Education

Education (11)

Sunday, 23 July 2017 10:21

Online learning VS Face to Face Learning

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Name: Ali Alzaher
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Institution: Butler Community College
El Dorado, Kansas
Address: 2029 N Woodlawn st
Wichita, KS 67208
United States
Date:19/7/2017

Ali Alzaher

Online learning VS Face to Face Learning
Every country is experiencing a growth in their economies and citizens forced to work at the same pace as their economies. Most people today have also made the decision of studying as they work so as to meet their daily needs. Acquiring a degree is a huge decision that does not come easy. Employers require their employees to have more skills which force them to start taking online classes and not the traditional courses. These online courses are also beneficial for adult learners who have to work and accomplish their responsibilities as parents, unlike the traditional classrooms which are more attractive to college students. Research has shown examples of negatives and positives for both classroom and online learning. These studies can help an adult learner in deciding the type of learning environment that suits their skills. However, through this essay, I argue that online learning is the best for learners more than the traditional classroom learning. I will give reasons to show the reasons for online learning is the best option which is the flexibility, a comfortable learning environment, more concentration and interaction ability and the costs are much cheaper than the traditional form of education.
First learners always face distractions as part of their everyday life. For example, they have to wake up early to take their children to school. They may also be required to take their children to the hospital or request a day or two to care for their sick child at home. They also have to come home early to help their kids with homework and prepare dinner for them. Thus generally an adult’s life is filled with responsibilities which they have to accomplish alongside working and progressing in their education. The need to enroll in higher education or courses for new knowledge and skills is a necessity since they desire to move up their current jobs or obtain better jobs.
Karyn Donahue (2008) in his book “The Patriot Ledger, indicates that career advancement is one of the major results that motivate adult learners. He adds that furthering their education does not only help the adult learner to have a better career but it is also a means whereby a parent sets a good example to her children that education is a vital part of life. Donahue, also states that “adult learners are always into the quality for the tuition dollars they pay and are motivated to achieve in every course. It is unlike their traditional counterparts who are eighteen to twenty years old who are happy to attend classes and pass their grades” (para 4).
Adult learners have an extensive life experience and can apply their knowledge in an education career. Therefore, most adult learners will prefer online learning due to being many positive reasons especially in its flexibility that suits their busy lifestyles. Online education, therefore, gives learners the freedom to schedule their classes as per their working time. It is not the case of the traditional education a student is required to attend every class in person (E-Skills UK, 2007). Class attendance makes sense to students who live in campus dorms and for students in need of experiencing the campus life. However, for the working people, this traditional form of education does not suit their needs especially those who want to advance their education while caring for their families (Simmers, Alexander & Tiffany 237).
Online learning offers a more comfortable learning environment than the traditional learning. Commercials have displayed how online students study in pajamas at the comfort of their couches or beds. Also, the online learning does not have those physical class sessions like the case of traditional education. The lecturers send material to students electronically. The student is supposed to read these materials and complete their assignments without the need to attend class. Also, online students do not have to leave work early or fight traffic to attend classes online like the case of students attending traditional classes. They also do not have to miss an essential time with their families or search for the right parking places. All these hassles are not for online students. All they need to do is to learn at their own pace and within the comfort of their homes (Simmers, Alexander & Tiffany 241). Students in a class setting do not feel comfortable to speak in a large classroom and are easily judged to lack motivation or lack participation. Thus classroom learners are faced with challenges every single day (Blumfeld, 2010)
A third reason for supporting online learning is that it provides concentration as well as more interaction. Evidence on the rate of traditional student participation versus the participation of students in online education has always been contradictory. However, the well-known fact is that online education provides students who are more shy and reticent with an opportunity to engage actively in class discussions and chats with much more ease unlike face to face discussions (Woolley-Wilson, 2012). Also, online students have reported that it is easier to concentrate when taking online courses since they are free from any sorts of distraction from other students or class activities (Simmers, Alexander & Tiffany 234).
A fourth reason for supporting online learning is that online courses are much more affordable than the traditional education. The net tuition fees for online education are much less than traditional education. The traditional education requires not just the tuition fee but also has its associated costs such as commuting costs, uniforms, course materials like textbooks which are not necessary for online learning. For online learning, learning materials are available online for free. Also, most colleges accept credits earned from the extensive on online courses. The credits are the advance from online education. These free online courses earned via credits assist students in accomplishing their educational requirements at no or much less costs (Simmers, Alexander & Tiffany 246).
I also find online learning to be better because online classes are highly beneficial to students and teachers. The limited distractions in the classrooms such or students coming late or delays in starting the class are not present in online learning, however, with online learning students for controlling their environment. Also, teachers of online education can send the assignment to a student through the written works. Thus with written message, it eliminates chances of a student becoming confused about the assignment’s instructions (Leng, 12). For classroom learning, a topic can get off track when students start to air their opinion leading to confusion and time wastage.
Therefore for the case of online learning, a student receives information from his teacher making it much easier and more convenient. Also, teachers do provide their contact information online, so when a student fails to understand a certain topic, he or she can send an email, or meet the instructor, or call the instructor to clarify. Therefore learning becomes easier and convenient. Also, online learning can support a large number of students without affecting the overall quality of learning. However, for traditional learning, a large number of students is a negative thing. Also, schools that offer online learning do not incur the extra cost of building more facilities for the high demand of students enrolling for educations (Charlotte, 12).
Online learning is also highly effective in the sense that a student has a chance to find answers to topics rather than waiting for them to be handed to them through discussions with other students or lectures. Thus, online learning requires students to search for answers to their assignment actively. They have to use discussion boards and their resources to find answers. This independent learning enables a student to remember more than the information handed to them. Studies have also shown that students taking online classes perform much better than those taking the same courses through the traditional learning of face-to face (Visser, 177).
Conclusion
Thus this essay has shown the various reasons on why online learning is much better than the traditional approach of learning. The online learning is earlier and convenient to attend. These online classes fit the need of learners with needs and those with minimal cash; there are also fewer hassles accompanying attending of online classes such as lack of traffic hams, or lack of vehicles to commute daily. Also, others have to work while attending classes/. Online learning is also desirable for disabled who are freed from the hassles of attending classroom physically. They also have a wide range of learning kits that fits their disabilities. The same is also true for the shy people and those with medical reasons that make them feel uncomfortable being around other students in a traditional face to face class room.

Work Cited

Blumenfeld, P.C. (2010) learning in classroom and motivation expanding and clarifying goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 272. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/210948186?accountid=8289
Charlotte, N.C. Information Age Pub, 2012. EBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 15 April. 2014
Donahue, K. (2008, May 14). Adult learners have motivated students. The Patriot Ledger, 6
Innovative Higher Education 29.3 (2005): 233-250.
Leng, P. E-Learning Specialist Group Meeting. 2010 . http://www.bcs.org/content/ConWebDoc/36217
Summers, J., Waigandt, A., and Tiffany A. Whittaker. A student achievement and satisfaction in an online versus a traditional face-to-face statistics class.
Visser, Lya. Issues and trends in Distance education: International Perspectives
Woolley-Wilson, J. (2012). Blending technology and classroom learning: Jessie Woolley-Wilson at TEDx Rainier. Retrieved from http://wwyoutube.com/watch?v=o0TbaHimigw

Annotated Bibliography
Visser, Lya. Issues and Trends in Distance education: International Perspectives.
Visser in this study shows statistical evidence for the performance of online students. The findings from this study support the point that online students performed better than students in traditional classes learning the same course.
Charlotte, N.C. Information Age Pub, 2012. EBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 15 April. 2014
This article examines the positive impact of technology in education especially the benefits of the online learning system.
Summers, Jessica J., Waigandt, A, and T. Whittaker. Comparison of student achievement and satisfaction in an online versus a traditional face-to-face statistics class. Innovative Higher Education 29.3 (2005): 233-250.
Summers and colleagues examine the difference between traditional classroom learning and online distance learning. Results show no significant difference between the two forms of learning.
Blumenfeld, P (2010) Classroom learning and motivation expanding goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 272. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/210948186?accountid=8289
Blumenfield in his article discusses the challenges which classroom learners face. He says that most students who are shy and do not speak in class can judge as students who lack motivation or do not want to participate. I agree with his view that such students have no power to control their learning environment and are not comfortable with such students. Thus the traditional learning environment is always filled with tensions and distractions from other learners who are not the case for online learning.
Woolley-Wilson, J (2012) Blending classroom learning with technology. Jessie Woolley-Wilson at TEDx Rainier. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.comatch?v=o0TbaHimigw
Woolley-Wilson, 2012 Talk about the disadvantage of classrooms for an adult learner. He says that adults have a busy learner and also for slower learners they might get lost in the traditional face to face classroom. However, he states that with online learning student gets what they need at a time they need to suit the flexible schedule of an adult learner.
Leng, P. E-Learning Specialist Group Meeting. 2010. http://www.bcs.org/content/ConWebDoc/36217

Leng is the e-learning unity director at the University of Liverpool. He states that most people assume that online learning is always impersonal yet this is not the case. It supports his point of view because online learning enables fast communication among all those involved. Learners can communicate through forum posts, or emails which enable students to be open minded to a wide range of topics.
E-Skills UK (2007),
The E-Skills UK (2007) article indicates that online learning is beneficial to adult learners. It shows that e-learning enables adults with a busy lifestyle to juggle learning with their other family and work responsibilities. This article, therefore, supports the idea that adult learners can attend classes even when they have to go to a mandatory parent’s day or a business trip.
Donahue, K. (2008, May 14). Adult learners have motivated students. The Patriot Ledger, 6
Innovative Higher Education 29.3 (2005): 233-250.
Donahue talks about the motivation of adult learners of advancing their careers as their main goal in enrolling in higher learning. I support the author in her comment that adult learners understand well the essential role of education in their lives more than the younger ones.

 

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:43

Action Research

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Appropriateness of Action Research

Action research is a vital professional development and enhances classroom practice. Action research assists students to gain thinking and learning skills, boosts self esteem, and attitudes towards the support of long term learning. The action research assists in evidence based learning through the provision of explicit documentation of educational possibilities. Action research aims to change processes, document context of a resultant theory and learning in the development of pedagogies in my faculty. Teachers use action research to reach an understanding of a shared teaching theory through research practice (Brown, 2002).


Dick (2006) shows the trends and themes of action research literature. He shows that the type of learning and research in Assessment and general practice helps to ensure that intervention in informed by considering the theoretical principles. Therefore, the action research is appropriate for my filed for it has its epistemological strengths (Dick, 2006). Action research is not concerned with the provision of empirical generalizable results or hypothesis testing. It is a systematic reflection on learning and teaching.

Action research is used to meet educational responsibilities that aim to improve classroom practices. Nolen and Putten (2007) show that Action research influences teachers in their instructional practices, and this leads to positive thinking of teaching practices. Action research contributes to reflective practices, teaching practices, improving teacher’s knowledge and the overall role of a teacher. Action research gives teachers a methodical structure for analyzing and implementing the learning and teaching process (Nolen & Putten 2007, p 38 -50).

Action research is also applicable whenever there is a need for practical and relevant knowledge in the field of social sciences. Action research acts as a bridge between the daily applications and academic research (Nolen & Putten 2007, p 38 -50). It is a practical method which educators can use to reflect their own teaching practices.

Action research in education helps to boost the collective interests of education administrators, parents and teachers. Through action research, they gain the confidence that they connect academic research to their daily lives. This is because action research helps in transforming knowledge into a meaningful aspect (Ferrance, 2000).

Teaching has its downside of being in isolation. However, through action research, teachers can work as teams or pairs in describing their teaching strategies and styles and also share thoughts. Working in teams helps educators to examine the range of learning activities, instructional strategies and curricular materials that are appropriate for their classrooms.

Action research is vital in bringing about school change. Action research assist in address the district and school concerns as a whole and not the individual teachers concerns. This process leads to the creation of new patterns of sharing, communication and collegiality. This way, teachers form collaboration based on effective communication in bringing about the needed change. Through action research, teachers can closely examine their areas of interest in viewing leaning in a new way of thinking so to generate alternative ways of instructions.


Finally, Donato (2003) indicates that action research assist teachers to undertake leadership roles within their own contexts of teaching. The teacher researchers undertake action research so as to find information on how schools operate, how they can each and the learning of students. These contexts are relevant in the education field for action research plays a vital role in the development of reflective practice, gaining insight and positive change to the school environment (Donato, 2003).


Reference
Brown, B (2002) Improving teaching practices through action. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Dick, B. (2006) Action research literature 2004-2006 Action Research, 4 (4), 439-458
Donato, R (2003). Action research. ERIC Digest
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Brown University.
Nolen, A & Vander Putten, J (2007). Action research in education. Educational Researcher, 36 (7), 401-407.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 16:43

Designing Research

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Survey Design:
Purpose;
This project finds out how well the teachers of a community-based After School program are equipped with skills and knowledge of working with students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders and Autism.
Survey method: The survey method is vital for this study for it provides numeric and quantitative description of opinions, attitudes and trends of the studied population sample. The survey will be a cross-sectional study by use of structured interviews and questionnaires for the collection of data. This is with the goal of generalizing the findings from the population sample (Creswell, 2009).


Cross-sectional study
This cross-sectional study is an observational research whereby, the researcher records information concerning the subjects without having to manipulate the environment o f study. This study will involve recording on the issues that gauge the knowledge and skills of after school teachers of after school programs in handling students with behavioral emotional disorder and autism.

Methods of data collection

A. Self-administered questionnaire; the cost will involve that of administration and preparation. Online surveys are costly that this will mean that I personally visit the community based. The limitation is that there can be unclear answering. Advantage is the clear view and opinions of participants concerning the skills of after-school programs.
B. Structured reviews: many steps are undertaken in structured reviews and this means high costs. Time is taken for fieldwork, sampling, data analysis and approvals. The advantage is that it compares the redundancy of the study with other studies (Cozby, 2012).
C. Interviews; advantage is that it provides overviews of the problem of study through one to one communication. Can be less costly when done face to face.
D. Structured observations with observations the researcher will not participate in undertaking interactions. The researcher might fail to capture his view of participants. Advantage is that the researcher is unlikely to influence the participants in their real life environment (Creswell, 2009).


Population and Sample:
The sample will involve 4 community-based after-school programs. 10 teachers will be included in the study. Parents of students with autism and behavioral disorder will also be selected to participate. Eight Administrators of these after School program will be selected.


Single or multistage
This is a single study whereby I will access the names of the sample population.
Random versus convenience

This study will deal with participants who are readily and conveniently available. I will consider ways of minimizing variables since they will have an impact on the results (Creswell, 2009).
Stratification
The unique characteristics (male and female) of participants are included and representative of the whole population. Other characteristics for stratification include education, income levels, and gender (Cozby, 2012).


Instrumentation
The survey instrument used is pilot testing. The survey will test the opinions of after school administrators, teachers, and parents. No electronic method like Survey monkey will be used.
Content validity will consider the concurrent/ predictive validity to ensure that the results correlate with other similar studies. The construct validity will be achieved by ensuring that the hypothetical concepts and constructs are measured.
Piloting survey will help to measure the content validity and lead to the improvement of scales, format and items (Shah & Corley, 2006).
Variables
Dependent variables Training of teachers/ improving communication, lack of facilities for students with disabilities, and lack of facilities for students with disabilities

Intervening variable: poor academic performance, and lack of social skills among students with autism and EBD.
Independent variable: Equipping after school programs.


Reference
Shah S, & Corley, K (2006) Building better theory by bridging the qualitative and quantitative divide. Http://faculty.Washington.edu/skshah/Shah
Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159

Thursday, 24 March 2016 15:56

Hypothesis

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Unit of analysis
1. Population size
The participants will include twenty-five general education teachers of six communities based after school programs with an experience of working with students with special needs. The community based programs are located in five states in the United States, which are Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Kentucky, New York and Ohio. The participants are female and males aged between twenty to fifty years. Another set of participants will be the six after-school program leaders, 60 parents of students will special needs and 10 students suffering from emotional and Behavioral disorders and autism. These are students who are able to communicate and understand the requirements of this study.


2. Sampling technique
The snowball sampling will be used in recruiting participants (Creswell, 2009).

3. Procedure for sampling approach

The researchers will give surveys to participants to complete and further identify other appropriate individuals to be part of the study. The population will not have gatekeepers based on the type of recruitment. All participants will be given informed consent before carrying out the survey. They will also on the benefit of the study towards community teaching and improving services and education offered to students with emotional behavioral disorders and autism in after-school programs. The participants will also be informed about the risks involved in the study. This will help them have the liberty of withdrawing at any point of the study and that their refusal to participate will not have any impact on future services to the community.
The participants were also informed that their contributions will remain discrete, and no personal information, such as their names will be mentioned in the findings. This means that their identity will remain anonymous. The consent will also inform the participants that their contributions will be in a safe place for only the researcher to use and destroyed immediately after analysis. They will be free to contact the researcher at any time they have concerns and questions (Cozby, 2012).


Reference
Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159

Thursday, 17 March 2016 06:45

Characteristics of a Research Problem.

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Research is the wheel that drives technological, scientific, educational, and business advancement. Through the intruding process of research, human beings have been able to solve some of the most dogmatic issues in life. This paper explores some of the characteristics of a good research problem, researchable problem, components of Statement of Research Problem and theoretical framework.
A quality research problem is the basis of a successful research. In broad terms, there are two types of research questions, those that relates to the state of nature and those which relate to t relationships between variables. Some of the fundamental characteristics of a good problem statement include:


The problem of interest should be interesting and intriguing to the researcher. The researcher should select a topic that is worthy their time and resources. The researcher should choose a topic that will add to the existing knowledge or create a new area of exploration. The findings of the study should be relevant to human beings or the society. It is crucial for students to know that their topic of choice will also reflect on their resume.
The researcher should ensure the problem is connecting to the overall goal of the research. The answer to the problem should meet the goal of the research. The selected problem should pose questions that can be answered scientifically or those other means. It is crucial for students to avoid questions that are abstract and too broad. It is imperative o be specific while selecting or
The problem should be stated plainly and succinctly. The problem must be defined unambiguously for that help discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones. A clearly stated problem statement ensures the researcher has a strong foundation of the research. The problem should be described in grammatically correct sentences that are precise and easy to understand. A lot of care must to take to ensure the background and facts concerning the problem to ensure objectivity and validity.

The second important characteristic of a good problem is that it must be feasible. The researcher should select practical ideas. Practicability of the problem is crucial in determine the feasibility of the study. The research should ensure that the research is not only financially viable but also methodologically. It is crucial for the researcher to state precisely what he or she intends to study or investigate. They should not make assumptions that the reader is abreast of the study. The choice of words should be precise and clear to a layman.

The problem should be able to raise a number of specific research questions. This turns the problem into a question format and presents various aspects or components of the problem. Singling out the research problem is one of the most fundamental set in the breakdown of the main question into several questions makes it easy to address and provide a framework for the research?

Any topic worthy commitment of resources should be a problem that is relevant to human beings. The research problem a researcher decides to solve should be have adequate literature review to help in developing a theoretical framework. The problem should be feasible within the resources of a researcher. A research problem can be fined tuned to make appropriate. A researcher should conduct a detailed literature review. This will enable him or her to generate as many questions about the topic as possible. The researcher should visualize the problem in a holistic manner. He or she should analyze the problem and concepts under investigation critically. He should investigate overview all aspects of the problem including literature review, data collection and analysis, and interpretation of results. A well-stated problem relates to a literature review. It often relates to a well-defined body of literature, written by a group of researchers and published in a small number of journals. In some instances, there are insufficient data to address the problem. Students should select to topics/problems that will not give them a lot of challenge in accessing relevant data. They should look for existing databases to offer them detailed and wide literature resources. As well as being grounded in discipline, a good research problem generally relates to some sort of standard methodology. This might be historical, or comparative or empirical, but it should build on the strengths of the investigator (Anderson, 2002).


There is a need for a student to select a problem that addressed in statistics when the student is not comfortable with statistics. A researchable problem should be new i.e. students should not select topics/problems that have been discussed exhaustively.
According to Hartas (2010), what constitutes a researchable problem is influenced by a, complex dialectical, process linking the researcher’s identity, position and experience with their understanding of themselves, their work and relationship with the society. This relationship is both an individual level and social one involving the researcher in different roles as a student, practitioner, parent and a community, that forms of social interaction that predispose the researcher to an interest in what is happening in the society.

In the process of reviewing the literature, a research comes across a lot of literature. This literature can be used to develop a theoretical framework. The primary purpose of a theoretical framework is to offer an explanation of a phenomenon, its nature, challenges and experiences that shape its existence. The researcher uses the literature to either proof or disapproves his theory or thesis. Theoretical framework provides the researcher with a coherent outlined problem to build his argument. Theoretical framework helps the researcher to breakdown the main research question into simpler questions or sub-problems. This helps the researcher to chance to have a thorough analysis of each of the concept or idea in his or her research. It is crucial for the researcher to distinguish sub-problem from pseudo sub-problems, which may divert his or her attention.


Theoretical framework of any study consists of concepts, their definitions, and existing theories that are used in the study. An effective theoretical framework must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of theories and concepts that are pertinent to the area of study. Theories developed should be based on appropriateness, simplicity of application and its explanatory. If appropriately used, theoretical framework can strengthen the study in several ways. It connects the research with the existing knowledge and arguments made concerning the topic. The research can use relevant theories to create a strong basis for the chosen thesis. It also offers a strong basis for the selection of the research method. Development of a theoretical framework enables the research to address the questions of causes and effects It allows the research to offer detailed anatomy of the problem instead of offering basic or generalized observations.


A researcher uses a theoretical framework to demonstrate how various concepts of the study are interrelated. Development of an effective theoretical framework is, therefore, a crucial process in research writing. An effective theoretical framework is based on the research problem. The entire study is anchored o an effective research problem. The researcher should brainstorm on variables he or she considers being the main concepts of the study. The researcher should find for relationship between ideas and the effects they have on the phenomenon under investigation. The researcher should use the existing theories to develop his or her theoretical framework. Such a framework should be based on a detailed literature review to reveal competency of the concept. It is crucial for a researcher to brainstorm with other parties on the framework developed.

Conclusion

Research problem is the core of research. Any researcher should take adequate time to refine problem statement because it helps the researcher to link different concepts with the overall goal of the research. Research problems should be selected from topics or areas that interest the writer. They should be stated precisely and with standard language. Theoretical framework is a crucial component of research. It offers the writer a chance to breakdown the concept under study into sub-problems. This makes it easy to study the concept under investigate. A credible theoretical framework is developed from a detailed literature review.

References

Leedy D. & ormrod E (2010). Practical research. Planning and design. 9th edition. Pearson Publisher, New York, USA.
Garry Anderson (2002)Fundamentals of educational research. Routledge Publishers. Philadelphia, USA.
Dimitra Hartas (2010). Educational research and inquiry. Continuum international publishing group. New York, USA.

Monday, 02 November 2015 02:58

Juvenile Delinquency

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12763- Juvenile Delinquency

Name

Course

Course instructor

Date

Introduction

Delinquency and Criminal behavior are a phenomenon that is on the increase among the young people tries to negotiate the various the eminent transition from childhood to adulthood in the compound world. The description that the research presents to describe the assumptions that relate to the delinquent behavior. The research additionally addresses the issues that underlie and consequently contribute to the problem of juvenile delinquency in the society. The research addresses the effective measures as well as approaches that are prevalent in the prevention of juvenile delinquency, mainly entailing the development of community programs and improvements of family conditions. For a larger component of the young people in the current society, the traditional patterns that guided relationships in the community along with family relationships are facing challenges.

The research proposal focuses on establishing the factors that normally contribute to the onset of delinquency that is an increasing problem among the adolescents in the community. It targets the criminal justice system with the objective of assisting with any probable interventions of the young offenders prior to their graduation to the criminal justice system. The principal issues that the proposal addresses includes neighborhood disadvantage, childhood mistreatments as well as the lack monitoring directed at the adolescents. The prevention of the onset of delinquency that is prevalent among the adolescents rests on the comprehension of the issues that cause juvenile delinquency in the first place. Though the research, it will be possible to establish the issues that contribute to juvenile delinquency and make it possible to address the removal of these challenges to promote the development of the community.

Body

The chief rationale that the research will be serving is in offering an indication of the issues of neighborhood disadvantages, childhood mistreatments as well as the lack of motivation. These examination n will involve the assessment of the manner in which these factors contribute to the onset of the juvenile delinquency as well as the possible interventions in addressing the challenge in the community. The research methodology that will be in use during the research will be qualitative method along with the use of interviews and questionnaires as the data collection instruments. Via the use of a qualitative methodology, the research will be able to generate the summary of the transitions that are prevalent in the juvenile justice system. Some of the premises to apply in the research encompass the media perception, accessibility of funding, implementation of policies as well as the resources in the implementation of the systems. Via the use of interviews as well archival research, it will be possible to develop the theoretical constructs present in the development of the study (Gallupe, Bouchard, & Davies, 2015).


Background and Significance of the Study           

The challenge of juvenile delinquency is not only a problem for the underdeveloped nations but the developed nations as well. The developing nations, however, are receiving much of the problem as there are imminent challenges for these youths in their transition to adulthood along with the accompanying independence. The rapid population growth, lack of support and housing services, unemployment, poverty as well as underemployment among the youth are fanning the problem of juvenile delinquency (Sherman, 2006).  The decline in the authority of the local communities, infective education systems along with the disintegration of the family structure are factors that increase the pressures the young people have to encounter. Additionally, it is apparent that studies demonstrate that there has been a sturdy elevation in the rate o youth crime from the 1990s. The completion of the research will offers solutions that these countries can apply in designing interventions that will assist in dealing with their challenges of proliferating juvenile delinquency. The research at the end will offer the intervention designs that will be significant in their application and at the same time producing positive results in terms of dealing with matters of juvenile delinquency in their regions (Sherman, 2006). The research proposal tries to establish the issues that contribute to the onset of juvenile delinquency in the adolescents. It is are designing possible intention that the various stakeholders in the community as well as in criminal justice can apply in dealing with the young offenders before they graduate into adult criminals. Through the research, it will be possible to establish the factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency. The research as along with the analysis time frame comprises of 18 months with the final proposal offering recommendations for the community interventions that will suit the model (Augustyn & McGloin, 2013).

Literature Review    

The juvenile systems in America have been facing various developmental stages. In the recent years, they have been facing major changes that have made the system move in various directions. The changes have been as a result of the reforms implemented with the objective of reviving the original functions of the juvenile justice. The overall purpose encompasses the bringing of personal justice as well as rehabilitation as the main tenets supporting the system. There has been an evolution of the of the justice systems from the original focus on rehabilitation to the current tenet of punishment. Research that juvenile justice is both reactive in as much is it is normally is proactive. The available literature additionally indicates that there were significant efforts in early 1825 calling for the establishments of the separate juvenile system with its focus on rehabilitation (Agnew, 2012). In early 1980, the literature indicates that there werenumerousincidences that were indicating an elevation of the juvenile crime resulting in the passing of laws that were more punitive. Research indicates that mistreatment of children is a major contributor to the development of delinquents. In the assessment of the children that faced mistreatment, research indicates that the use of child trauma questionnaires used in assessing a creating degree of domestic violence. In the 1990s, the US legal system introduced additional steps in affecting the transfer of provisions and at the same time lowering the threshold needed for the juveniles being tried and at the same being sent to the adult prisons (Froggio, 2007). The systems laws, in this case, supported a sentencing authority that had support for the judges and prosecutors to possess additional discretions while sentencing the juvenile sin terms of the options available to them.           

Additionally there was a reduction in the confidentiality standards that allowed the juvenile court records and proceedings to be available to the public. Even though the major focus of the juvenile system is on the rehabilitation of the juvenile, the latest reforms including the elevation of the procedural protections, rights to treatment as well as the disposal of cases. The disposal of the cases would be with no requirements of judicial reviews that normally was significant to the rights of the juvenile offenders (Oyafunke-Omoniyi, 2014). Conversely, there also was the introduction of the likelihood that in the event that there is the failure to introduce the rehabilitative program and the failure to meet the rehabilitative requirements the systems would lose its legitimacy. The role in the creation of the separate systems was with the objective of assisting in the decrease of recidivism among the juveniles and additionally offer them the necessary education and skills that me them successful in the society. The failure to have the treatments programs in place lead to the mixing of the juvenile and adult offenders in terms of their punishment with the necessity for the separate, dissimilar legal system ceasing to exist.       Most of the studies, as well as programs that focus on juvenile delinquency lay their focus on the treatment of the youth as offenders. Conversely, the adolescents are normally victims of the criminal as well as the delinquent acts. The progressive threat of victimization normally poses a grave effect on the socialization of the young people along with their ability to internalize the normally along with values of the larger society. The assessment of crime data that has been registered by the police, there is an indication of the assertion that more than 80% of the crime victims do not report the crimes. Reports relating to the self-report indicate that most of the individuals participating in the violence against the young people are the adults who are of the same gender and age with their victims. Most of these cases had males’ offenders acting in groups. Surveys additionally indicate that men are more likely to be victims of these crimes that the women. Research studies conducted in the US indicate that most of the youths more likely to be on the receiving end of the crimes are between the ages of 19 and 16 (Froggio, 2007). Additionally with 90 in 1000 members of this group have been victims of a certain crime.

The young people at the highest risk of becoming delinquents live in difficult conditions that predispose them to the delinquency. The children for some reasons normally experiences issues with parents who are alcoholics, poverty-stricken, abusive as well as family breakdown. Additionally most of these young people are orphans, victims of the HIV/AIDS scourge, overcrowded live-in circumstances and having poor housing along with lacking a means of substance living (Dijkstra, et al., 2015).  The overall number of children in the US in difficultcircumstances falls under the estimate of having increased from the 80 to 150 million between the years of 1992 and 2000 (Cole & Chipaca, 2014).  As time goes by, the challenge of juvenile delinquency has additionally become more complicated and universal at the same time. Additionally the interventions that are in place for dealing with the juvenile delinquency are either poorly equipped to deal with the contemporary realities or do not exist. The majority of the developing nations has done little and in other cases nothing to assists in the alleviation of the problem with the international programs being insufficient to deal with the current challenges. The developed nations actively engaged in the activities targeting the prevention of juvenile delinquency, but the general impact of the programs is normally weak since the mechanisms in place are inadequate to deal with the situation.        

Research Design and Methodology    

The implementation of the research is via the utilization of the juvenile archival research report as well as personal interviews. The gathering of the archival research will be from the newspapers as well as the juvenile systems reports on the trends of juveniles’ offenders. Most of this data normally found in the criminal justice reports with the researchers supplementing by accessing the head of the department of children welfare. The implementation of the interviews will be with the various stakeholders of the juvenile system. The qualitative data that attained by interviewing the stakeholders will entail their point of views about the juvenile reforms that are available in the region. These stakeholders will include the community advocates, lawyers, probation departments as well as the police administration (Sherman, 2006). The fact that these individuals possess extensive knowledge and experience with juvenile offenders makes them very reliable source of information. Once the respondents accept the request for an interview, we will be setting up the interview and contacting them with the details. The implementation of the researcher will be in the interviewees’ place of work as well as any other location that they agree. The interviewees will receive information on the rationale for the research and consequently receive a brief of the research implications. After the interview, it is the duty of the researcher to transcribe the audiotape interviews along with their analyzed by looking at the common themes(Augustyn & McGloin, 2013).  

          Preliminary Suppositions and Implications          

At the end of the research, the common issues that lead to the development of the delinquent tendencies are going to be clear in the research outcomes. The research will be able to identify that the juveniles offenses are normally are a result of the economic, cultural as well as social conditions that are prevailing in the region. The proposal indicates that the economic decrease is leading to an elevation in the juvenile delinquency acts with the streets children’s becoming more in the various regions. The preliminary attributes that cause the juvenile delinquency are in the various levels of the social structure in addition to the entire society, social groups, institutions and organizations along with the interpersonal relationships. In terms of the economic factors, juvenile delinquency is as a result of the adverse economic outcomes of the social as well as economic development. The main issues that are prevalent in this case are political instability, economic crises as well as the weakening of the chief institutions (Dijkstra, et al., 2015). These attributes are going to create the basis that the policy makers can apply in addressing the challenge. Through the outcomes of the interviews, it will be possible to develop new factors as well as theoretical precepts that will be significant to the study. The subsequent research should focus on the parents as well as the juveniles delinquents other that focusing on the stakeholders in the efforts to address the issues that predispose them to them delinquency. The outcomes of the research are instrumental to the policy makers as well as the government agencies as it will offer the foundations for developing the strategies to deal with the challenge. In this case, the findings of the research will make it possible for the stakeholders to establish the most fruitful interventions that will resolve the challenges of juvenile delinquency. The results of the research could offer the policy makers governments with the most effective social, political and economic interventions that will resolve the challenge. For instance, it could become apparent that the enhancing social support services and adequate homes for the youth at risk could assist in alleviating the problem. The outcomes of the research are going to possess major influence on the policy decisions as it is the desire of any region to resolve the challenged passes by juvenile delinquency. Ensuring that policies for dealing with the challenge are in place will be vital in handling the situation. The individuals, as well as groups, are going to have better social support structures as well as economic incentives following the recommendations that the research will make to the policy makers. Policies that deal with the allocation of housing, as well as the dealing with the criminality that concentrated in certain regions, will improve to eliminate the breeding grounds for juvenile delinquency (Gallupe, Bouchard & Davies, 2015).

                                                               Conclusions

Through the analysis of the evident literature, it is very clear that there are numerousdeficienciesleading to the development of the juvenile delinquency challenge in the community. The implementation of the study via the use of archives not as well as interviews offers the best solutions possible as we got accurate information supported by an authority figures. The additional recording and later transcribing of the interview offers the additional advantage in that all the contents of the research are adequately addressed making the findings comprehensive, through the application of the research proposal; policy makers have the knowledge about some of the interventions they can make it addressing the challenges of juvenile delinquency. The study additionally creates a basis that the social institutions can reflect on their inadequacies that are leading to the problem and act accordingly to resolve the change. The problem of juvenile delinquency is very rife in the community and through the study; it is possible to comprehend the issues that are contributing to the problem and ways of handling the situation.
                           Consent Statement For A Survey Or Questionnaire

Dear,
[Introduction explaining the research]
Thank you for agreeing to take participate in this survey.
The information provided by you in this questionnaire will use for research purposes. It will only use in a context that would permit identification of your personal responses.
Anonymised research data will archive at our data Archive to ensure they are available to any other researcher in the current data sharing practices.
Yours,
[Name, institution and contact details of researcher]


References

Agnew, R. (2012). Reflection on “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. Social Forces91(1), 33-38.

Augustyn, M. B., & McGloin, J. M. (2013). The Risk of Informal Socializing with Peers: Considering Gender Differences Across Predatory Delinquency and Substance Use. JQ: Justice Quarterly30(1), 117-143. doi:10.1080/07418825.2011.597417

Cole, B., & Chipaca, A. (2014). Juvenile delinquency in Angola. Criminology & Criminal Justice: An International Journal14(1), 61-76. doi:10.1177/1748895813503465

Dijkstra, J. K., Kretschmer, T., Pattiselanno, K., Franken, A., Harakeh, Z., Vollebergh, W., & Veenstra, R. (2015). Explaining Adolescents’ Delinquency and Substance Use. Journal Of Research In Crime & Delinquency,52(5), 747-767. doi:10.1177/0022427815582249

Froggio, G. (2007). Strain and Juvenile Delinquency: A Critical Review of Agnew's General Strain Theory. Journal Of Loss & Trauma12(4), 383-418. doi:10.1080/15325020701249363

Gallupe, O., Bouchard, M., & Davies, G. (2015). Delinquent Displays and Social Status among Adolescents.Canadian Journal Of Criminology & Criminal Justice57(4), 439-474. doi:10.3138/cjccj.2013.E49

Oyafunke-Omoniyi, C. O. (2014). Juvenile Delinquency and Justice in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Sociological Appraisal. IFE Psychologia22(2), 145-150.

Sherman, L. W. (2006). Crime and Juvenile Delinquency. Gender Issues23(4), 60-68.

Wednesday, 12 August 2015 23:50

Human development and Classroom Management

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Human development and Classroom Management
Name
Course
Instructor
Date


Introduction
Classroom management is effective for the regulation of student behavior and subsequent effective learning. Effective class management involves the achievement of an elaborate understanding of student’s needs, the establishment of an affirmative classroom climate and the involvement of students in the learning process. The paper below highlights numerous theories which are applicable to classroom management.



Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs in which he illustrated that people thrive because of the motivation to achieve specific needs. According to Maslow, the fulfillment of one need pushes a person to fulfill the next need. Maslow categorizes the needs into five classes: physiological needs (basic needs), safety, belongings, self-esteem and self-actualization. In a classroom environment, the provision physiological need represents the basic needs a student requires for effective learning to occur. Students need learning materials, a desk and an ideal learning environment. The safety and security needs represent the provision and maintenance of a safe, orderly and safe learning environment. Schools and classrooms must have policies that ascertain the existence of a positive learning environment e.g. a policy against bullying protects vulnerable students from acts of bullying. Teachers can enhance the feeling of belongingness by encouraging students to participate in group activities. The provision of group activities encourages the formation of friendships among pupils. Teachers can also help students to achieve their self-esteem needs by encouraging participation, congratulating students who perform well and encouraging students to improve their performance. Teachers must avoid criticizing or embarrassing students, in front of their classmates. The self-actualization level is the most important level in a classroom (McLeod, 2014). Teachers must push students to improve their performance and achieve their highest potential. Additionally, teachers can work with their students, to develop revision plans.



Rudolf Dreikurs
Dreikur developed the social discipline model that perceives human beings are social beings who are driven by the desire, to belong. Human beings thus engage in activities, to enhance the sense of belonging. Teachers apply Dreikurs’ social theory model to pinpoint and correct misbehavior that students demonstrate. The social model addresses four goals of misbehavior: attention getting, contests for power, seeking revenge and displaying inadequacy (Lyons, & Ford, & Arthur-Kelly, 2003). When a teacher notices a disruptive pupil, he strive to get his attention, by engaging in strategize to minimize the behavior. The teacher can ignore the behavior, legitimate the behavior, or distract the student by asking a question that is appropriate to the undergoing class work.



William Glasser
Glasser developed the reality and choice theory where he emphasizes on personal choices, responsibility, and personal transformation. The application of choice theory in a classroom environment allows teachers to give students an opportunity to take charge of elements of their learning process. The theory of choice also allows teachers to act as a leader rather than bosses hence creating a learning environment that relates to the student past experience, past people, places and events (Tauber, 2007). Teachers who adopt the choice theory can strive to adopt facilitative learning by allowing students to participate in decision-making on matters related to content and assessment.



Stanley Coppersmith
Coppersmith analyzes the satisfaction of students needs by boosting student’s self-esteem. Coppersmith illustrates that students need to experience a high sense of significance, competence and power so as to attain a high self-esteem. Teachers must work with their students so as to assist them in developing their self-esteem. Teachers can take students through the course outline so that students can understand what they are to learn and activities they are to engage in so as to excel (Smith, 2003).



Similarities and Differences
The four theories advocate in-depth teacher involvement in guiding student through the learning process. Teachers can guide students to the class content, the expected behavior, and the learning process. The teacher also plays the critical role of ensuring that the learning environment is safe, fair and fosters the learning process. Dreikurs and Glaser differ in terms of the teacher acting like a boss or a leader. Dreikurs advocates more control so as to manipulate behavior while Glasser advocates giving students some degree of freedom, in relation to deciding the course of their learning exercise.



Person Theory
Personally, I prefer to adopt a personal theory that encourages class participation and student involvement in the learning process. For example, the involvement of students in teaching the syllabus gives students some degree of empowerment and enables them to gain self-confidence. In my class, I encourage student to form groups for assignment presentation purposes. I assign each group with topics that relate to the course outline. The groups of student conduct investigations based on their topic and makes class presentation. The participative approach motivates students to learn beyond what I could have provided them in the classroom. My personal theory closely resembles Glasser’s choice theory that advocates the provision of control so that students can function productively.



Biblical perspective
Ecclesiastes 4:9-10 teaches “two are better than one….if either of them falls down, one can help the other”. The Bible verse matches my classroom management style as it advocates the teacher and the students to work as a teacher rather than maintain a student-instructor relationship. The two-way form of teaching and learning process gives students the confidence they need to continue learning. The teacher will offer support to students when they make their presentation. In conclusion, teachers must establish a classroom management style that yields the greatest benefits in terms of empowering students and creating the best learning environment.


Reference
Lyons, G. & Ford, M. & Arthur-Kelly, M. (2003). Classroom management: creating positive learning environments. Cengage Learning
McLeod, S. (2014). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
Smith, C. (2003). Introducing circle time to secondary students. SAGE Publications
Tauber, R. (2007). Classroom management. Greenwood publishing group. 

 

 

 


Sunday, 21 June 2015 08:13

Developmentally Appropriate Practice

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Education
Name
Instructor
Date


Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Developmentally appropriate practice is a teaching approach designed to promote young teaching’s development and learning. It is based on research on how they develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education.
Demircan, F. Erden Parental involvement, and developmentally appropriate practices: a comparison of parent and teacher beliefs. Early Child Development & Care [serial online]. February 2015; 185 (2):209-225



The study investigated the relationship between DAP and parental involvement beliefs of the parents of preschool children and preschool teachers. The results underline the relationship between parental involvement beliefs of parents and teachers with their developmentally appropriate practices and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice. Developmentally appropriate practices and Developmentally Inappropriate Practice are influenced by parental involvement beliefs and therefore not independent in their nature. (Demircan et al. 2015)

Miranda, L. M. (2004). The Implications of DAP for the Kindergarten Classroom. Journal Of Research In Music Education, 52(1), 43-63.
The study examines the implications of Developmentally Appropriate Practice for the kindergarten general music classroom. The authors used Ethnographic procedures such as interviews, classroom observations, and artifact collection to collect data throughout the academic year in three kindergarten music classrooms. The coding of the data followed five global dimensions of DAP: teaching to enhance development and understanding , creating a caring community of learners, assessing children's development and learning, constructing appropriate curriculum and establishing reciprocal relationships with families as published by NAEYC. The findings were congruent with DAP practices such as inclusion of children's requests, engagement as co-learners, adjustment to individual needs, the inclusion of play, respect for family contexts and assessment in authentic contexts. Incongruent practices included lack of response to developmental needs, favoritism, sparse communication with families and inflexible curricular decisions. Implications included the need for mentorship and early childhood coursework. (Miranda, 2004)

Buchanan, T. K., Baumgartner, J. J., & Casbergue, R. M. (2011). DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE TEACHER EDUCATION. Childhood Education, 87(5), 332-336.
The article is a report on the early childhood program created by Louisiana State University to provide educators with a meaningful understanding of developmentally appropriate practices that can be implemented in their teaching practices. The authors recommend the adoption of an internship model that is appropriate each learner depending on age and particular cultural context. Various projects including the Pedagogy, Eco-map projects Content and are also discussed. (Buchanan, 2011)

References
Demircan, F. Erden Parental involvement, and developmentally appropriate practices: a comparison of parent and teacher beliefs. Early Child Development & Care [serial online]. February 2015;185(2):209-225
Buchanan, T. K., Baumgartner, J. J., & Casbergue, R. M. (2011). DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE TEACHER EDUCATION. Childhood Education, 87(5), 332-336.
Miranda, L. M. (2004). The Implications of DAP for the Kindergarten Classroom. Journal Of Research In Music Education, 52(1), 43-63.

Education
Name
Instructor
Date


Kindergarten dilemma: Hold Kids Back to get Ahead
The article discusses the dilemma that parents are faced with in deciding whether to send their young children to school or hold them back when they become eligible. The voluntary delay to join school has been a source of debate both personal and national. The proponents of argue that children need to be more mature to be able to handle the current rigorous curriculum. On the other hand, research suggests that the benefits of delaying the young ones are overshadowed by the costs. The conflicting opinions have made many education experts and economists to look analytically at the practice.



Does delaying a child for an extra year amount to any benefit? Some parents are for the idea that by delaying their young ones, they can give them the advantage of an extra time to mature socially and develop cognitively. The desire of some parents to give their children the best chance in life leads them to do whatever they can to give them an edge. There are, of course, justifiable reasons why parents may choose to hold their children back. Some children haven't met the academic or social milestones for kindergarten readiness or simply have identifiable learning disabilities or simply. (Sandra, 2012) However, other parents also embrace the practice of delaying their kids in an effort to social engineer them to the top of the class.



Academic accomplishment is only a single piece of the school entrance age puzzle. A child’s emotional, social and physical developments are key pieces, as well. Considering the whole child in all his aspect when deciding the right school entrance age would seem to be the course of wisdom. The answers to this puzzle are not simple. In fact, they are further complicated by the fact that different children have different emotionally and biologically factors that may be significant when making this crucial decision. Every child brings his special individuality with him as he works and lives through his unique life experiences. (Amber, 2010)



Life-changing events in a young child’s life may stem from the recommendations of educators. This type of blanket recommendation to delay the entrance of one group of children is only effective in determining who will comprise the youngest group. Educators must resist the temptation to follow such unfounded advice that seem to recommend uniform practices that exclude any age group of kids from schools. There is a need to consider the individuality of each child.( Julie, 2012)



ACEI
The Association of Childhood Education International centers on children’s learning and wellbeing. Each issue of the journal pays attention to different perspectives of education revolving around education delivery, cutting edge concepts, child growth and development theory and other issues touching on children, education and their families. (ACEI, n.d) According to Eric, the idea of looking critically at early childhood education is to enable the setting out of achievable and measurable objective and replicate this in other areas. Since childhood education has different stakeholders, it is, therefore, imperative to look at it from a practical point of view to enable educators to meet or surpass expectations of all stakeholders. (Eric, 2014) However, such articles should seek to stimulate thinking as compared to advocating fixed practices. They should address educational issues that are of global relevance in connection to early childhood concepts and theories. This is because the readers have an interest in practices and policies that can support children’s well-being and advance education. (Thomas, 2014)


References
Stephanie Pappas (2010) Kindergarten dilemma: Hold Kids Back to get Ahead MsNBc.com
Sandra Crosser (2012) He Has a Summer Birthday: The Kindergarten Entrance Age Dilemma Retrieved from
http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=157
ACEI (n.d) Childhood Education http://acei.org/
Julie Flapan (2012) How to succeed in kindergarten: Will redshirting holding back your child -- make him healthy, wealthy and wise? Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2012/apr/15/opinion/la-oe-flapan-holding-kids-back-20120415
Amber Johnson (2010) The Kindergarten Dilemma–To Enroll or to Hold Back? Retrieved from http://www.milehighmamas.com/blog/2010/06/16/the-kindergarten-dilemma-to-enroll-or-to-hold-back/
Eric Schulzke (2014) Paying for success: On the cutting edge in early childhood education Retrieved from http://national.deseretnews.com/article/1441/paying-for-success-on-the-cutting-edge-in-early-childhood-education.html
Thomas Armstrong (2014)Early Childhood Education Programs http://www.ascd.org/publications books/106044/chapters/This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Sunday, 21 June 2015 08:07

Human development and Classroom Management

Written by

Human development and Classroom Management
Name
Course
Instructor
Date


Introduction
Classroom management is effective for the regulation of student behavior and subsequent effective learning. Effective class management involves the achievement of an elaborate understanding of student’s needs, the establishment of an affirmative classroom climate and the involvement of students in the learning process. The paper below highlights numerous theories which are applicable to classroom management.



Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs in which he illustrated that people thrive because of the motivation to achieve specific needs. According to Maslow, the fulfillment of one need pushes a person to fulfill the next need. Maslow categorizes the needs into five classes: physiological needs (basic needs), safety, belongings, self-esteem and self-actualization. In a classroom environment, the provision physiological need represents the basic needs a student requires for effective learning to occur. Students need learning materials, a desk and an ideal learning environment. The safety and security needs represent the provision and maintenance of a safe, orderly and safe learning environment. Schools and classrooms must have policies that ascertain the existence of a positive learning environment e.g. a policy against bullying protects vulnerable students from acts of bullying. Teachers can enhance the feeling of belongingness by encouraging students to participate in group activities. The provision of group activities encourages the formation of friendships among pupils. Teachers can also help students to achieve their self-esteem needs by encouraging participation, congratulating students who perform well and encouraging students to improve their performance. Teachers must avoid criticizing or embarrassing students, in front of their classmates. The self-actualization level is the most important level in a classroom (McLeod, 2014). Teachers must push students to improve their performance and achieve their highest potential. Additionally, teachers can work with their students, to develop revision plans.

Rudolf Dreikurs
Dreikur developed the social discipline model that perceives human beings are social beings who are driven by the desire, to belong. Human beings thus engage in activities, to enhance the sense of belonging. Teachers apply Dreikurs’ social theory model to pinpoint and correct misbehavior that students demonstrate. The social model addresses four goals of misbehavior: attention getting, contests for power, seeking revenge and displaying inadequacy (Lyons, & Ford, & Arthur-Kelly, 2003). When a teacher notices a disruptive pupil, he strive to get his attention, by engaging in strategize to minimize the behavior. The teacher can ignore the behavior, legitimate the behavior, or distract the student by asking a question that is appropriate to the undergoing class work.

William Glasser
Glasser developed the reality and choice theory where he emphasizes on personal choices, responsibility, and personal transformation. The application of choice theory in a classroom environment allows teachers to give students an opportunity to take charge of elements of their learning process. The theory of choice also allows teachers to act as a leader rather than bosses hence creating a learning environment that relates to the student past experience, past people, places and events (Tauber, 2007). Teachers who adopt the choice theory can strive to adopt facilitative learning by allowing students to participate in decision-making on matters related to content and assessment.

Stanley Coppersmith
Coppersmith analyzes the satisfaction of students needs by boosting student’s self-esteem. Coppersmith illustrates that students need to experience a high sense of significance, competence and power so as to attain a high self-esteem. Teachers must work with their students so as to assist them in developing their self-esteem. Teachers can take students through the course outline so that students can understand what they are to learn and activities they are to engage in so as to excel (Smith, 2003).

Similarities and Differences
The four theories advocate in-depth teacher involvement in guiding student through the learning process. Teachers can guide students to the class content, the expected behavior, and the learning process. The teacher also plays the critical role of ensuring that the learning environment is safe, fair and fosters the learning process. Dreikurs and Glaser differ in terms of the teacher acting like a boss or a leader. Dreikurs advocates more control so as to manipulate behavior while Glasser advocates giving students some degree of freedom, in relation to deciding the course of their learning exercise.
Person Theory
Personally, I prefer to adopt a personal theory that encourages class participation and student involvement in the learning process. For example, the involvement of students in teaching the syllabus gives students some degree of empowerment and enables them to gain self-confidence. In my class, I encourage student to form groups for assignment presentation purposes. I assign each group with topics that relate to the course outline. The groups of student conduct investigations based on their topic and makes class presentation. The participative approach motivates students to learn beyond what I could have provided them in the classroom. My personal theory closely resembles Glasser’s choice theory that advocates the provision of control so that students can function productively.

Biblical perspective
Ecclesiastes 4:9-10 teaches “two are better than one….if either of them falls down, one can help the other”. The Bible verse matches my classroom management style as it advocates the teacher and the students to work as a teacher rather than maintain a student-instructor relationship. The two-way form of teaching and learning process gives students the confidence they need to continue learning. The teacher will offer support to students when they make their presentation. In conclusion, teachers must establish a classroom management style that yields the greatest benefits in terms of empowering students and creating the best learning environment.

Reference
Lyons, G. & Ford, M. & Arthur-Kelly, M. (2003). Classroom management: creating positive learning environments. Cengage Learning
McLeod, S. (2014). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
Smith, C. (2003). Introducing circle time to secondary students. SAGE Publications
Tauber, R. (2007). Classroom management. Greenwood publishing group

2014 Education.
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