous where one meaning is in one portion of the argument and another meaning in another portion (Marenborn 2007). This occurs when a phrase with more than one possible meaning is being used in different senses of an argument. When a fallacy of equivocation is committed, the conclusion is usually drawn as if there is only one meaning that existed (Jacob, 2012). For instance, exciting books are rare, and rare books are usually expensive. Therefore, exciting books are expensive. This is an excellent example of fallacy of equivocation. The two portions of the statement are factual whether the word rare has two distinct and similar meanings.

Another example to describe this fallacy is Tom claim to believe Thou shall not kill commandment. However, Tom eats meat that usually involves killing animals, and he also eats carrots for his food. The conclusion to this premise is that Tom is a hypocrite who is violating a rule that he claims to believe. The word Kill is an equivocation. When looking at the commandment, thou shall not kill refers to killing people where it can be translated as murder forbidding wrongful killing or illegally killing people. Therefore, this commandment is not violated by killing plants and non human animals. In order to spot fallacy of equivocation, a person is required to be sensitive to the many meanings and the subtle nuances that the phrase or word can have.


Fallacy of amphiboly

A fallacy of amphiboly is an error in fallacy or logic which tends to arise from misunderstanding or ambiguity because of grammar and usually through wrong choice of a word or punctuation (Jacob, 2012). A fallacy of amphiboly can be utilized on purpose or it might happen accidentally because of a language that is used without editing, or hastily. The nature of the fallacy of amphiboly is ambiguity meaning that the argument that is supported by the fallacy can be argued against through addressing the different possible meanings. This fallacy can be used to great comedic effect as it plays an ambiguity for purposes of comedic. Comedians are considered as often using the fallacy of amphiboly as the ambiguity can be used in creating the comedy in a joke (Marenborn 2007). The improper use of pronouns and punctuations is normally responsible of causing the fallacy of amphiboly.

A good example that can be used in showing the fallacy of amphiboly is the statement the surgeon wanted to operate the patient, but he was not ready. The word ‘he’ in this statement is ambiguous, which could refer to the patient or the surgeon. The word has a tremendous effect on the meaning of this sentence. This is a statement that has two meanings, and it can easily result to an argument or debate where the ambiguous pronoun has masked the real meaning of the sentence.


Difference

The fallacy of amphiboly can be similar to the fallacy of equivocation although there is a difference between these two fallacies. The fallacy of amphiboly normally occurs because of grammatical problem, which tend to create the possibility of confusion or ambiguity. On the other hand, fallacy of equivocation is ambiguity which occurs because of the poor choice of word. This ambiguity happens when a person uses a word that he feels has a particular meaning that may have numerous meanings, which can be used to point out the weaknesses in a certain argument. The fallacy of equivocation and amphiboly create ambiguous meanings in a statement, and they should be clarified as part of the argument.


Reference

Marenborn, J (2007). The many roots of medieval logic BRILL
Hurley, P (2008). A concise introduction to logic Cengage Learning
Jacob, V (2012). Informal logical fallacies University Press of America
Engel, M (1994). Fallacies and pitfalls of language Dover publications

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:31

Relevance of Logic Reasoning

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It’s with no doubt that human decision making involves expression, cognition, perception, and mind sensory mechanism among others. Humans will often remember, think, feel the reason in an adaptive way, and perceive things in different ways. In the everyday life activities, we encounter situations and problems that call for sound decisions. In order to arrive at such sound decisions, we are encouraged to apply the concept of reasoning and logic that assists in realizing desired results.


This is an indication why reasoning and logic concepts are relevant in human life. Apart from making decisions, evidence shows that there are other reasons why we need reasoning and logic in our lives. The areas where we require logic includes moral, philosophical, and theoretical decision making. Studies show that logic is based on the concepts of deduction which forms the strategies of exact inference. The study of correct reasoning and logic applies the use of reasoning and language, (Hookway, 2006).

Logic is useful in human life because it enables people use sound concepts when carrying out their everyday activities. Based on the tested evidence, the most obvious reason why logic is relevant to everyday life is due to the fact that it helps to improve arguments that one uses in the society. You should be keen when addressing people because logically unsound arguments or reasoning affects how people take or listen what you have. Logic assists us in developing logically sound arguments that are likely to convince the situation we are addressing because people we see that we have valid points. This will help you get supporters who agree with you hence you get an opportunity to pass information to the target audience. Even if the audience you are addressing have no clue on the use of logic, they will understand something is wrong if your arguments are unsound hence disagree with what points you put across, (Zinn & Manfredo, 2011).

Logic is relevant in our daily lives simply because it helps us improve the ability to understand and get things from others. Someone who has no idea about logic and reasoning have a high chance of being cheated or perceive wrong information. Logic helps us evaluate the ideas and arguments put across by others and as a result, decide on whether the other person has sound ideas.
If the points presented, are not valid and logic we are able to decide on what to do next despite the convincing power of that person. If we are able to know how sound arguments are developed and how they are presented, helps us find if we are in a sound argument thus operate in a sound decision setting. Logic and reasoning help us find out how some audience are won out by arguments that are neither sound nor relevant based on the setting of their situations, (Moore, et al., 1995).


Although difficult and challenging, it is not easy to realize arguments that are sound in our environment. This is due to the fact that there are arguments around us that are dependent based on acceptance and attention among other things. In making arguments for other people, we use logic and reasoning in crafting ideas that will be accepted. It is also the concept of reasoning and logic audience use in evaluating what is presented before they come to a conclusion that they believe has a weight. Apart from demonstrating that an argument is logic and fit in the conversation, one is supposed have the acceptance concept and have grounds on why the acceptance of the idea plus has the ability to defend his or her stand. It is through reasoning and logic we are able to reject some arguments presented to us simply because we evaluate and lack their credibility. With the help of logic concept we manage to challenge those who present arguments that have no sound basis, (Knorpp, 1997).

Reasons for Taking Course in Logic

Taking a course in logic helps you in improving your reasoning skills and how you evaluate arguments in your everyday activities. Logic courses are relevant in someone’s life simply because they give the opportunity to have sound decision making grounds that do not allow someone get trapped by cheap arguments that are logically unsound. Taking logic courses will help teach you on how to develop sound arguments. This is arrived at because you get to learn basic rules required in developing logic arguments. It helps one learn things new and that are already known that helps in crafting what is required in developing arguments that are sound and relevant. Learning a course in logic helps you in developing clear and sound arguments that people understand what you are talking about and presenting, (Dickinson, 2008).

If you want to learn about fallacies that are formal and informal in order to establish a foundation of evaluating arguments, taking a logic course will help. Learning logic helps you understand fallacies and how to avoid them. It helps improve your ability of avoiding fallacies when making sound decisions and also making arguments that are useful to the target group. The fewer fallacies you make and encounter when developing decisions that better for your ideas because they will have a solid foundation and they will be accepted by your people, (Moore, et al., 1995).

We often rely on appeals to emotion for the sake of persuading people rather than providing argument. This is a problematic simply because we do not value the concept of logic and reasoning. It is a weakness that people have developed in their everyday activities that instead of providing arguments that are sound they rely on appeals. People who are to be persuaded, on the other hand have a weakness simply because they do not want arguments rather they want people who use the approach of appeals.
The problem behind this is that we forget that arguments helps and ensure that sound decisions are constructed. It prevents in the use of sound ideas thus end up convincing people on things that are not real. When developing ideas and arguments for certain situations we should be able to see the difference between emotional and logical appealing. We should not rely on emotions that arose from people for the purpose of convincing rather we should focus on the concept according to reason, evidence, and conclusions that develop from the arguments, (Hookway, 2006).


Reference:
Dickinson, S (2008). Understanding the emotional and coping responses of adolescent. International Journal Of Advertising, 27(2), 251-278
Hookway, C. (2006). Reasons for Belief, Reasoning, Virtues. Philosophical Studies, 130(1), 47-70. doi:10.1007/s11098-005-3233-1
Knorpp, W. (1997). The relevance of logic to reasoning and belief revision: Harman on 'Change in View.'. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 78(1), 78
Moore, D. J., Harris, W. D., & Chen, H. C. (1995). An Individual Difference Response to Advertising Appeals. Journal Of Consumer Research, 22(2), 154-164
Zinn, H. C., & Manfredo, M. J. (2011). An Experimental Test of Rational and Emotional Appeals. Leisure Sciences, 22(3), 183-194. doi:10.1080/01490409950121852

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:29

False Memory

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False Memory
False memory is a phenomenon that is characterized by the recollection of facts that are not accurate among individuals. Schacter (2012) is one of the studies the researchers that have explored this phenomenon of false memory. Schacter (2012) suggests that false memory is usually as a result of the constructive nature of the human memory. The human memory does not reproduce the exact information that was acquired. The memory usually reconstructs this information using a person’s existing knowledge, paradigm and values. Schacter (2012) argues that, at times, this construction process results in the distortion of information leading to the development of false memory.


The human memory has adaptive capabilities that enable it to function effectively. The adaptive capability enables the memory to align new information with existing paradigms and knowledge. Schacter (2012) studies suggest that the distortion of information, which characterizes false memory, is a function of the memory’s adaptive processes. This article provides evidence that the memory’s people memories can distort information while attempting to adapt to existing and new information including post event miss-information. The article also suggests that imagined memory about events can also lead to the development of distorted memory about the events. It is easy for persons to integrate imagined information while recollecting facts about an event.

Schacter (2012) also suggest that false memory can be distinguished from true memory through functional neuroimaging techniques. False memory usually poses a great challenge in fields such as law while eye witness evidence plays a significant role. Schacter (2012) was interested in finding a strategy that can be used to differentiate false memory from true memory. The article notes that imagined memories and actual memories are processed by separate sub-networks within the memory’s core network. Thus, these memories can be distinguished by examining these sub-networks using imaging techniques.


Reference
Schacter D. (2012). Constructive Memory: Past and Future. Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience. 14 (1): 7- 18

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:22

Application of Exploratory Research

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Application of Exploratory Research
6. Systematic observation
Systematic observation is the process of setting up a study so that bias can be eliminated. The rules decision rules are set up a head of the time of research in order to reduce interference. The observational research is constructed in a manner that if the same study is conducted with someone else under the same circumstances, the same result can be achieved. Therefore, in order to achieve this, the procedure rules that are used in the research must be clearly defined. The context of behavior being studied is essentially put into consideration by accurately harmonizing the subjects that are being studied. For example, if a researcher is testing the hypothesis that males are more to engage in a risky behavior than females, for instance, abusing drugs, it may turn out that there are there are actually more males abusing drugs than females.


However, this may be due to more males that are present in the study than the number of females. Therefore, to obtain an accurate picture, a researcher needs to establish the total number of females and that of males in the study. Eventually, the number the researcher will know the total the participants in the study. Also, specific individuals who take part in the risk must be noted by the researcher this is because a given incident may be reported among a given group of participants, and yet this is due to one or two individuals who repeatedly display the behavior. Therefore, one must always record the individuals’ participants in the study, in addition to counting the number, of times that the group of participants displays a given behavior under study. Quantitative research quantifies a problem by generating numerical data that are transformable into useable statistics. Therefore, data from systematic observation is primarily quantitative because it is obtained through systematic observation of the behaviors of the subjects and such observations quantified by generating numerical data.


7. Coding system, Event Sampling and Time Sampling.
Coding is a symbolic arrangement of data. When information is coded, it means that they can be transmitted in a manner that the individuals who do not have the primary representations of such codes do not understand or interpret the meaning of the data. Moreover, coding enables a researcher to effectively represent a data in an organized and precise manner. Additionally computation of coded data is easy, and expression of the desired actions can be achieved when a can be electronically represented.

Event sampling is a sampling method that enables the researcher to study ongoing processes that vary across and within a naturally occurring environment. The purpose of event sampling is to make the researcher to understand the prevalence of behaviors, to serve an explanatory role and to promote the development of a theory. Frequent sampling of events enables researchers to detect the dynamic and temporal fluctuations of work experiences and measure the topology of an activity. Participants in vent sampling get a chance to record their perceptions and experiences in a paper of an electronic diary, which will eventually allow studies of events that, are difficult to be conducted in a lab, to be effectively studied.

Time sampling is an observation method that allows the observer to gather information about a group of in a short time period. The observer selects a time interval depending on the focus of observation and then carries out an observation on the subjects within the selected time intervals. The time samples are often useful way of collecting information and presenting the observation data over a long time. Short focused snapshots are also used to collect precise data. Moreover, this methodology can be used applied in the observation of behavior of the subject in order to identify the possible concerns. However, the observer should ensure that the subjects are not aware of the observation processes so as enable them to display their natural behaviors.


8. Case Study and how it is used
A case study acts as a descriptive analysis of a research subject. An explanatory case study is normally used to explore causation so as to establish the underlying principles. Case studies may be either prospective or retrospective. A prospective case study is established and fitted with the case that is fitting such criteria whenever they become available. Prospective case studies, on the other hand, are selected based on historical cases that fit the study. Additionally, a case study can be defined as a research strategy because it is an empirical inquiry that is meant to investigate a real phenomenon. Case study research can be multiple or a single case studies and can include quantitative evidence or even relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefit from the existing theoretical propositions. However, case studies should not be confused with qualitative research because they are based on both quantitative and qualitative evidence.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:19

Application of Experimental Research

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Application of Experimental Research
An experimental research is an evaluation that seeks to establish whether a given intervention of program achieved the intended effect on the participants NCTI (2012). An experimental design is the gold standard of research design of a scientific study, and it is, therefore, considered as a standard against, which other researches can be charged. This is because it is through this methodology that a study can be considered valid and of the reliable results. However, many arguments have been raised indicating that experimental design is either insufficient or inappropriate for other forms of research pertaining to cultural or social phenomena.


There is a very clear distinction between experimental and quasi experimental designs. This difference lies on the manner in, which the selection of units of assignment is done. In experimental research, comparability can be precisely established through random assignment. However, the quasi experimental research contrasts the experimental research design it is often employed in settings where groups or people cannot be randomly assigned because of ethical reasons. In such cases, the goals become rich variety. Therefore, quasi experiments can be said to be the type of studies that aim to evaluate intervention without applying randomization. As compared to randomized trials, quasi experiments also aim to demonstrate the relationship between an intervention and an outcome. The important role of random assignment lies on the fact that, in experimental research, it displays assignment units that are not completely equivalent.
This would be typical for social cultural analysis. Therefore, through this, any observed difference can be certainly attributed to the treatment. However, experimental researches that are based on inert materials do not require characteristic randomization procedures; therefore, comparability of test units is assumable because the same materials are applied in various models or the same physical model can be applied in different contexts. Quasi experimental designs apply non-random designs focusing on establishing groups, which exhibit comparable aspects as possible; obvious indicators that display the groups as substantially non equivalent should not exist (Datafen, 2009).

Perhaps, there is a coding system, which is used by an experimental scientist to diagram details of experimental studies. The coding system includes;
R= Random Assignment
O= Observation of Outcome Variables
X= Experimental Treatment

The various treatments that the experimental designs receive lead to comparable observations, which may even occur before or after a treatment. Experimental research can employ a large variety of tactics. The setting may from a highly controllable laboratory to a field site, which is less controllable. The treatment conditions may also range from highly calibrated physical manipulations to nonphysical categorical conditions. Moreover, the measurement outcome variable may range from precise calibrations of physical change, to descriptive behavioral responses.

In terms of strengths and weakness, experimental research presents with the most controversial design, of all the research strategies. Perhaps it has the potential for the establishment of causality and to generalization of results to conform to other phenomena and settings, but it has received criticism in the aspects of efficacy, misapplication, and ethical concerns. It is unrealistic to reduce most real live setting and socio-cultural events to a small set of treatment and outcomes results are subject to bias, and the research subjects are normally placed in a powerless position, therefore, making the experimental research ineffective (Trochim et al, 2007).


References
NCTI (2012). Experimental Study Design. Retrieved From, http://www.nationaltechcenter.org/index.php/products/at-research-matters/experimental-study-design/ On June 20, 2013.
Datafen, (2009). Experimental Research. Retrieved From, http://data.fen-om.com/int460/research-experimental.pdf On June 20, 2013.
Trochim, W. & Donnelly, J., (2007). The Research Knowledge Base, (3r) Edition.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:04

Short Term Memory

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Allen, CM, Martin, RC, & Martin, N. (2012), “Relations between Short-term Memory Deficits, Semantic Processing, and Executive Function”, Aphasiology, 26(3): 428-461

Evidence from prior research suggests separable short-term memory buffers for maintenance of lexical-semantic and phonological information. This stems from the fact that some patients with aphasia demonstrate higher ability for retention of semantic information than phonological information while others show the reverse. Based on recent research information, some scientists hold that deficits to maintenance of semantic information in the short term memory are related to executive control abilities. In this study, the researchers had an aim to investigate the relationship between executive function abilities and phonological short term memory and semantic processing in such patients as certain prior research studies have suggested that semantic short term memory impairment and semantic processing are critically related to executive function deficits, specific or general.


The researchers recruited and tested 20 patients with short term memory deficits and aphasia on measures of short term retention, semantic processing, and executive function tasks, both simple and complex. The study found no relationship between short term memory and performance of executive functions, both simple and complex. However, phonological short term memory was found to be related to performance of executive functions in tasks with a verbal component.
This suggests that some tasks depend on maintaining or rehearsal phonological codes. Even though semantic short-term memory was not found to be related to executive function, the performance on semantic processing tasks was related to executive function. Perhaps, this is due to similar executive task requirements, in both executive function and semantic processing tasks. The implications of the study findings have implications for the interpretation on the influence of executive function in language processing tasks.
Hoffman, P, Jefferies, E., & Lambon Ralph, M. (2010), “Explaining semantic short-term memory deficits: Evidence from the critical role of semantic control”, Neoropsychologia, 49(3): 368-381

Hoffman, Jefferies, and Lambon Ralph sought to explore the proposition that manipulations of semantic control would influence the processing of semantic information in semantic short term memory patients. Semantic short term memory deficits are not selective and can occur as a result of mild disruption to the semantic control processes.

17 semantic short term memory patients were selected to take part in the study with 17 healthy participants with a mean age of 64 years recruited as controls. This study investigated four aspects of semantic control disorders including sensitivity to cues, resolving ambiguity between words, detecting weak semantic associations, and ignoring irrelevant information. All the functions were impaired in conditions requiring semantic control, regardless of the short term demands of the task. This implies existence of a mild, but task-general impairment in regulating semantic knowledge.

Through the re-interpretation of semantic short term memory patients, we can explain r apparent discriminatory deficits without the need for a specialized short term memory store. Instead, the authors conclude that semantic short term memory deficits occupy the mildest end of the spectrum of semantic disorders. This implies that deficits of semantic short-term memories are distinct and can be corrected through rehabilitation through actions that are based on the understanding of the mechanisms of memory tasks, as described in the study.


Jaaskelainen, LP, Ahveninen, J., & Sams, M. (2011), “Short term plastically as a neutral mechanism supporting memory and attentional functions”, Brain Research, 8(1422): 66-81
Many behavioral studies have defined distinct cognitive and perceptual functions in psychology such as short-term memory, sensory memory, and selective attention. However, this study examines and reviews evidence suggesting that some of these pre-defined functions may be supported by shared underlying neuronal mechanisms.

The study uses an integrative review of literature, a hypothetical model in which short term plasticity, in the form of transient center-excitatory and surround-inhibitory modulations form a generic processing principle that supports involuntary attention, sensory memory, selective learning, short term memory, and perceptual learning. This study proposes that there are continuums of memory representations, rather than discrete memory systems, from short-lived memories to conceptual lengthy representations, such as those reported by studies on behavior, with respect to short-term memories.

In conclusion, the researchers review literature about short term plasticity and perceptual and cognitive functions. The conclusions are that short-term plasticity may support both attentional and memory functions. In addition, short-term plasticity may be a prerequisite for perceptual learning. In addition, the findings may imply possible contributions of short term memory and executive function deficits in treatment regimes. In line with prior research evidences, treatment regimes and rehabilitation must be evidence-based


Johnson, S., Marro, J. & Torres, J. (2013), “Robust Short-term Memory without Synaptic Learning”, PLoS One, 8(1): e50276
Short term memory in the brain cannot be explained the same way that long term memory can be explained as a gradual modification of synaptic weights. This is because short term memories happen too quickly. However, theories that are founded on cellular bi-stability do not explain the fact that noisy neurons can store information collectively, in a robust manner. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how a sufficiently clustered network made up of simple-model neurons can be induced instantly into states that are meta-stable and capable of storing information for a short time (a few seconds).

The mechanism is robust depending on different types of networks and neural models. This mechanism can form a viable means available to the brain for short term and sensory memory without the need for symptomatic learning. Phenomena that are relevant to psychology and neurobiology including local synchronization of synaptic inputs emerge naturally from this mechanism. Therefore, this study recommends further experiments to test the viability of the mechanism in a more biological setting. The complexity of the neural models and networks suggests a requirement for additional evidence that can guide in creating effective solutions for rehabilitating intelligence deficits.


Kaushanskaya, M., Marian, V. & Yoo, J. (2011) “Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning”, Acta Psychologica, 137(1): 24-35
In prior research, women perform well on short-term memory tasks better than men. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the gender differences observed in past studies are related to the involvement of long-term memory in the process of learning. The study findings indicated that women out-performed men on phonologically familiar novel or vocabulary words. However, there was no difference as regards phonologically-unfamiliar words.

Margarita Kaushanskaya, Victoria Marian, and Jeewon Yoo performed two experiments using a sample of 68 participants, 34 women and 34 men. The study used a 3-way mixed design to investigate gender difference with respect to vocabulary learning, with respect to recall accuracy and accuracy of recognition. Experiment 1 investigated inter-gender differences in vocabulary learning while experiment 2 used a within-subjects design for the purposes of confirming the findings of experiment 1.
The implication of the study is that women are likely to acquire native-language phonological knowledge involving novel word learning. Perhaps, this explains why girls and ladies are considered to have the capacity to learn more languages faster than boys and men. In school, girls and ladies often score higher than their male counterparts.


Potter, MC (2012), “Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought” Frontiers in Psychology, 3, (113): 1-11
Perception is continuous with cognition. Information is passed from the sense organs to the brain, and undergoes a transformation at every stage, combining with input from other senses, activating memories, which leads to conscious experiences and actions determined by one’s goals. Conceptual short term memory (CTSM) is a construct that express the relationship between perceptual and conceptual processes. It is a mental buffer and processor through which current stimuli and associated concepts from long-term memory are represented briefly enabling meaningful structures or patterns to be identified. CTSM is characterized by its ill-defined capacity and unconsciousness representative of everyday experience.

This paper discusses the qualitative review of evidence of the whole cycle or process involving identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, and consolidation in the long term memory and forgetting of non-structured material. The underlying aim was to review the evidence for such a process and the implications for the relation between perception and cognition.
This study has implications in the understanding of the way in which perception relates to cognition. The conclusion of the discussion helps in gaining knowledge of conception of tasks through the mechanisms and processes of the brain. This is very fundamental for rehabilitation support services, including socialization and interactions that help correct the memory deficits.


Rolls, ET, Dempere-Marco, L, & Deco, G. (2013), “Holding Items in the Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism”, PLoS One, 8(4): e61078
Short term memory has a capacity to maintain several items simultaneously. This study demonstrates the way in which the number of short-term representations that can be maintained through synaptic facilitation similar to the one found in the prefrontal context. The study findings conclude that the system can maintain only a few short-term memories active, in the same network, without synaptic facilitation.
In terms of the study methods, the investigators conducted simulations involving an integrate-and-fire network with 10 short memory populations of neurons. The aim was to maintain the activity of the network during a period of delay after application of a cue.

The research findings have implications for therapeutic actions. Knowledge of how multiple items can be held simultaneously, in the short term memory, is essential for treatment. The findings may have relevance to language implementation in the brain. The study suggests new approaches to gaining knowledge and treating the decline in short-term memory that normally occur with human aging. This is applicable in rehabilitating children with memory depreciation and enhancing their performance in an examination. For instance, this is particularly essential for learners because they are required to recall what they learn in class and answer questions, in examinations and other school activities.


Siegel, M., Warden, MR, & Miller, E.K. (2009), “Phase-dependent neural coding of objects in the short term memory”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 106(50): 21341-21346
Siegel, Warden, and Miller seek to demonstrate that neuronal information about two objects maintained in the short term memory is enhanced at specific levels of underlying oscillatory activity. The ability to maintain multiple items in memory is fundamental to behavioral intelligence. However, its neural basis is relatively not understood. Some researchers have suggested that multiple objects may be help in memory by oscillatory activity in neuronal networks, but there is little direct evidence. The study results suggest that oscillatory neuronal synchronization mediates coding of memorized items in the prefrontal cortex that is phase dependent. Encoding of memorized items at distinct phases might play a role for disambiguating information concerning multiple items in the short term memory.

The experiment was performed on two rhesus monkeys, one female and one male. The monkeys were implanted with head bolt under the effect of anesthesia, according to the standards for animal research. The monkeys performed two-item short term memory tasks. The tasks required the monkeys to remember the tasks after a brief delay. MRI scans were used as recording techniques. In terms of the implications, the study adds to previous research observations that the mean spiking level of the pre-frontal neurons reflects interactions of multiple objects in short-term memory. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that oscillatory synchrony might underlie a phase-dependent neural coding and the proposition that the distinct phase alignment of information relative to population oscillations may play a role of disambiguating individual short term memory items.

Summary and Application

The central theme of these research articles is the role and mechanisms of the short term memory in perception and cognition. While some studies have discussed research evidences on the mechanisms under which multiple items are retained in the brain, others have discussed the specific elements that demonstrate the interaction of multiple objects in the short term memory. This knowledge is particularly important in making sense of essential elements of behavior such as behavioral intelligence. My cousin loved sports and loved studying, as well. She performed in lessons and attained exceptional grades in examinations.
However, her capacity had been deteriorating slowly until last year when she attained her lowest ever grade. She studies but does not perform well in examinations.
The perception, cognition, and maintenance role of the short term memory can explain the deterioration in her examinations. The studies that explain how multiple items can be retained in the short term memory of the brain simultaneously can help in understanding this unique behavior. Perhaps, the findings may have relevance to tasks such as language interpretation in the brain. The study suggests new approaches to gaining knowledge and treating the decline perception and cognition. Researchers have also discussed in some of the articles summarized how mechanisms in the brain can facilitate encoding of memorized items and so help in disambiguating items, in the short term memory.

In preparing the annotated bibliography, I have learnt a lot about short-term memory and associated problems. I now appreciate the different mechanisms that influence the tasks of the brain. The same way that there is a relationship between learning and understanding, there is a relationship between recalling and understanding. When we understand an item of learning we are in a position to recall it better. Gaining knowledge of an item of learning enables us to store the information appropriately, in the long term memory. Knowledge of mechanisms of memory in the short term memory enables us to transform information into the long term memory. According to research evidences, information held in the short term memory can be recalled even after a long term if it is rehearsed adequately. The school studies place much demand on visual and auditory memory, the two subsystems of the short-term memory. The bottom line is the ability to hold multiple items in the short term memory. This is essentially significant for behavioral intelligence, which is a key factor in school learning and performance in examinations.

I am particularly concerned with this topic because the therapy form short term memory treatment cannot be limited to the hospital. Having knowledge of how elements of the short term memory interact can help in contributing to the rehabilitation efforts. In addition, understanding my cousin’s perception, cognition, and recall capabilities can help in determining the problem, possibly. After treatment, it is essential to help the patient to cope with the recovery process so as to return to her sports and class activities. Providing adequate care at home is essential for supporting the psychological input of the professional and ensuring that the patient does not fall back to the status of psychology. The bottom line is that knowledge of the different mechanisms of the way in which perception and cognition occur in the interventions targeted at correcting deficits in tasks, related to the functions.
In conclusion, accurate corrective mechanisms are those that are based on research evidence. This is the principal for all clinical therapeutic practices.

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