Social Sciences

Social Sciences (22)

Sunday, 23 July 2017 10:41

Argument papers, Arranged Marriage

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Argument papers, Arranged Marriage


Arranged marriages have a high possibility of being broken because of lack of true love. Arranged marriages have no intimacy of love and affection it is based coercion and influences from parents, religion and family relationships. Mostly, arranged marriages break because most of the partners are influenced to enter into marriages as a result of fate. Some fate that contributes to arranged marriages includes becoming too old of age, lack of higher levels of education, social statuses such as being too less social to opposite mates as well as family situations and decisions made by family members (Myers, Madathil, & Tingle, 2005). Arranged marriages fail because they are planned within a very short period. The relationship influenced by third parties lack strong foundation because there is no time for understanding each other. Arranged marriages result in break-ups because couples do not have time to share emotions. Couples lack initial encouragements, support, and assurance that they were getting before getting married. Arranged marriages are just as a result obligations, the pressure to tolerate others. Arranged marriage results to divorce to put an end to the unhappy family.

Arranged marriages affect several people mostly children because the couple's see children as a burden. None of the partners in arranged marriage seem to accept the responsibilities of bringing up children since the family affairs such quarrels, social differences, and victimization. In arranged marriages, children may feel insecure since the marriage plan is usually a contract between families but not individuals. The relationship is founded based on family background, financial status, reputation and hereditary characteristics. The agreement between couples is less valued thus leading to minimal family relations. Usually, third parties select mates based on their ways of thinking. Other people have a high probability of selecting qualities that do not favor either of the partners. Characteristics of a wife and husband can only be determined by particular mates that are interested in each other. A marriages partner should have a mother or a father characteristics valued by their partners. Partners should share same interests to develop a strong family. Life becomes too long while living with a wrong person resulting to lack of confidentiality, lack of satisfaction, lack of trust and lack of family comfort (Ingoldsby, 2000). The process of finding a soul mate should be a personal decision. However, lack of proper matching results to poor parenting causing children to suffer.
The principles that determine an arranged marriage includes money, high social status, sufficient life and stable economy. However, money, high social status, sufficient life and a stable economy are just necessary elements in a marriage but cannot be enough without true love, personal consent, and intimacy. Money, high social status, sufficient life and stable economy alone cannot maintain happiness in a family where there are disagreements, and divisions among partners. Money, high social status, sufficient life and stable economy can only bring people together temporarily for some days, some weeks, some months, or some years. However when money, high social status, sufficient life and a stable economy are no longer there is nothing to tie couples together, and the best option is to divorce. Mates live together because of acceptable intimacy emotions from the heart not from pressure resulting from obligation or social arrangements influenced by money and social status.
Arranged marriages result to the effective and efficient continuity of cultural practices. It is a fact that when marriage is arranged, it results in a total support from both sided of involved families. The new couples are assured of stability in life, material, and emotional, physical and spiritual support (Myers, Madathil, & Tingle, 2005). In arranged marriages, families involved have better terms and conditions, and therefore they encourage commitment among their partners. In arranged marriages, couples have low expectations from each other. Personal dreams and expectations do not fail since couples are inspired by their parents to support their spouses in case of difficulties. Arranged marriages guarantee total support from society especially religion and family members. It is a way of maintaining and retaining particular traits, beliefs and cultural practices thus making the interests of society higher and prevailing (Han, & Mayzin, 2013).
According to analysis, it is true that love is the most sensitive element in any relationship. Money, high social status, sufficient life and a stable economy are there to make life more comfortable and acceptable. True happiness, joy, and satisfaction are experienced where there is love. Arranged marriages are tribal based, race based and encourage tribalism, racism, discrimination, and apartheid thus cannot support social development and international collaboration. Arranged marriages are associated with very many disadvantages including violating human rights while forcing partners to engage in marriage relationships. It is associated with threats, broken relationships, as well as affecting children in the arranged marriage relationship. It is very clear that marriages should not be arranged in any circumstances. Arranged marriage culture should not be supported or practiced in societies.

References
Ingoldsby B.B . (2000) Mate selection and marriage around the world. In Smith S. & Ingoldsby B.B(Eds.), Families in Multicultural Perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Myers J., Madathil, J. & Tingle (2005). First comes marriage, then comes love. Spark Magazine (n.d.): n. pag. Web. http://www.sparksunderland.com/featured/2013/04/first-comes-marriage-then-comes-love/
Myers J., Madathil, J. & Tingle (2005). Journal of counseling & development. Marriage Satisfaction and Wellness in India and the United States: A Preliminary Comparison of Arranged Marriages and Marriages of Choice,

Sunday, 23 July 2017 10:40

Fake News

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Course Code
June 28, 2017
http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/20/health/fast-food-antibiotics-meat/index.html
The article,” Are there too many antibiotics in your fast food meat?” is by Ben Tinker that was published on September 22, 2016, at the CNN website. The author aims to answer the question, “What is in the meat that we eat at fast food restaurants? The report examines the presence of antibiotics in the meat supplied to fast food restaurants all across the United States. The author makes use of a wide range of rhetorical devices to capture the attention of readers and make his audience agree with his point of view. This essay evaluates this article published on the CNN website by examining aspects like biases, rhetorical appeals, the purpose of the article, and logical fallacies.
The main purpose of the article is to inform the public that fast food meat may have too many high levels of antibiotic since the antibiotics are given to farm animals to make them grow faster and prevent them from diseases. These farm animals are in overcrowded places and diseases spread may bring devastating outcomes and loss to the farmers and the food production companies.
The author depends on rhetorical appeals such as logos, ethos, and pathos to communicate to the audience. Through an appeal to ethos, the author has managed to establish the credibility and authority with the audience that makes his message seem credible and trustworthy to listen. The author appeals to ethos by citing the source of his written message. He refers to the collaborative new report that has ranked the twenty-five largest US fast food restaurant chains as per their antibiotics practices and policies. He mentions that the top honors are companies like Chipotle Mexican Grill and Panera Bread that was awarded grade A.
Citing the recent statistical reports of the businesses that are strict with their antibiotic policies and those who are not is a way which the author appeals to the ethos. He aims to let the readers trust his argument and lets them know that he is worth being listened to since his information is genuine. The author also demonstrates familiarity with the different perspectives and opinions of antibiotic policies by accurately showing the statistics and presenting the views of major players in the food industry. In doing so, he manages to present his information in a fair manner without bias and over reliance of his emotions. He uses statistics and relevant sources to show that his ideas are supported by credible sources such as the CNN Medical respondent and organizations like CDC and WHO.
In an appeal to logos, the author applies findings, quotes, statistics, and numbers to support his argument. For example, he quotes the statement given by the Chief Medical Corresponded of CNN, Dr. Sanjay Gupta saying, “Antibiotics resistances are one of the biggest health threats that the world is facing today.” He applies for statistics and numbers from CDC which Estimates that over two million Americans every year contract antibiotic resistance and 23,000 of them die due to this resistances. All these aspects are with the aim of convincing the readers that other recognized sources well support his point.
In an appeal to pathos, the author aims to establish a personal connection with the audience through evoking emotions and also suggesting that the audience should share his values beliefs and attitudes. It is well demonstrated in the opening line of this article. He writes, “Although you may be keen to the type of meat you buy at a grocery store such as cage-free, grass-fed or organic, the many chances are that you don’t pay attention to the type of meat you get served at your favorite fast food restaurant.” Such an opening makes the audience get interested to know what the author is trying to argue.
Logical fallacy found in this article is the statement that the high-level meeting on antibiotic resistance by the United Nations General Assembly is one of the few times in history where world leaders are discussing a public health issue. Though this is true, it does not mean that world leaders have never met before to discuss matters of health such as the case of fighting HIV/AIDS epidemic. Such a meeting was held in May and June 2016 that aimed at making the Member States of the United Nations adopt a political declaration in putting an end to the epidemic of AIDS. Finally, the author’s conclusion of his essay is not complete. His argument that “the efforts made by restaurants in providing better and healthier food sources are simply not enough” can be completed with recommendations that can help restaurants improve their services and the role of the key players in ensuring that restaurants do not serve meat with antibiotics. For example, the calls for the petition to argue restaurants to adopt the no-antibiotic meat and the requirements for investors to recommend restaurants and farm to reduce antibiotics use. Also, the farmers should be expected to use antibiotics for treating sick animals only and not for irresponsible practices, such as prevention of diseases or growth promotions since the farm animals live in unsanitary and confined conditions.

Sunday, 25 June 2017 17:07

Power Protein and Real Food Protein

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 Video Analysis

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Power Protein and Real Food Protein

The Khali muscle protein advert shows a group of body builders discussing their love for protein as they drink down their protein shakes. Each of the body builders vows they love for protein. However, watching from a distance are two men enjoying their protein snack as well.  The difference is that the two men are enjoying real food protein comprising of tender chicken, guacamole and corn sauce.  At the end of the 37 seconds clip, viewers are no doubt left with several pointers in mind.  First, there is the obvious indicator that protein is very important.  Second, there is the realization that there are alternatives to accessing the protein.  There is the common protein shake that the body builders are drinking and there is the real protein that can be consumed directly from high-protein foods.

As the advertisement indicates, proteins are indeed important for the effective functioning o the body.  Proteins enhance metabolic activism in the body.  Moreover, every cell of the body requires protein for effective functioning.  Proteins are also critical for the building of muscle mass as evident in the advertisement.  The question, therefore, remains is it better to take protein shakes or real protein foods.  Real-protein foods comprise of all natural foods that individuals can access from their foods.  In the advertisements, there are two men enjoying a taco bell that is rich in protein. The taco bell contains protein as it comprises of real chicken.  Other natural sources of protein include fish, beef, eggs and raw dairy products.  The secret to eating real food protein is ensuring that the food is organic. Organic foods are foods that are natural such as beef from grass-fed cows, and eggs and poultry from organic and age-free chicken.

 The alternative to real protein foods is protein supplements such as protein shakes.  Proteins shakes have become popular and are the ideal choice for athletes, body builders and people going to the gym. Protein shakes have become common because of the convenience hey provide.  Unlike real protein that has to be cooked, protein shakes are easy to prepare within the shortest time.  Most of the shakes come in powder form and only requires the user to mix the powder with water to get the final product.  Protein shakes are also preferred because they are absorbed quickly into the muscles.  The real protein food has to be chewed and digested before the amino acids are transported to the muscle.

  In contrast, protein shakes to get to the muscle within thirty minutes. In the advertisement, the group taking the protein shakes has huge muscles evidence that their protein shakes are effective.  In contrast, the two men eating the real protein are average sized. Therefore, for a person wishing to develop muscle, the protein shake would offer the fastest results. Protein shakes also have little to no calorie and fat content.  In the advertisements, the two men enjoying their taco are also eating starch from the wrapping of the taco as well as fat from the guacamole.  However, the body builders may be consuming the right amount of protein, but they could be missing out on essential fats and fiber.

 The video fails in passing any relevant information on the consumption of real protein over protein shakes. The body builders stand out for the most part of the advertisement, and the advertisement for the real protein in taco takes a few seconds.  In fact, it is easy for any viewer to assume that the video is about body building.  It is only that the body builder's persistently repeated the word “protein” that viewers realize that it is an advert about protein and not fitness.  It is also at the end of the advertisements that the issue of protein is explained further with the revelation that the first group is taking milkshakes while the second group is taking real protein foods.  The decision to take protein shakes over real protein foods is a personal decision.  However, it is best that an individual consumes natural protein and use the milkshakes as a booster after rigorous activity such as the gym. Protein shakes provide drinkers with the immediate protein they need.  However, the body needs more than just protein for optimal performance.  The body needs carbohydrate, vitamins and essential fats for optimal functioning.  Protein shakes can, therefore, just serve as supplements when an extra boost I needed and not a total replacement of the natural proteins as found in animal and dairy products.  Unfortunately, the video does a poor job of convincing viewers that natural protein is the best alternative.  For instance, the portrayal of all-muscled men can leave viewers wondering if milkshakes guarantee muscle build.  Similarly, not everyone wants to have bulgy muscles like those in the advertisements.  On the other hand, the taco bell may leave viewers wondering if the emphasis was on the taco or the all natural protein.  An advert showing a person eating a whole chicken would make sense for an all natural protein than a taco that has calories, salt, and fats that health fanatics strive to avoid.

Sunday, 25 June 2017 17:00

Apple TV (2015)

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Analysis Essay

Apple TV (2015)
The United States Apple company has remained among the leading Smartphone producers and other digital associated appliances. The iPhone product outlined the future of the mobile development regarding application integration towards enhancing human life. However, the Apple TV has been through the transition, and the fourth generation of the Apple TV which was realized in 2015 is measured in regards to gauging as to whether the Apple iPhone apps can be done the same for the television. In the recent years, the Apple TV was majorly used for watching movies and possibly the TV shows mostly at home. The good presentation and elimination of cabling by the iPhones and iPads which enabled people to enjoy iTunes, Netflix and possible Airplay from the nearest or local network seemed not enough. The company noted the demand and deed from the clients whose demands are ever changing and they had to provide an advanced modern TV set box. The push for the same was the building block for the iOS foundations development which has the platform for the iPhones and iPads and currently containing the platform for the fourth generation Apple TV.
Observation
Based on the video displayed, it is clear from the graphics that the fourth generation Apple TV is amazing and contains what the current generation has wished to have after waiting for that long. The focus is taken on the remote which is enthusiastic in the hands of the user. It makes the user feel the controller of the Television from the word go. Nevertheless, there is a good display of eth various application that has been integrated within the Apple TV set box which takes the mind of the view to another level of feeling at the highest level of enjoyment. The few individuals displayed showed how relaxed they were and how they were enjoying the digital appliance.
The most interesting thing within the video is the displays that are provided prior the use of the remote, and this outlines the Apple TV Remote capability which dominates the video. It can be observed from the glance how the remote is used to switch from one application to the other. In particular, the home button has the great control over the TV. According to the response that is experienced when the button of the glass surface of the remote is touched, it indicates the smoothness and good connectivity that exist through the Bluetooth app. It is just enticing to use the remote with same having the capability of responding to the voices and providing the necessary directives of the same as per the desires of the viewer. The entire episode outlines the existence of the remote-controlling capability prior the switching and navigating through programs and application as per the wish of the remote controller.
Various programs are available within the Apple TV and just beyond the unimaginable capability, the fact that the TV connects to the global network; a view can capture the content of a program by recording or navigating through to have the synopsis of the story. All the powerful attributes have been displayed through the common movies and shows alongside the applications that most of the persons have embraced from the word go. It is indicated on how the view can have a comparison of the various programs or shows and choose the suitable and favorite. Also, if the viewers have different passions, have the capability of watching different programs on the same single Apple TV. Indeed, this fourth generation Apple TV provides the proof of the future developments. All these outlines observed capability and attributes of the Apple TV are facilitated and achieved with the single gadget the Apple TV Remote. The remote is such artificial intelligent in learning the possible best option for the viewer.

Perceived meaning
Various meaning can be derived from the video display from the basis of understanding how the technology is advancing regarding developing applications. The integration of the global network connectivity prior connecting to internet based application marks the improvement of how cabling communication is being outdone y the wireless communication. The fact that the viewer is ever after comfortability, various aspects as displayed by the graphics describes clearly how comfortability can be achieved and thus enhancing enjoyment.
The video deduces a lot of meaning. There is a common unverified principle of describing whether the world is flat. This mode of video description of the Apple TV provides a clear point of understanding how the Television can be used for a range of uses and thus making the world to be a small village that can be navigated within hours. The barriers towards using the application on certain hardware have been eliminated as indicated by the fact that there is the capability of accessing the various known mobile-only applications found on the iPhone and iPads. Subsequently, the point of how communication can be enhanced is displayed. The core meaning of the video is all about the world technology advancement and the push for more research and inventions and innovations.

Wednesday, 22 March 2017 13:51

Social Media Analytic

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Social Media Analytic


Introduction
Social media networks have allowed businesses to engage with key audience across all social media accounts. While it is imperative to engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content. User-generated content can help boost the effectiveness of the branded content. It is possible to display social galleries on microsites, and also show them on any device or to add an interactive element to live events. However, how does the business measure the effectiveness of its online initiatives? Does business activities carried out online even matter? How many target users does the business reach? What links do audience like best? Measuring and analyzing the effectiveness of social media outreach, activities and initiatives are as important as engaging in the efforts. Luckily, the rise of social media has been accompanied by the development of tools to that have the capabilities of analyzing the impact of most of most social media activities. Social media analytics involves making use of social media websites to gather and analyze data important in making business decisions. This paper discusses the benefits of social media analytics and what it means to business.



Benefits
Social media provides virtually instantaneous sentiments. Essentially, utilizing data generated from social media interactions enables immediate access to actionable insights. The failure by a business to take advantage of the emerging capabilities may affect its competitiveness. Data from social media is a potential goldmine of information on prospects, customers, products, and competitors. Before social media analytics, brands only participated in social media without utilizing available data. Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Businesses no longer ignore the resulting data. Today, more businesses are capitalizing on the capabilities of social media analytics. Essentially, utilizing data generated through different social media interactions enables businesses to tap into a treasure that results from products, customers, and competitors (Lawrence et al., 2010).



For marketing professionals, social media analytics tools are the important building business online presence or improving its online reach online. Some analytic tools have numerous functions that are integrated into one tool. Manifold tabs provide a general look at popular posts, a display of the photos on feed, and a range of statistics including post history, engagement rate, and post-distribution. Social media analytics can help markets determine to what extent social media audiences are sharing its content as well as what content they are sharing. Creating content that is interesting and relevant to target audience helps the business spread its message and increase marketing reach. Paying close attention different types of content helps the businesses develop messages that audiences are more likely to connect with and share. Additionally, individual tend, to be honest on social media. By monitoring for mentions, the business can learn can learn what customers really say about the business (Zeng, et al., 2010)..



A business gains more insight into how people feel about its products and services and learn where improvements may be made. Thus, social media analytics makes it possible for a business to effectively engage with its audience. It also helps the business know who its audiences are and what they like. Businesses can learn what type of content and social networks businesses prefer. For instance, a business can determine if it prefers to share videos, images or infographics. On different sites, a business can uncover their preferences through their use keywords or hashtags in their posts. For example, the photo-based social network has taken the social media platform by storm with millions of users and photos uploaded on a daily basis. Just as with other social media networks, businesses can use these platforms to make a great impact on social media presence (Phillips, 2013)



Businesses also get access to real-time data. Feedback from social media platform is virtually immediate compared to other commonly used data sources such as surveys, customer telephone, point-of-sale and transaction reports that are time delayed. Businesses can take advantage of the real-time data provided by social media platforms to determine the success of services, products, and launches. Its immediacy provides feedback into existing business initiatives that help adapt and fine-tune current offerings, or to the planning process. There are different social media tools that can be used to form in-depth analytics. They are authentic and flexible tools for social media users that have statistics and contest suggestions. They help users get information on their comment rate and like rate as well as the engagement. This way, it becomes easier to follow and monitor the impact of influencers. Analytic tools may also provide suggestions on how to improve the reach. Other analytic tools may provide a scheduler that can be used through the mobile app or on any browser. These apps may allow the user to post directly as well as enable the user to manage the frequency of their posting. The benefits of using different social media analytic tools are that they provide more outstanding capabilities that provide a concise view of not only the user's social media account but also other user’s accounts (Leskovec, 2011).

The use of social media analytics helps businesses the capability to have highly targeted messages as well as data accuracy. In combination with the real time nature of responses, the accuracy, and relevancy of the data is likely to be high. Adopting the right social media strategy can help the business improve traffic and ultimately influence the buying decisions of others. And, while it’s true that businesses struggle to fit social media users into a demographic, adopting the right media strategy and tactics can help the business attain a competitive edge (Phillips, 2013).
What it means to business
Social media analytics tools provide diverse types of features for the business. These features are valuable to the business in various ways.
Competitive benchmarking
First, the business can competitively benchmark. Various parties in the business have the ability to view profile and content information for competitors’ accounts. This makes it easier to view what competitors are posting, their fan base, engagement with the different audience, when they’re posting, and response to their content.
Centralized Analytics
Social media provides businesses with a single place to see and compare metrics and statistics. Media analytics tools typically provide a range of metrics to help return on investment and track performance.

Influencer identification
Businesses can easily identify influencers who share their content by monitoring a list of accounts or individuals that engage with business content online. This way, a business can form establish relationships and generate brand awareness. A business may acquire significant influence as it has a considerable number of followers. Without any established following or audience, there is a lot of work to do to get the brand where it needs to be. Influencers and amplifiers are the individuals and the companies that carry weight, and they should be a priority in online business initiatives. Connecting with target audience comes down establishing strategic and beneficial relationships with the amplifiers.

Tracking
Social media analytics allow businesses to track related customer interactions. Such may allow businesses to have metrics and data in areas that allow businesses to track and optimize their social activities. Businesses could use the social media analytics to establish how to target customers, influencers and amplifiers within a particular industry. Amplifiers are significant in keeping the conversation flowing and enhancing interactions with conventional online mainstream media and corporate media. Businesses gain the capacity to go outside the regular confines of looking at their target audience. Every market has a demographic of customer that a brand desires to reach.

Dashboards
Social media analytics have custom or pre-made dashboards that can easily keep tabs on the different social media accounts, metrics that matter and competitors.
Reporting
Social media provide exportable reports and data along with email delivery and scheduling that allow businesses to keep partners, managers and businesses up to date and plugged-in and on social media performance and activities (Stieglitz et al., 2014).
Conclusion
Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Through social media analytics, businesses can actively engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content

References
Lawrence, R., Melville, P., Perlich, C., Sindhwani, V., Meliksetian, S., Hsueh, P. Y., & Liu, Y. (2010). Social media analytics. Marketing & Social Media.
Leskovec, J. (2011, August). Social media analytics. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGKDD International Conference Tutorials (p. 1). ACM.
Phillips, J.(2013) Social Media AnalyticsWin with Advanced Business Analytics: Creating Business Value from Your Data, 247-269.
Stieglitz, S., Dang-Xuan, L., Bruns, A., & Neuberger, C. (2014). Social media analytics. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(2), 89-96.
Zeng, D., Chen, H., Lusch, R., & Li, S. H. (2010). Social media analytics and intelligence. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 25(6), 13-16.

Wednesday, 22 March 2017 13:44

Texting and vehicle accidents

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Texting and vehicle accidents

Introduction
From the arrival of the mobile phone cellular devices have consequently become a necessity in almost all the spheres of life. With the elementary school going children, senior citizens as well as all the people about owning mobile phones and the recent cultural shift that has taken place making people overly dependent on mobile phones. The consequent emergence of new technologies encompassing the smaller as well, the more mobile gadgets and phones that are capable of accessing the email has led to an explosion in the use of cell phones.
The omnipresence nature of the smartphones, as well as the issue of text messaging, offers an assortment of the ways in which a driver is distracted as along with the inattentiveness with numerous studies carrying out numerous efforts to address the issue. The fact that the human being is social creatures and implies that they normally survive on the interactions they have with those around then (Abouk & Adams, 2013). This yearning be connected to other people tends to be disruptive and some situations that do not accommodate the distractions. There is numerous occasion that the mobile users abuse the needed to be connected to others and push what can be the socially acceptable behavior and resultantly cause destruction as well disrespect to those around their physical setting.
The relationships that are developed as well as maintained through the mobile and smartphone tend to be the priority although the attributes that are ignored and sacrificed as we try to maintain these relationships lead to very costly situations. The issue of driving, just the mobile telephony permits the human being to maintain the connection with other people, objects, places as well as events. Automobiles allow people to travel for long distances and also allowing them the freedom to get way from the monotony that is brought to life. The underlying issue, however, is the fact that the manufacturers of the automobiles never planned that there will be a mobile phone screen with the driver (Hosking, Young & Regan, 2006). While a peaceful drive makes it possible for a driver to take in the beautiful surroundings while also being in control of the car, a mobile phone overcomes the rationale of driving. The mobile phone, it sucks the driver’s mind into the phone, vanishing for moments at a time, and then sporadically returning to the road. The variations inattentiveness have the extremely high potentials of removing the driver from the car. Apparently, the penalty for this behavior can lead to devastating outcomes, for both the driver as well as anyone in his or her path.
The assertion that drivers are likely to get into accidents while texting on their phones strikes most people as an obvious fact in that it is one of the those issues one should see coming. The unremitting influx of information, irrespective of how significant or inconsequential, has the ability to overwhelm the brain to the summit that information is not effectively processed. Even one negligible distraction can be enough to interfere with the driver while on the road (University of Utah, 2013). Studies carried out by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute presents the suggestion that text messaging specifically was connected with the highest threat of all cell phone-related accidents. Specifically, the research by VTTI’s demonstrated that a driver texting while driving resulted in a crash and other cases near crash experience 23 times more likely than the situation when one is driving without a phone (Blanke, 2010). Additionally, the research established that text messaging tend to make drivers take their eyes off the road for an average duration of 4.6 seconds over a 6-second gap, which was identified to be the longest interval of time for any cell phone-related accident.

Body
The study is an attempt to assess the relationship that exists between the subject of texting and whether it has a direct relationship with the accidents that are caused by the driving on the wheel.
The research question is thus going to be:
• Does texting while driving contribute to the involvement of a driver in road accidents?
• The research hypothesis is going to be that texting while driving contributes to road accidents.
• The null hypothesis, on the other hand, is going to be text while driving does not cause road accidents.
Present mobile phones have become the attraction through which people are managing their communication networks. Additionally, users are able to access diverse functionalities like e-mail, audio solutions, photography, games, along with other applications that have endless. The continued popularity of mobile phones along with the recent, smartphones, contribute to the promotion of, people’s dependence on the devices as a mode of constant communication moreover connection continues to augment, as well. In the recent time, the users have been able to place furthermore take calls and send or receive text messages (Affleck, 2002). The innovatory technology has stunned the roots of our being, and in recent times, has transitioned from shifted from a luxury gadget to an absolute necessity. It is not practicable to choose out of possessing a mobile phone. The Cell phones have encroached on a huge section of the world’s population with the purpose of linking more people, ensuring that their lives are considerably easier, consequently permitting for additional tasks to be accomplished, irrespective of whether they are for personal or professional grounds. An investigation by the Pew Research Center concluded that roughly 90% of all American adults own a cell phone while over 58% possess a smartphone (Bellin, 2013).

Figure 1: Mobile ownership in America between the year 2004 and 2013.
The use of the automobile along with its numerous positive impacts has additionally introduced a supplementary and somewhat ill-fated route to death. The freedom that comes with driving comes at reasonably a heavy cost. The additional attribute is that it does not only come down to the negligent drivers only as the individuals who pay the cost for their negligence. Innocent passengers, motorists, bystanders as well as pedestrians, are all becoming vulnerable furthermore constitute part of the critical equation (AAMI, 2010). The 2012 Fatality Assessment Reporting System that was released by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration indicated that there was an increase in highway deaths to 33,561 in the year 2012. It was an increase of 1,082 fatalities from the number recorded in the year 2011. The U.S. Transportation Secretary commented on these statistics arguing that the Highway deaths are claiming more than 30,000 lives every year, and although substantial progress has been realized over the past 50 years, it is imperative that there are more interventions to be put in place (Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving, 2012).
Any individual who tries to use a mobile phone while driving is at amplified risk of being involved in a serious crash. It is additionally evident that the young drivers are predominantly at risk since the population has superior incidences of driving while using a mobile phone. The 2010 survey by AAMI specified that 61% of drivers who are aged between 18 and 24 years confessed that they had either sent or received a text while they were driving in comparison to 32% of drivers who are aged over 25 years (Nemme & White, 2010). Additionally, evidence reveals that undertaking other tasks while driving, for instance using a mobile phone, leads to greater tribulations for the inexperienced drivers who possess a higher crash risk. Research further indicate that older drivers find it complicated to perform two tasks concurrently and with the main issue being that there is the impairment to their response times.
It is thus evident that, texting while driving appears to be convincingly common and extensively dangerous. The additional issue of lack of the uniform ban in the US is disturbing. Current statistics’ indicate that it is only thirty states; counting Tennessee, that have developed legislations prohibiting texting while driving. Most of the studies, inclusive of the above mentioned one by the VTTI, have clearly confirmed that the use of cell phone compromises was driving performance via escalating the driver’s insensitivity, thus extensively escalating the risk of motor vehicle crashes (VicRoads, 2011).
The statistics that attempt to illustrate the dangers related to the issue of cell phone use while driving are absolutely astonishing. Statistics indicate that at any given time during the day, around 660,000 drivers try using their phones while behind the wheel of an automobile. Explicitly within the US, whereby virtually all those who drive a vehicle additionally own and consequently operate a mobile phone, there are an unparalleled number of automobile accidents that occur on an annual basis involving the cellular devices. Through the use of the study by California Department of Motor Vehicles, it follows that driving performance is significantly compromised and that the intensity of disruption increases when the drivers are heavily engaged in the cell phone. Additionally, the use of hands-free devices fails to lower the distraction levels of the driver (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006). In this case, the percentage of vehicle crashes along with near-crashes as a result of texting is just as matching to the percentage that is credited to talking.
The list enumerated below offers presents some of the most conspicuous figures that were indicating how widespread furthermore deadly texting while driving is:
• In the year 2011, least 23% of automobile collisions were directly linked to the use of cell phones, which approximately translates to 1.3 million crashes
• The least amount of time that a driver's attention is taken away from the road while one is texting while driving is just 5 seconds
• That the attribute of texting led to a crash being 23 times more likely to occur
• The dialing attribute, on the other hand, increases the risk of crash by more than 2.8X
• Listening or talking additionally increases the likelihood of a crash by 1.3X
• Trying to reaching for the mobile device raises the likelihood of a crash by 1.4X
• In the case of the teenage population available data indicate that they have the greatest temptations in that:
• The driving population that is between 18 and 20 years have a 13% greater likelihood of being involved in car wrecks, that admitted to talking or texting on their mobile devices at the time the crash occurred
• Additionally, the statistics reveal that over 82% of Americans age population that is aged between 16 and 17 confirm that they own cell phones
• 34% of this population affirm that they have texted while driving
• 52%, on the other hand, say that they have talked on a cell phone while driving
The study adopts correlation in assessing whether a relationship exists between texting while driving and causation of motor vehicle accidents. In the use of correlation, the rationale will additionally encompass the assessment of the strength of the relationship that is prevalent between texting and the motor vehicle accidents.
The null hypothesis in our study encompasses the assertion the assertion that texting does not have a relationship with the occurrence of accidents and that any relationship that exists is purely by change.
The research hypothesis for our study, on the other hand, is that the texting does have an impact on the occurrence of the accidents in that it promotes the occurrence and that the influence is of the nonrandom cause. In using correlation to answer whether we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis encompasses the assessment of the correlation coefficient. If the correlation coefficient is not zero, we shall reject the null hypothesis and consequently accept the research hypothesis.
The independent variable in the study is texting while independent variable is vehicle accidents. In this assessment, a correlation coefficient or +1 or -1 indicates that our variables have a relationship positively or negatively respectively while a correlation coefficient of 0 will indicate that the variables do not have a relationship.
Conclusion
One of the most fundamental issues addressed in this study is the fact that mobile phones play a huge role in the life of a human being. In order to address the expansive nature o the issue of people texting while driving, it is imperative that all the stakeholders join hands in developing solutions to be implemented and promptly. The issue comes down to mobile phone users, drivers, automobile manufacturers, government, mobile phone engineers, as well as everyone else addressing the matter as a serious issue and actively working to eradicate texting from the driving scene. It is not possible to realize social change unless a counter-cultural progress inherits sufficient following to commence progress (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006).
What we need to realize is the fact that our mentality has to change now. Texting while driving may not be avoided at all costs but it is imperative that we make a choice on stopping to engage in the vice whenever we are on the road. It is necessary that we realize a healthy balance or else our plastic brains will keep on being distracted and consequently causing more serious accidents. On a general note, people need to take responsibility and make intensive efforts towards ensuring that we abstain from texting while driving (Baumann, Rosler, & Krems, 2007). Additionally, it is imperative that Law enforcement needs to continue patrolling our roads as well as highway platforms to aid in deterring furthermore prevent drivers from partaking of the vice. The Mobile phone designers along with the Car manufacturers are game changers, as they hold the tools appropriate to the organization of a large-scale technological revolution that will ensure the fatalities as a result of the vice reduce.
It is normally wise to carry a mobile phone in the event one is involved in an emergency. The best recommendation regarding engaging in texting while driving is in delay making and sending text messages until one has stopped driving. If it is imperative that one has to text other while driving, it is imperative that you pull over safely and consequently park your car, and then send and reply all your texts. One should also make use of the voicemail service and return all calls when one reaches their destination. It is additionally necessary that one plans breaks in your trip to contact friends and family and additionally advise them not to call or text when you know you will be driving. It is imperative that one never reads or sends text messages while still driving (White, Walsh, Hyde, & Watson, 2010). Although it is legal to make as well as receive mobile phone calls via the use of the hands-free kit, it is appropriate to remember that it places the driver along with passengers at risk. The use of a hands-free kit compromises the level of physical as well as visual interruption to the driver, with the attribute of cognitive distraction remaining very high, with the consequent likelihood of causing accidents.

References
AAMI (2010). AAMI young driver's annual road safety index: AAMI, Melbourne. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from http://www.aami.com.au/sites/ default/files/fm/news/2010- AAMI-Young-Drivers-Index.pdf
Abouk, R. & Adams, S. (2013). Texting Bans and Fatal Accidents on Roadways: Do They Work? Or Do Drivers Just React to Announcements of Bans? American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. Retrieved from http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/app.5.2.179
Affleck, C. (2002) The Rewired Generation: Stepping into the Gap that is the Digital Divide. YOUTHFOCUS. Retrieved from http://www.youthfocus.co.za/TheRewiredGeneration_CarolAffleck_YouthFo cus.pdf
Atchley, P. & Warden, A.C. (2012). The need of young adults to text now: Using delay discounting to assess informational choice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(4), 229-234. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211368112000903
Baumann, M.R.K., Rosler, D., & Krems, J.F. (2007). Situation Awareness and Secondary Task Performance While Driving. HCI. Retrieved from http://www.tuchemnitz.de/hsw/psychologie/professuren/allpsy1/pdf/Bau mann,%20Roesler%20&%20Krems,%202007.PDF
Bellin, J. (2013, August 29). Be Carefu Who You Text (or Call): Early Dispathes from a New World of Text Messaging Evidence. Retrieved from http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/evidenceprof/2013/08/be-careful-whoyou-text-or-call-early-dispatches-from-a-new-world-of-text-messagingevidence.html
Blanke, D. (2010). The Rise of the Automobile. National History Education Clearinghouse. Retrieved from http://teachinghistory.org/history-content/beyond-the-textbook/24073
Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving. (2012). NHTSA. Retrieved from http://www.distraction.gov/download/campaign-materials/8747-811629- 060712-v5-Opt1-Web-tag.pdf
Hosking, S. G., Young, K. L., & Regan, M. A. (2006). The effects of text messaging on young novice driver performance. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report No. 246. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from www.monash.edu.au/ muarc/reports/muarc246.pdf
Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. (2006). The impact of driver inattention on near crash/crash risk: An analysis using the 100-car Naturalistic Driving Study data. (Report No. DOT HS 810 594). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Nemme, H. & White, K.M. (2010). Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(4), 1257-1265.
Texting and Distracted Driving Infographic. (2012). Don’t Text and Drive. Retrieved from http://www.textinganddrivingsafety.com/texting-and-driving-stats/
University of Utah. (2013). Hands-free talking and texting are unsafe for drivers, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130612092949.htm
VicRoads. (2011). Driving and mobile phones: A dangerous mix. Fact sheet. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.
White, K.M., Walsh, S.P., Hyde, M.K., & Watson, B.C (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: An investigation of the beliefs influencing drivers’ hands-free and hand-held mobile phone use. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 9-20.

Wednesday, 11 May 2016 15:38

Criminal Justice Leadership

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Outline

  • Introduction
  • Problem Statement
  • Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture
  • Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership
  • Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning
  • Criminal Justice leadership and Community Relations
  • Conclusion
  • References

Introduction

            Leadership remains as one of the success determining factors when in all organization.  Particularly in state owned organizations, poor leadership do not only reduces public confidence but also reduces service delivery. Criminal justice system remains one of the institutions whose success gets influenced by leadership types.  The presence of strategic leadership in the justice system enhances service delivery and at the same time reduces chances of justice miscarriage. Policy making and implementation are therefore obliged to work on robust leadership in the criminal justice system to promote efficiency.

Problem Statement

            Criticisms continue to be directed towards criminal Justice System continues to in society.  The situation is mainly factored by the delay of justice dispensation, miscarriage of justice as well as poor resource management.  This situation always raises a question among citizens as to who is responsible and what the leadership does to avoid the same trend.  As a result, leadership in criminal justice system needs to develop appropriate and effective ways to help in improving their performance in policies and criminal justice administration. Leadership approach always determines the system culture which in the end exerts an effect on performance. Supportive leadership style remains to good effect on performance in much organization (Silvestri, 2006). Similarly, criminal justice system needs to impress this style of leadership to help administer justice inefficient way. Supportive, instrumental and collaborative leadership dimensions amount to effective leadership which does influence not only performance but also organizational culture. Justice administration demands effective leadership and therefore strong leadership enhances justice dispensation and limits delays and miscarriage.

Criminal Justice and Organizational Culture

            The fact that the Criminal justice system is a public institution forces it to come up with ways that can attract trust from the public. Leadership has an obligation to develop a culture that is service-oriented weather in hardships or comfort. All people given the mandate to run the criminal justice system must always aim at meeting the needs of citizens and maintaining the good image of the institution (Jennings, Schreck, Sturtz, & Mahoney, 2008). Attaining this demands   effective leadership which can bring on board all stakeholders that make up the system. All agents of criminal justice need to have a kind of leadership that promote collaboration and promotes efficiency particularly I addressing critical issues in the criminal justice system. The culture of criminal justice system needs to reflect supportive leadership, collaboration, teamwork, efficiency and focus.

            Criminal justice administration requires leaders who can positively influence service delivery from inside. Supportive leadership enhances healthy relationships between those in ranks and   junior officers.  This leadership has the capacity to promote   healthy working environment in the criminal justice system. This leadership style improves performance in justice administration as well as job satisfaction among workers in the criminal justice system.  As a matter of fact, many profit oriented organization have continued to impress this culture (Jones-Burbridge, 2012). It is therefore effective in all agencies that administer justice. Supportive leadership in criminal justice system enhances functionality from the fact that it provides healthy structures for consultation and to better the output.

            Possessing supportive leadership in the criminal justice system translates to effective leadership which characterizes many organizations.  Criminal justice system therefore, needs to impress this leadership from the fact that its employees have to work in collaboration to dispense justice. The agents of criminal justice system need to collaborate with other stakeholders to deliver justice to the citizens.  In achieving this, there must be a kind of leadership that supports these linkages. Collaboration in justice dispensation eliminates conflicts among agencies and promotes making a decision from all round dimension (Wright, 1999). With supportive leadership,   efficiency, transparency gets achieved in justice processes.

            Instrumental leaders promote goal-oriented culture.  Criminal justice leadership similarly need team building. In the process of justice administration, instrumental leadership remains essential (Casimir, 2010). Leaders in the criminal justice system need to implement teamwork as a way of building capacity among partners to attain the objectives to justice demand. Team building and collaboration remains an important tool in skill acquisition which remains a component that determines service delivery.

            Effective leadership in criminal justice system remains a key demand that helps in   improving performance (Mannion, 2009).  The reason is that organizational culture  always revolve  around  leadership abilities and  participation in activities  that  have direct impact on many people    Effective leadership affect culture  which similar  determine  organization’s performance. In criminal justice system, effective leadership needs to be that which supports employees and always ready to collaborate with important actors.

            Cultural aspects such as innovation, stability, people orientation, risk taking, attention to detail, team orientation and assertiveness motivate employees in criminal justice system.  This culture is vital in criminal justice agencies from the fact that they are key   factors that impact   performance and effectiveness in service delivery (Mohr, 2015). Criminal justice leadership must   be flexible to deal with many dynamics and   real needs of citizens. These leadership styles remain very crucial in delivering quality service in criminal justice.

Behavioral Theory and Criminal Justice System Leadership

            Behavioral theory plays a critical role in Criminal Justice from the fact that it assists in manipulating stakeholders to efficiently dispense justice. Criminal justice system leadership has the obligation to get molded on transformational theory, transactional theory, and contingency theory (Wright, 1999).In the leadership of criminal justice system, contingency theory demands the unification of leadership style to a situation that is present. As a result, this theory proposes interlinking different leadership styles to implementers and on organizational aims(Mannion, 2009). When focused on the criminal justice system, the theory presents dimensions which include situational theory and path-goal theory. Path -goal theory affirms that strategic leaders must have the capacity to assist their teams to reach personal goals. Focusing on the criminal justice system, leadership needs to assist junior officers in all agencies of criminal justice to reach their target goals through motivation. Criminal justice leadership can achieve this through allocating responsibilities based on officer’s skills, expertise as well as abilities.  Leadership in criminal justice system must have the capacity to offer guidance, directions, counseling and incentives to its staff. On the other hand, the situational theory is where leaders need to have the capacity to alter leadership techniques and approaches s in situations that are complex and demand to reason. The situational theory asserts that complex situations need leaders who can work with what is available in a strategic way (Wright, 1999). For instance, leaders need in criminal justice system must have the ability alter their leadership styles on abilities of their subjects.

            On the other hand, transactional theory asserts that there must be a contract form in leadership where two parties get bound by responsibility demands   prior getting assigned. Workers in criminal justice system need to be bound by the orders from leadership and carry out responsibilities and reward to come after work accomplishment. In criminal justice system, this  leadership  style need to  apply  from the fact that  responsibilities  involves  order taking and requesting  private investigators services  in some  responsibilities(Mannion, 2009).  Leadership should also have an ability to recognize goo work from junior employees.  This can be done through recommending the officer or helping the officer to get other incentives from the government like pay increase.

            Leaders in the criminal justice system should also follow transformational theory. Transformational leaders have the ability to engage low ranked officers, create trust and enhance links to effect motivation, morality as well as service delivery. Leadership in criminal justice system  have an obligation to emphasize on juniors officers  and  facilitate  them to  reach  their  potentials and  up their  output (Lok & Crawford, 1999). Transformational leaders in the criminal justice system are also visionary leaders, and when they lead the system, it can come service delivery knit. Since criminal justice system get faced with much dynamism, it is vital for the system to have visionary leaders who can work on yesterday to handle today and use today to determine tomorrow.

Criminal Justice Leadership and Planning

            Planning remains a critical undertaking in preparing for criminal justice tomorrow. Criminal justice leadership  must have the ability to come up with  strategic plans to specify  activities to  get performed different actors ,  they way  to get  performed, time limits as well as resources .  Criminal justice leaders must have the ability to predict the future to prescribe course of actions to meet the objectives (Wright, 1999). Planning in criminal justice system demands strategic leaders. The process   remains integrated with different plans. This involves   strategic planning, operational planning and results management.

            Criminal justice leadership must have a strategic plan which ensures that the system responds to dynamism in the environment (Cornelius & Dively, 2008). Criminal justice system leaders must be able to describe current status; specify where to go and the way to get there. Effective leadership must remain informed in devising an effective strategic plan that positively influences the future criminal justice system. Strategic planning is important to criminal justice from the fact that it helps the actors to think strategically. It gives a vision and also clarifies the direction for future. Additionally, it helps effectively handle changes in the environment. The strategic plan is also vital to criminal justice system since it promotes teamwork and solves major organizational issues (Lok & Crawford, 1999). It also improves performance, efficiency as well as productivity. Criminal justice leadership must take the initial step in strategic planning by developing of the initial agreement. The agreement must have the planned purpose, steps to take and resources to get used.  It can then identify and clarify external mandates on the criminal justice system. Most of these steps are available in the legislation for public organizations.  Leaders must also carry out stakeholders’ analysis to incorporate views in the plan so that it can get affected collaboratively. Criminal justice leadership must also assess internal as well as external environment to determine the systems’ strengths, weaknesses, threats as well as opportunities. This evaluation remains vital in all organizations which dispense criminal justice. It assists criminal justice systems to devise effective as well as realistic strategies (Wright, 1999).  Strategic issues identification gets followed by developments of strategy for the system.  Similarly, criminal justice leaders must ensure that the plan describes the system in the future.

Criminal Justice Leadership and Community Relations

            Criminal justice leaders must also have the ability to promote public evaluation of criminal justice system. The reason is that many factors have the ability to influence public confidence as well as satisfaction with agencies of criminal justice (Lok & Crawford, 1999).  For instance, personal attributes including race, socioeconomic status, age as well as neighborhood factors influences public confidence on police officers. On race and criminal justice, for instance, research revealed that black minorities always provide less favorable police conduct rating when compared to white citizens. The research remains consistent with other research carried out in Australia. It, therefore, presents a volatile relationship characterizing the police and the ethnic minority citizens. Criminal justice leadership must be aware of this to ensure they devise ways to improve the situation (Wright, 1999). When it comes to Age and criminal justice, young individuals tend to present more contact with police as compared to older individuals (Davis, Cronley, Madden & Kim, 2014). They are hence, likely to become victims of violent offenses than older people. The prevalent bad contacts easily result in lower ratings on police by younger people.  This trend is critical in planning fro initiatives that can reduce crime. When it comes to socioeconomic status and criminal justice, high socioeconomic status individuals tend to offer support easily to the police and likely to rate police officers positively  as compared to those in lower socioeconomic status.  Hence, it is believed that police officers tend to remain differential to middle as well as high-class people to get positive evaluations from particular society members (Sarver & Miller, 2014). Criminal justice leadership must have the capacity to understand this so that the relationship between the criminal justice system and the community is strengthened (Mannion, 2009). When criminal justice leadership examines demographic differences in the opinions, it provides them with vital information how personal attributes affects criminal justice system rating. The police rating by citizens always bases on demographic traits among other things. People’s contact with criminal justice agencies significantly influences evaluation.

Conclusion

            Effective leadership remains an essential aspect to achieve high performance as well as ratings in the criminal justice system. Citizen ratings depend on demographic issues and   contact frequency between individuals and the criminal justice system. Hence, procedural justice determined by the type of leadership determines how the police and the entire criminal justice system get rated. Similarly criminal judicial system must always have a type of leadership that impresses cooperation and performance. Alignment of behavioral theory in criminal justice leadership can assist to keep the concentration on service delivery and develop other players. The criminal justice system must have visionary leaders who can pursue stakeholders to enhance goal achievement. Good leaders in criminal justice system must also portray strategic resource management and eliminate discriminatory in service delivery. To conclude, supportive and strategic leadership in criminal justice is a constituent that can enhance operations. The contrary is also true in that poor leadership negatively affects service which is justice miscarriage.

References

Casimir, G. (2010): Combinative aspects of leadership style and the interaction between    leadership behaviors. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31 (6), 501-517.

Cornelius, L., & Dively, C. (2008): Leading Into Tomorrow: Developing Leaders for The Challenges Ahead. Corrections Today, 70(4), 66-69.

Davis, J., Cronley, C., Maden, E. E., & Kim, Y. K. (2014): Service-learning Use in Criminal         Justice Education. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(2), 157-174.   doi:10.180/10511253.2014.882367

Jennings, W. G., Schrick, C. J., Sturtz, M., & Mahoney, M. (2008): Exploring the Scholarly          Output of Academic Organization Leaders in Criminology and Criminal Justice: A     Research Note on Publication Productivity. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 19(3),   404-416. Doi: 10.1080/10511250802476228

Jones-Burbridge, J. A. (2012): SERVANT Leadership. Corrections Today, 73(6), 45-47.

Lok, P & Crawford, J. (1999): The relationship between commitment and organizational culture, subculture, leadership style and job satisfaction in organizational change and    development. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 20(7), 365-373.

Mannion, K. (2009): Leadership for success. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,     30 (7), 639-648.

Mohr, G. C. (2015): Reforming the Criminal Justice System. Corrections Today, 77(6), 46 50

Sarver, M. B., & Miller, H. (2014): Police chief leadership: styles and effectiveness. Policing,        37(1), 126-143. Doi: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2013-0028

Silvestri, M. (2006): ‘Doing time’: Becoming a police leader. International Journal Of Police         Science & Management, 8(4), 266-281.

Wright, K. N. (1999): Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies.       Criminal Justice Ethics, 18(2), 2.

Sunday, 10 April 2016 01:03

Workplace boredom

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Workplace boredom

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Introduction

Boredom is widespread and is even on the rise in the recent years. In a 2004 survey of British employees, the researcher found that one-third of employees reported being bored at work for the most of the day while a half always reported or often feeling bored at work. Boredom is something that affects the high-performing employees. According to Annilee (2007), the modern workplaces are becoming more boring, and boredom is the second most commonly hidden workplace emotion after anger. In this discussion, the focus is to provide my experience with workplace boredom, determine if boredom should be a key priority for organizational leaders, and who is responsible for reducing workplace boredom.

Workplace boredom

In the Workplace, I believe that boredom depends on the person when it comes to your actually job duties. Boredom is costly and detrimental to the organization. It refers to an unpleasant transient affective state where an individual feels a pervasive lack of interest in and also difficulty in concentrating on the current activity. The negative and dissatisfying emotional state as a result of boredom usually moves employees away from the work at hand and require more time and effort to get the job accomplished (Jex & Mael 2015).

I have plenty to do at my current job and have no problem with boredom. I truly believe in keeping busy and a self-starter, so I have no problem with keeping myself occupied. I do not like to be micro-manage and in case the job I am doing is not interesting, I do not find myself working there too long. I like working in a place where I enjoy working and in an environment that is accommodating. I can say I have worked for interesting organizations where I have the chance of planning my day in a way that I will get the job was done and make deadlines. In the article by Jex and Mael (2015) it provides a discussion of work boredom and its visible signs, which are restlessness, finding yourself doodling, or becoming fidgeting and sighing. The only time I may get bored in the workplace is when I am in a meeting that is not productive and not providing me with value information to get the job done. Meetings usually facilitate communication and resolve procedural issues. However, they can also be a waste of time, and a leader can call for a meeting because he is not feeling needed, or because he/she is under pressure and he wants everyone else to feel it too.

For instance, when I am in training, I might find myself doodling during the training process when all the trainer does is talk and not engage the members in the training class. In my personal experience, it is very rare to find me bored when in the workplace because I know how to manage my time wisely to get the job done and ensure that I am always working on something that I enjoy doing. During training, I usually feel that the process should allow members to engage in the training whereby it should be hands-on. The training should not only be about talking, but there are some skills that people can learn through hands-on practice. Such a practice helps to avoid boredom in the workplace and also allows for greater retention.

Boredom and key priority for organizational leaders

The workplace boredom tends to be a real threat that is creeping up on employees. Boredom leads to larger issues in the workplace that affect the entire teams and companies. According to Loukidou, Loan-Clarke, and Daniels (2009) feeling bored can lead to sabotage, disengagement, withdrawal, and abuse of other members and intentional failure. Thus, it will result in decreased productivity. I believe that boredom should be a major priority for organizational leaders. Boredom is something that occurs even in the most enduring and established organizations. If employees are suffering frequent boredom, they are likely to be underutilized, and it is the responsibility of leaders to ensure that employees are engaged.

When employees are falling victim to boredom, one may notice that they are prone to failure at work. Bored employees usually become disengaged. As the leader, it is important to help employees realize why their jobs are important and also consider rewarding their efforts and explaining how their contribution is part of the bigger picture (Annilee, 2007). The organizational leaders should consider the issue of boredom with great concern because it can greatly affect the affect the performance of employees. With reduced performance, there will be a decrease in productivity; thus, reduction in profitability. Organizations need to ensure that they establish a work environment that will ensure that employees feel engaged.

The organization can also consider the use of job rotation as a strategy that will employees perform different duties in the workplace and they can also get the chance of learning while in the organization. With job rotation, employees can do jobs that they do not do every day through switching their tasks with co-workers and can help reduce boredom and increase productivity (Loukidou et al. (2009). Boredom can cause more and more employees to start performing non-work related activities so as to keep themselves entertained during work hours. It is essential that organizations should consider the problems of boredom as an issue of great importance as it can lead to lost productivity in the workplace.

Reducing workplace boredom

When dealing with workplace boredom, the human resource managers should concentrate on reducing boredom. Human resource managers are usually central to the process of preventing and managing boredom. The HR managers are key in ensuring the development and implementation of procedures and policies. It is the duty of the HR managers to understand what workplace boredom is, what causes it, and how to prevent and manage it. The human resource department will have to work with others providing services to support individuals so as to identify the sources of problems that need action and to manage the successful return to work.

Managers should also take the responsibility of reducing workplace boredom. Boredom can give rise to errors, decreased productivity, and costly and unnecessary outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. Managers need to ensure that staff are engaged and have enough variety to keep them retained. Loukidou et al. (2009) stated that the most significant cause of workplace boredom is the undemanding workload. Thus, managers need to look at ways of reducing the sources of workplace boredom and encourage healthier ways of coping. Managers are crucial to the successful prevention and the management of workplace boredom. Managers are usually the first port of call when there is a problem, and they are in an ideal position of identifying and managing boredom. With the appropriate skills, managers can be able to deal better with boredom within a team. The manager has the responsibility of supporting and involving in organizational initiatives for tackling boredom  (Annilee, 2007). The managers can support staff to prevent boredom and help them in managing it in case it occurs through providing access to relevant support services.

Employees can also play a role in reducing workplace boredom. It is the responsibility of employees to raise concerns and also tell their managers or representatives about the possible problems and the sources of boredom in the workplace. When the organization is not aware of the issue of boredom, it will be difficult to take any action possible. Therefore, it is the role of employees to help in reducing any issues of boredom. Employees should understand what work related stress it, its causes, and how to manage and prevent boredom. Employees can also play a role in raising awareness about the issue with their colleagues and know the policies and procedures of dealing with the issue (Annilee, 2007). Employees can also help in identifying early when they or their colleagues are starting to experience issues that can lead to workplace boredom and raise this with their HR manager so that they can help in resolving the problem.

Conclusion

There are some factors contributing to workplace boredom. Some of these factors include stable, individual differences, information technology, and employees’ expectations about the work. Boredom is an issue that is affecting the performance of employees resulting in low productivity. Thus, it is the responsibility of organizations including employees, managers, and the HR department to consider the issue as of great concern and determine ways of dealing with the problem.


Reference

Annilee M. (2007). Workplace boredom coping: health, safety, and HR implications. Personnel Review, 36(5)701 - 721

Jex, S & Mael, F (2015). Workplace boredom: an integrative model of traditional and contemporary approaches. Group & Organization Management, 40(2) 131-159

Loukidou, L., Loan-Clarke, J., & Daniels, K. (2009). Boredom in the workplace: More than monotonous tasks. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11,381-405

Sunday, 10 April 2016 00:56

Mentoring Relationship

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Mentoring Relationship

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In the development of relationships, the ultimate rationale and guiding element is the fact that the parties that are involved in that relationship should be able to gain from the fact that they are in any form of relationship. In the attainment of this attribute, guidance rates high as one of the attributes that characterize a good relationship. In the guidance, I would expect that the other party offers a direction in which we can follow in attaining the desired. Additionally, constructive criticism is additionally a vital attribute that should be evident in the relationship. Criticism by the other party should not only be meant to put me down and only look at the shortcomings (Eby, 2010). The criticism should encompass correcting me when I have swayed away from the rightful path and offering direction to the right path and also acknowledging the instances that I have done well.

An effective relationship should be one that is characterized by positive feedback in that the emphasis should not always be on the negative attributes but the positive ones as well. It is common to find that most of the reaction one gets from the partners relates to the negative attributes with minimal emphasis on the positive elements, an attribute that leads to frustration in relationships.  The outcome of such a relationship is that the frustration grows to an extent that the relationship cannot be sustained and thus leading to their demise. Additionally, the person I would like to be in a relationship with is one that leads by example, not saying one thing just to be heard and doing another that is totally divergent (Eby, 2010). Practicing what one speaks is a vital attribute in any relationship as it makes it possible to develop value and genuineness among the parties to the relationship.

Reference

Eby, L. T. (2010). Mentoring. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational            psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 20:11

Scientific Hypothesis

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Scientific Hypothesis
Jane will have a wedding in less than ten weeks. Jane’s wedding is estimated in less than ten weeks. Jane’s remaining wedding preparation will take nine weeks and four days. Therefore, Jane will wed in less than ten weeks. Evidence shows that Karl Popper’s disconfirming a hypothesis strategy is the best and effective approach of providing hypothesis results. Although the method is much better compared to confirming hypothesis approach, I think if you combine the two strategies you will end up with effective results, (Kataria, 2012).


The approach of Karl Poppers hypothesis strategy uses modus tolens in the process of scientific hypothesis, falsifying, and disconfirming. If you want to develop a testing hypothesis strategy, you should be effective and thorough in order to arrive at sound results. The tow strategies are applicable in the testing of hypothesis but works at different ways in developing maximum testable evidence situations. In testing the above hypothesis, I have developed; anyone can apply any method simply because it will result to the same findings. Alternatively, the hypothesis can be tested by contacting the wedding planner to confirm whether Jane is a wedding in less than ten weeks, (Kataria, 2012).


Reference:

Kataria, M. (2012). The role of scientific hypothesis: Evidence on cognitive bias in formation of beliefs. Journal of Socio-Economics, 41(4), 364-369. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2012.04.005

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2014 Social Sciences.
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