Information Technology

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Friday, 26 May 2017 07:44

Agile methodology

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Agile methodology

Agile methodology is a defined software development model that gets applications/ systems developed in rapid iterations. The application development model implements the process with ignoring some phases in the traditional software development model such as the designing phase and the application/ system development phase. The process gets an application developed from different angles irrespective of the defined process and thus it’s not process oriented rather interaction oriented. The technologies of the methodology include the Scrum method, Lean method, crystal methodology, Dynamic Systems development Method (DSDM), and Featured Driven Development (FDD) (Shore & Warden, 2008).
Role in system development
The agile methodology plays a good essential role in the assessment of the project development process. The method provides an understanding of the direction that development process does follow. This is achieved through the process of getting the application developed in phases called iterations. As a result of subdivision of the application development process, the method gets referred to as an iterative development software development model. Therefore, the methodology is applicable in the assessing the project development process.
Another intention of the Agile methodology is to reduce tremendously the application development cost as well as the delivery duration of the software. In the accomplishment of the process, the agile methodology applies the inspect-and-adapt approach of development to have the reductions. In supplement to the process, the methodology takes the development of the application without defining the requirements first instead they interact with the end users to determine the requirements as they develop the application (Anonymous, 2008).
Subsequently, the agile methodology is intended for providing a product that is quality and meets the requirements of the end users and the stakeholders to any given firm or business. The model ensures that the end users and the stakeholders take part in the entire development process of the application. At the point, the ensuring that the application being developed meets the requirements, the software is assessed after every one and a half weeks to two weeks duration. The assessment is the measuring of the objective achievements of the project according to by then development.
In project development, communication has been defined to be important as it provides the basis for a good understanding of the procedures and the requirements of the end users and stakeholders. The agile methodology does play a crucial role in ensuring that the communication is enhanced by the project development process. The intend gets accomplished by involving the end users of the application and the stakeholders from the start of the project prior the end of a project. This provides a basis for good interaction between the application developers and the end users as well as the stakeholders (McLaughlin, n.d).
Pros and cons of Agile methodology principles
Previously the software development crisis was outlined to have resulted from the problem of defining the requirements which resulted in the development of applications that never tendered to the define requirements. The agile methodology principles are quite applicable in ensuring that the end user requirements are addressed. The principles provide an elaborate mechanism of involving the end user of the application into the entire development process of the software. This aids in making sure that the development matches the defined requirements of the application.
The best about the agile methodology principles is that the application of the system enables and facilitates communication throughout the entire process of application development. The clients/ end users, the stakeholders and other relative parties are defined to participate actively in the development process which provides a good ink of communication between the software development team and the end users as well as the stakeholders. This provides the satisfactory of the customers in any project as well as the stakeholders because they have been fully involved in the development process (Dawson, January 22, 2015).
There is transparency in the application of the agile methodology principles. The method focuses on the different participants of system development and their interactions than the process of undertaking activities. To accomplish the interaction, there are one to one conversations with the end users, stakeholders and application developers. The transparency comes in with the openness of undertaking tasks and at this point the management of the entire process is done easy as consultations, and group work is attributed to delivering of quality works (Dawson, January 22, 2015).
The agile methodology of software development denies the development team the freedom of working independently. The involvement of the end users can take to control the process of developing the application. For example, the undertaking of the coding and developing phase of software development will get the application development team interrupted. The end users who have less understanding and knowledge in the field of programming may demand to know what is being done, and this may act as a distracter to the activities being undertaken. In supplement to that, the senior programmers get regarded to have a say in eth final coding process of the application which denies the freedom of the junior programmers. This brings about the imbalance amongst the parties.
The methodology can no longer render the process cost effective as the end users; stakeholders may require going through training before they can take part in the development process. The training expenses can get the project cost more than the normal cost. However, the actions have to be undertaken as the poor participation of the end users will get the delivery of a poor quality application. The model is not applicable for complex tasks that require special training (Sami, March 15, 2012).
Once more the software development life cycle traditional steps are regarded as the core building blocks of the current software development models. The agile methodology of system development has less emphasis on some critical stages of software development. It does not take into some consideration the system designing phase and the system documentation. We have to reveal that documentation must be provided as it carries some weight in the entire operation life and maintenance phase of the application. Thus, the methodology is defeated with ensuring that the developed application is reliable with providing the guideline on the application usage. At the same time, the marketing and selling of the agile methodology developed application become challenged as the documentation required and technical designs required mare not quite reliable to convince the investors. Thus, difficulty in application maintaining and scaling
Agile methodology is being adversely applied in many organization based on the fact of its ensuring that there is sound communication between the stakeholders, end users and the contracted application developers. The methodology can be used in different types of projects by ensuring that trust remains as the principle and the product delivered according to the stakeholders and the end users. Every road has bent and pothole. The agile model is good in delivering of applications only that some rectification should get undertaken on the governing principles and procedures. The process can be adverse by improving on the technical designs of applications and documentation as they are essential. Otherwise, the methodology is regarded as the latest, and it is currently being used throughout in the technological world.

Anonymous (2008). Agile Methodology. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
Dawson, C. (January22, 2015). The Pro and Cons of Utilizing an Agile Methodology. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
McLaughlin, M. (n.d). Agile Methodologies. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
Sami, M. (March 15, 2012). Software Development Life Cycle Models and Methodologies. Retrieved from
Shore, J., & Warden, S. (2008). The art of agile development. Beijing: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Student Name
Course Title
Date Submitted

Network engineering refers to the practice whereby there is a connection between computer networks with other networks using the gateways. Through gateways, there is a common method of routing data and information from one network to another network. The consequential system resulting from the interconnected networks are referred to as internetwork. A network engineer can be said to be technology professional having the required skills of planning, implementing, and supporting the computer networks which consequently support the in-house data, video, voice, and wireless network services (Anttalainen, 2003). Network engineer and network administrator have similar roles in an organization. However, the network engineer is more executively responsible than a network administrator. The responsibilities of a network engineer are more of planning, designing, and technical specifications in a company. Additionally, the network engineer also deals with the administration side of things which is the daily maintenance of a company’s network infrastructure, management, and troubleshooting responsibilities.
The main responsibility of network engineering is supervising the whole network of an organization or a company in which they work. Additionally, it is the responsibility of network engineer to ensure the network systems are functioning according to the intention of the organization. While working, the network engineer must ensure all computers are linked to the central computer as well as ensuring that all computer programs and files are availed to each computer whenever they are needed. Additionally, it is the responsibility of the network engineer to link the computers in the organizations to various machines such as printers, telephones, and fax machines among many others. The management of the communication devices like the maintenance of the mobile phones also falls under the description of the job of the network engineer. As much as network engineers are engaged in such activities as above, it is also their responsibility to develop, install, update, and maintain everything about the network such as software and hardware upgrading as well as the incorporation of new devices (Wasserman, 1993).
The researcher would like to train as a network engineer after which he will look for employment in the same capacity. As a network engineer, the researcher will have various duties central to the job. It will be the responsibility of the researcher as a network engineer to manage all user accounts of the place of work he will have secured his employment among which includes management of virus protection and user accounts. Additionally, having become a network engineer, the researcher will be responsible for the troubleshooting the company requires including issues with the company servers as well as the individual computers. However, the researcher will be needed to keep a documented list of the network issues as well as subsequent resolutions (Feamster, Winick, & Rexford, 2004).
Becoming an accomplished network engineer after which the researcher will look for employment is not an easy task. However, the researcher will take upon himself to ensure that he has learned and comprehensively understood the skills and qualities he requires to succeed as a network engineer in a company of his choice. The researcher will employ all methods which will ensure that he has succeeded in becoming the person he wants and an employable professional in the field of network engineering. Among the things he needs to do to succeed is ensuring that he has all resources he requires to learn and become network engineer (Wasserman, 1993).
Action research refers to a kind of study conducted to improve the conditions of the society or organization in which the research is being conducted. Action research is applicably and widely conducted by researchers using systematic inquiries with their intention being improving ways in which they carry out their activities. Therefore, the main reason why action research is preferred to other forms of research is that it helps researchers to improve ways in which they carry their research. Additionally, action research brings about the changes and improvements of the conditions in the organizations or communities in which they conduct the action research. Additionally, action research brings about the essence by the researchers of evaluating their actions through communication and observation. Through contemporary research, a researcher cannot observe and communicate while conducting their researcher.
History of Action Research
According to the current literature, action research originated from the United States. Kurt Lewin, a psychologist working the United States communities, is credited with the invention of action research in 1946. Kurt Lewin used action research as a method of inquiry, but it has since undergone several evolutions thus becoming the way in which it is today. As much as action research has undergone evolution, it has been born from the scientific methods of inquiries previously used by Kurt Lewin. While applying action research in his study, Kurt Lewin implemented actions capable of solving problems in a collaborative context using analysis and evaluation driven by data. It was through this that he was able to comprehensively understand the underlying causes of actions thus enabling him to predict the future about his personal and organizational changes (Greenwood, Whyte, & Harkavy, 1993).
Many years have passed since action research was first used. During this time of the development of research, there have been evolutions of many methods which adjust the balance of focus more towards the actions the researchers take or more on the research which comes from the reflective understanding of the actions. Through action research, Kurt Lewin was able to challenge traditional social science to move reflective knowledge developed by the outside experts to an active moment-to-moment theorizing, data collection, and inquiry that occurs in the midst of emergent structure. Kurt always knew that one would not gain knowledge without action and for action. Starting from this point, questioning the validity of social knowledge and not ways in which one can conduct action science requires the performance of action research which is similar to performing an experiment which makes action research an empirical process.
Action Research Steps
At some point, researchers will come across a problem or a challenge that they would like to address in their society or organization. While some researchers are going to rely on the traditional ways of solving these problems, others are going to seek the advice of the experts and colleagues in trying to address these challenges and problems (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood, & Maguire, 2003). Exemplary good researchers are going to carry out their investigations thus identifying and solving problems while conducting a comprehensive analysis of the information about their society or organization using the steps below:

Figure 1: The 4-step representation of the basic action research. Source:
i. Planning – This refers to the collaborative actions initiated by the researcher and the client. The main elements of planning step include preliminary diagnosis, gathering of data, and results in feedback.
ii. Action – The step includes transforming the plan into some actions about the learning process. It also includes the execution of the behavioral changes in the society or the organization.
iii. Observation – This is the step where the researcher changes the behavior of the action. Observation refers to the results of an output step of the action research. It also involves data gathering.
iv. Reflection – The researcher reflects on what went wrong and what might have gone against the plan. Additionally, necessary changes are made according to the outcomes of the reflection step.
Suitability of Action Research
The main purpose of action research is solving problems and bringing positive changes in the organization or society. Therefore, action research will suitably fit the researcher’s structured job search as a network engineer. Through action research, the researcher will gain knowledge and understanding of the requirement of a network engineer. Through action research, the research will allocate him some specific task through which he will be able to understand more about network engineering and network engineers comprehensively. Action research will enable the researcher to follow a systematic approach of planning, action, observation, and reflection in ensuring that he has what it takes to succeed as a network engineer (Holter & Schwartz-Barcott, 1993).

Anttalainen, T. (2003). Introduction to telecommunications network engineering. Artech House.
Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D., & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research. Action Research, 1 (1), 9-28.
Feamster, N., Winick, J., & Rexford, J. (2004). A model of BGP routing for network engineering. In ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review 32(1), 331-342.
Greenwood, D., Whyte, W. F., & Harkavy, I. (1993). Participatory action research as a process and as goal. Human Relations, 46 (2), 175-192.
Holter, I.M., & Schwartz-Barcott, D. (1993). Action research: What is it? How has it been used and how can it be used in nursing? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18, 298 - 304.
Kemmis, S. (1985). Action Research and the Politics of Reflection. In D. Boud, R. Keogh & D. Walker. (Eds). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning.(pp. 139 -163). London: Kogan Page.
Kemmis, S., & McTaggert, R. (1990). The action research planner. Geelong: Deakin University Press.
Wasserman, P. D. (1993). Advanced methods in neural computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Cyber Security (Contemporary Issues in Homeland Security)

Should Department of Homeland Security enhance their focus on Cyber Security?
It is the opinion of the writer that Department of Homeland Security enhances its focus on the contemporary issue concerning cyber security. This article demonstrates the increasing threat of cyber crime targeting the government, institutions, enterprises, and individuals. During my research, I will outline the numerous adverse consequences brought about by cyber crime. I will also provide potential ways in which the DHS can undertake to enhance focus and their efforts in combating cyber crime.

What factors have necessitated for the discussion? Cyber attacks in the United States are a contemporary issue and widespread becoming a critical issue for policymakers. Information systems have resulted in numerous benefits to businesses, organizations, and individuals ranging from enhanced communication and information sharing to research to ease in undertaking business transactions and operations. However, information technology has also led to the rise of a variety of cyber crime that includes hacking, viruses, and worms, identity theft, denial of service, banking financial fraud, Malware, intellectual property violations, production and distribution of child pornography, etc. Increased high-speed Internet connection around the globe and cheaper cost of internet services have led to rapid growth of the number of internet users. With the rise in the use of computer systems, cyber attacks continue to rise by over 20 percent annually with the number of the types of threats doubling (Hassanien, Kim, Kacprzyk & Awad, 2014). A recent significant cyber attack that impacted millions of people is the Ashley Madison data breach in July 2015 that impacted millions of people (Nobles III, 2015). The cyber threat comprised the Avid Life Media (ALM) user databases and personal information of Ashley Madison’s users that include financial records and email system. The site got hacked by a group calling themselves “the Impact Team.” The target of institutions and different organizations such as banks and insurance firms has led to increasing efforts to combat the crime. The paper addresses measures of fighting cyber crime and ensuring cyber safety when connected to the internet.

Synopsis of this argument
The perpetrators of cyber crimes engage in them for various reasons that include personal gain and to obtain confidential information from their targets. Private information may include business operations or financial records obtained by competitors. The Impact Team that attacked the Toronto-based ALM was not interested in selling the information, but rather demanded the shutting down of the site. The Impact Team claimed to have obtained about 9.7 Gigabyte of data comprising of names, phone numbers, addresses, credit card transaction details (such as PayPal data of the firm’s executives) and encrypted passwords. The Impact Team used the information to blackmail the firm to shut down the website permanently or would publish the information. In August 2015, the group publicly released some of the personal information obtained from the site and threatened to release much more until the site got taken down. Although the hacking did not entail any personal gain of the group, the publishing of users’ personal data risked. The case of Ashley Madison hacking represents the fine line between the aspects like general cybercrime and hacktivism. The acquisition of personal data by unauthorized persons is risky for the members and who have caused a lot of suffering if the information got used to commit identity theft crime or make illegal bank transactions of the owners. The hackers sought to use cyber crime to destroy the company with its members as well as the public. The case which is among numerous other cases in America and around the world teaches us numerous lessons that get used by DHS and federal policymakers to protect future cyber attacks.

Adverse Impacts of cyber crimes:
Cyber crime, cyber espionage, transaction fraud and other malicious cyber attacks result in significant economic loss affecting administrations, organizations, and businesses. Piracy and violations of intellectual property lead to financial losses affecting the stakeholders. The stealing of credit card information by cyber criminals can lead to running up of large bills hence leading to losing of individual’s money as well as credit card company losses. According to Hill & Marion (2016), in 2013 cyber threats around the globe led to a financial loss estimated at 113 billion dollars.

Cyber attack that targets a business and leads to a breach of a private organization or customer data leads to losing of customers’ trust and confidence. The organizations usually suffer significant customer loss hence reduced profits or increased losses. Competitors may also use cyber crime attacks to acquire business operations thus a company loses its competitive advantage in the market. Cyber attacks may also lead to potential stock market manipulation by cyber criminals leading to economic losses and reduced shareholder confidence. Phishing often gets used by cyber criminals to acquire financial gain. It is, therefore, crucial that DHS coordinates its efforts with other federal, state and local agencies and also private firms so as to enhance information security and assurance. The integration of proper security measures and techniques such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technologies for encrypting data as well as digital identity verification can assist in preventing unauthorized access to a firm’s information system.

Cyber threats such as denial of service or malware lead to a downtime period of the computer system in an organization; hence leading to economic loss of the company. Cyber crime also entails cyber terrorism in which terrorist groups use the Internet to plan to attacks, recruit and radicalize new members, use it as a means of communication and also for propaganda. Cyber attacks that take place in social media lead to detrimental consequences to the victim. For instance stalking of persons in social media may result in murders or kidnapping in extreme cybercrime dire impacts. Production and distribution of child pornography on the Internet has led to the degradation of morals in the society as well as increased child exploitation (Sirohi, 2015).

What has got done by DHS and private organizations to enhance efforts of combating Cybercrime?
I have illustrated the adverse impacts of cybersecurity; hence, it would be significant to integrate effective protection measures against cyber threats at all levels of the organizations. First, public and private organizations, institutions and enterprises that rely upon information systems should integrate appropriate measures and strategies so as to be secure from cyber attacks. The measures that can get used include the use of access controls in the system such as passwords to prevent unauthorized access to a system. The company can also protect its computer systems through an enabling firewall that blocks connections into the system from suspicious traffic. Use of antivirus and malware software is significant in preventing virus ad worms’ attacks. SSL data protection technique that includes encryption is important to protect sensitive data (such as financial records, tax records, innovation information, and business operations information) from access.

The other significant level of combating cyber threats is DHS. DHS is responsible for strengthening cyber security and resilience of cyberspace in this period of rising and widespread cyber threats. DHS should formulate policies as well as coordinate law enforcement measures concerning cyber security among federal, state and local agencies. DHS should use the high-tech equipment at its disposal as well as train and recruit competent technical experts to undertake high criminal investigations so as to interrupt and defeat perpetrators of cyber crimes. DHS coordinates with several DHS components in its operations of preventing cyber crimes that are US Secret service, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Law Enforcement Cyber Incident Reporting. DHS should design a robust cybersecurity insurance market that could assist in minimizing the successful cyber crimes. DHS should also increase intelligence and adopt effective measures so as to prevent cyber-terrorists operations around the globe. Increased surveillance of critical infrastructures and monitoring their systems prevent the potential of a successful attack on the system.

Through the paper, I have described the forms and adverse consequences of cyber crime in the society. At a glance cybercrime could seem like a complex problem that has spread and would be difficult to manage and predict. However, various preventive measures and techniques incorporated by the organizations and businesses and also by DHS would significantly lead to the rapid decrease of cyber crime incidents. The lack of cyber security awareness increases their vulnerability to cyber attacks. It is my belief that DHS enhance its efforts in counterterrorism so as to safeguard civilian government networks and critical infrastructure.

Hassanien, A. E., Kim, T. H., Kacprzyk, J., & Awad, A. I. (Eds.). (2014): Bio-inspiring Cyber Security and Cloud Services: Trends and Innovations (Vol. 70). Springer.
Hill, J. B., & Marion, N. E. (2016): Introduction to Cybercrime: Computer Crimes, Laws, and Policing in the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO.
Nobles III W. P. (July 20, 2015): “Online Cheaters Exposed after Hackers Access Ashley Madison Hookup Site,” Washington Post Retrieved from
Sirohi, M. N. (2015): Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd.

Wednesday, 22 March 2017 18:13

Action Research Paper on Business Analyst

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Action Research Paper on Business Analyst

The article is documentation on a real-time research study project based on database design and development, giving an introduction overview of database features and characteristics. The paper contains an outline of the background of a company that implements real-time large scale database development considering professional and expertise development of the database. It explains research methodology applied in developing and implementing entire research study project. A literature review of developed systems is outlined in the paper explaining technologies and trends applied in designing and developing the database systems. The document contains a proposal for the project defining various strategies and steps used to implement study research project. Iteration stages implemented in developing study research project are discussed in details outlining various cycles applied in ensuring methodology applied is implemented. Planning, action, observation and reflection cycles are explained in iterations. Project development stages are outlined showing the application of step by modular step development of study research project.

Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Introduction 7
Company Introduction 8
Methodology 9
The Action Research Methodology 9
Justification of Action Research Methodology 10
Literature Review on Data Base Management System development 11
Proposal 13
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 15
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 15
Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 15
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 15
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 16
The Plan 16
The Action 17
The Observation 18
The Reflection 19
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 20
Plan 20
Action 21
Observation 22
Reflection 23
Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 24
Plan 24
Action 25
Observation 26
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from 27
Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010) 28
Reflection 29
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 30
Plan 30
Action 31
Observation 32
Reflection 33
Learning summary 35
References 36

List of Tables
Table 1: Show one to one relationship 12
Table 2: Show many to many relationship 13

List of Figures
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles 11

The desire for the business to advance and embrace the current technology has contributed to many business enterprise desiring to automate their business functionalities and the operations. The main technological approach embraced by the organizations includes the implementation of the datacenter and database management systems. The data center and the database management systems enhance handling of the data and information of the entire business. The business organizations require the Structured Query Language (SQL) programming language used to design data centers with database management systems. SQL queries facilitate the retrieving, modification, and managing of the database management systems. The purpose of the research study is providing the business enterprises with SQL database that provides the set of commands used for altering, deleting, updating, dropping and adding data and information in the tables. The research study shall implement the SQL database to handle different business operations within the business platform. The SQL programming language shall get incorporated into the JAVA Script language as well as the PHP language to implement the dynamic website. The site shall support the major operations of the business functions including the customer relations operations, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), the Business and Technology Telnet solutions.

The development process shall include the designing of the three tiers and the two-tier database and server placation. The database shall incorporate the front head and the back end database platform. The database shall support the architectural and the structural user interface to facilitate the usability and cognitive features. The database management system will favor the business processes that include the sales and marketing, the finance modules and functions and the computing assistance social platforms. The research study shall involve the preliminary study analysis process. The preliminary study analysis shall involve the data and information collection techniques using the data collection techniques like the questionnaire, the interviews, and the demographic observations.

Company Introduction
The Modern Techno Hub Company is one the major software development firms in Germany. The Modern Techno Hub Company aims at providing efficient and effective computer based solutions like; the IT consultancy services, the website designing, and the system software development. The company got launched in the 2000. The company headquarters get located in the US Canada. The Modern Techno Hub Company specialize in offering different system designing technologies like the Javascript, the SAP, the SQL, the MYSQL, the Oracle database, the BI Tools and the Microsoft database (J.K Felix, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The company has national and international clients distributed across the globe. The Modern Techno Hub Company has high experience in implementing the current trends of the business-oriented development based on technological potential. The company has good proficiency in the development and implementation of technological advancement in the field of the VMware technology, cloud computing and the cellular CMOS chipset technology (Y. M. Purity, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company has department facilitating the development of the decision support system and the artificial intelligence architectural technology.

The Modern Techno Hub Company promotes the development of data warehousing and the data mining technique. Project execution and Infrastructure get supported by E-base team of researchers who has facilitated key element technology achievements. The data warehousing and the data mining techniques help the Modern Techno Hub Company clients. The potential customers enjoy the transaction monitoring and traversing of network platforms in search of related data and information. The approach is significant to the centric industries that include the financial companies like the bank, the insurance companies, the E-commerce support, the communication telecom and the retail industries (P.L Brian, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company uses advanced tools to build a comprehensive architecture for customer enterprise data warehousing.

The Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology gets connected to the Kurt Lewin, the philosopher. Kurt Lewin invented the action research methodology in the year 1940. Following the launching of the action research model, the Lewin induced a social change using the research methodology to solve the crisis and the conflicts in the he society. The action research methodology also led to the development and the improvement of the education sector through the development and changes in the school curriculum (Reason, & Bradbury, 2001). According to the Kurt Lewin technology the model get composed of the series of steps that include the repetition of stages in spiral form. The stages involved in the model include the planning stage, the action stage, the evaluation stage and the results assessment stage. The action research methodology gained popularity and became applied in different scientific research approaches. The action research popularity led to the rise of the related action research methodologies.

Fig1: The Stages of Action Research Methodology
Justification of Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology is the approach implementing the social, scientific, educational and the industrial changes. The social application of the action research brings the transformation of the society leading solution that promotes peace, love and harmony among the members of the society. The scientific approach to implementing the action research methodology involves the development of the scientific ideas by researching the theories and phenomenon behind the implementation of the certain thesis (Greenwood, & Levin, 2007). The research methodology supports the educational sector through the provision of the learner’s ability to work effectively and efficiently in educational research, the internship research, and the projects research. The action research also supports the industrial revolution through the introduction of the new technology and the innovation that induce changes in the industrial sector.

The action research methodology promotes the process of achieving the ability to understand the development of the software and the hardware equipment (McNiff, & Whitehead, 2001). The research promotes the use of the collaboration research where the researcher enquiries for information from the experts and the professionals. The exposure enables the researching team to gather knowledge, skills, and experience required in the field of the software engineering, upgrading of the system and the project development approach. The action research enables the students to develop their projects in the step by step approach in series of iterations. The iteration process enables induction of new ideas into the project during the development the implementation process. The action research approach gives the opportunity of developing the evolving technologies and projects through the provision of the detailed research process (Collaborative Action Research Network 1993).

Literature Review on Data Base Management System development
The database refers to the organized collection of related data and information. The data and information stored in the database should be relevant. Database Management System (DBMS) is designed and developed with a purpose of maintaining the structure of data and information. The main objective of having a Database Management System within an organization is ensuring that the data and information stored can get easily retrieved, easily entered and easily manipulated (van, 2003). Database Management System is a computer-based advanced software. Database Management System applies different types of database models to design desired database systems. Database Management System development architectures that exist include hierarchical or structural database management, network Database Management System and Relational Database Management System. The first type of database was hierarchical Database Management System developed by IBM between 1960 and 1970 (Subrahmanyam, 1999). The Hierarchical Database Management System is based on the application of the binary tree. The structure of the database was like a tree. The relationship between data was limited between the parent data and the children data. The benefits of the Hierarchical Database Management System were that the data was less redundant; the data had strong security, highly independent and had high integrity (Lundquist, et al…, 1999).

The network Database Management System emerged between 1970 and 1980 by Charles Bachmann. Network Database Management System applied the Integrated Data Store (IDS) (Djeraba, et al…, 1997). A group called CODASYL invented the Integrated database. The group then advanced their software by developing network Database Management System in COBOL architecture. Network database management system was developed to meet the user needs especially for the business use. Network database management system was developed using CODASYL APPROACH (Malhotra, et al…, 1997). Network database management system promoted a high level of data relationships. The data and information recorded could have multiple parents compared to the hierarchical database management system. The network database management system is made up of a set of relationship whereby each set represents one too many relationships among the different owner and the member. The problem with Network database management system was the system was complex, similarly, it was difficult to design and maintain the database. Network database management system lacked the database independent characteristics.

The relational database management system emerged between 1980 to 1990s. Relational database management system was invented was invented by Edgar Codd (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). He improved the CODASYL APPROACH technology by creating relational database management system. The relational database management system promoted the data and information by allowing the entry of large data banks. The relational database management system had the easier approach of retrieving and manipulating stored data. Relational database management system supports the entering big data and dealing with big data handling. Relational database management system applied the technique of the tables with columns and rows to manage data and information (Liang, at al…, 1998). The tables were then tables were linked to each other using the approaches like the one to one relationship, the one to many relationships, and the many to many relationships. Relational database management system led to the development of the R and Ingres relational database management system at the University of California. In 1885 relational database management system embraced the object oriented programming approach (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). The object oriented database management system did not gain popularity due to the high cost of transferring from the old database old database to new database. The object-oriented database was combined with relational database management system. The approach simplified the development process as well as better performance of the newly developed object-oriented relational database management system. Object oriented relational database management system supported text data, multimedia streaming, the internet and the web applications (Nakashima, et al…, 1992).

The research shall deal with the development of the object-oriented relational database management system that integrates business operations. The object-oriented relational database management system will be developed using the SQL database programming language. The SQL technology will be combined with the HTML, PHP and JavaScript technology to implement a dynamic programming language. The purpose shall be to develop database management systems that provide companies with fault tolerance and redundancy free databases. The project shall use the action research approach to develop a user-friendly interface, the back end side and the client side of the database.

Figure 1 Iteration cycle

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis
The session shall involve the training on the various platforms for developing high standard object-oriented relational database management system. The session shall incorporate data collection to determine the user requirements and the systems requirement. The session shall formulate the deliverable documents according to the development process. The iteration shall review the integration of different developments to meet the industrial standards.

Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
The session shall involve drawing of the database architecture and designs. The architecture drawn shall include the designing of the user interface. The iteration shall involve the drawing of the 3 tier front end and the 3 tier back end architectures. The iteration shall also require the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system prototype and model to indicate the operation of the database.

Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
The last iteration shall involve the process of transferring the Modern Techno Hub Company from the existing database to the new object-oriented relational database management system. The transferring process shall take place in series of steps until all departments have the object-oriented relational database management system installed. The Users shall acquire the training and awareness creations to facilitate understanding on how to operate the database. The session shall incorporate teaching on various schemes of writing queries, generating reports and using the dashboard of the object-oriented relational database management system.

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans

The Plan
The session for the planning and orientation was planned to take two weeks. During the first week was a meeting in the Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting involved having the main agenda for the meeting was to discuss the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. The subtasks of the session involved the designing of the user interface. The second subtask shall involve the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. The third task was the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. The session required the researcher to participate in learning different interfacing techniques as well as new ideas in designing. The expectations of the session were to implement a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation. The second week involved the Project team developers implementing the plan project stage. The session shall the objectives of the project. The session shall also define the goals of the object-oriented relational database (N. B. Rehab, personal communication, January 20, 2016). The session shall also define the mission of the proposed project. The first task in the session shall involve the project managers allocating the resources to the project. The second task shall include defining of the scope of the project. The third task in the session shall involve the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. The development team shall take part in analyzing the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The expectations of the session include researcher calculating the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated (J. P. Rachael, personal communication, January 24, 2016). The researcher shall also calculate the Net of Project Value (NPV). The session shall take one week.

The Action
I participated in the meeting involving the main agenda about the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. I took part in the session involving the designing of the user interface. Mr. David, the expert in the object-oriented relational database designing and implementation, assisted me in the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. I implemented three tier front end interface design of the object-oriented relational database using the ASP Dot Net framework. I participated in the development of the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. I designed the interface using the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), the HTML and the Java. Mr. David demonstrated the linking of the front end and the backend of the object-oriented relational database model. I completely implemented the expectations of the session of implementing a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation.

I participated in the second week involving the project team of developers implementing the plan project stage. Modern Techno Hub Company shareholders selected a team of the object-oriented relational database developers made of the programmers, database experts, and the professionals. I participated in the session where the team of developers defined objectives of the project. The team defined the functional and the nonfunctional objectives to guide the project developers. We discussed the goals of the object-oriented relational database. The director and the stakeholders of Modern Techno Hub Company defined the mission of the proposed project. We allocated resources to the project by dividing the entire project into modules each module was allocated to individual team to develop different parts of the project. I took part in defining of the scope of the project, but the decision on which extent to cover was not clearly defined. I took part in the session involving the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. We conducted the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The results proved the object-oriented relational database project is economically feasible, technically feasible, and operational feasible (B. T. Tom, personal communication, January 29, 2016). I calculated the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated. I also calculated the Net of Project Value (NPV).

The Observation
I observed that the entire process of the orientation and planning involved the expert approach of the planning for a project. The experts first implemented a design model to ensure that the project team developers and programmers have a clear picture of the entire project within their mind. The designing of the prototype equipped me with knowledge, experience, and the skills in designing the various types of the interface. I observed that different development techniques are applied in developing the various interfaces. The diversity of the programming environments provides the developer with more elastic and flexible freedom of selecting the language of his expertise (K. M. David, personal communication, February 05, 2016). I realized that the selection of various techniques and technologies in the designing and the implementation of the design interfaces equipped me with knowledge, skills, and experience in using different interfaces in the development process. I observed that the database development using the object-oriented approach involved the proper allocation of resources to facilitate effective running of the project. I observed that the human resources for were allocated according to modular implementation to facilitate effective and efficient implementation of the functions and the activities of the modules. I observed that the process involving the object-oriented relational database development the objectives defined included the functional and the nonfunctional objectives. The objectives were to guide the developers in focusing on the main parts of the major focus of the project development. I observed that the Modern Techno Hub Company relies on different measures and determinants of the evaluation of the project to determine the project viability.

The Reflection
During the orientation and planning approach the experts, professionals together with the intervention of Mr. David, imparted me with the knowledge, skills and the experience required in the development of object-oriented relational databases. The session dealing with the development of the object-oriented relational database model has led to the observation of the steps and the procedures that make the background foundation of the object-oriented relational database development process. The developing team has implemented the modular based approach to designing and developing the proposed database. The approach has equipped me with the understanding about the best procedures for developing the object-oriented relational database systems. The development of the object-oriented relational database model was a direction towards achieving the best way of allocating the resources to the existing proposed project (H. C. Faith, personal communication, February 07, 2016). The approach formed the best approach and the practice for the developers to emulate. The session of the orientation and planning failed to define the scope of the object-oriented relational database design due to the diversified views concerning the future implementation focus. The object-oriented relational database approach can implement different forms of applications due high flexibility and mobility of development technologies applied. The embedding of different modules and programs within the developed and proposed projects made the definition of the scope difficult (K. V. Mark, personal communication, February 10, 2016). The future iterations shall focus on ensuring the effectively allocated resources shall be implemented in the most appropriate methodology.
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis

The iteration had the primary focus on the defining and determined the requirements of the Object oriented relational database management system. The actions were outlined in several phases. The initial stage of the iteration was doing through training about the different platforms of developing a database management system. The training session took a period of three consecutive days. The training sessions were conducted in the Information Technology Department board room. The training phase also involved the studying of the object oriented relational databases whereby we outlined the components of the database model alongside the reasons as to why organizations are moving towards adopting the system.
The second tire of the iteration followed the begging of defining and determining the end user requirements and the system requirements. I began by assembling the data collecting materials. This process included the preparation of the questionnaire questions and presenting requests of meeting the stakeholders of the organization and selected other executives of the business. The second subsection of the second tier involved the undertaking of data collection. The process of data collection took the duration of four days consecutively. I concentrated very much on making sure that all the stakeholders are involved in the course of the requirements definition.

The following step was the recording of the collected data which took a period of one day. This process was the preparation for undertaking the data analysis and it defined the data cleaning process. The third subsection was the analysis of the data collected data from which I identified the end user related. I finalized the tier by validating the defined requirements. I also defined the system requirements by consulting the database experts who outlined the technical requirements of the relational database management system.

By the time, I began my training I had understood the location of the company, and I stood to move the institution easily without hardships. I attended the training prepared by the project manager with the aim of understanding the different platforms of developing database applications and the overall understanding of the object-oriented relational database management system components. I organized myself with a pre-training exercise that got me through undertaking several activities. I visited the company archive where I studied the previous platforms applied by the company in developing the disposed database management systems. This was just a preparation to ensure that the content is well captured. I got into the training. The training was conducted by the senior database managers and administrators who defined and described the different platforms of developing databases. The training was made effective with the undertaking of some practical relating to how to use some software integrated development environments (IDEs).

After the training, I immediately prepared the data collecting materials whereby I designed the questionnaire questions which were administered to the end users of the organization. I also designed the meeting invitations to the stakeholders. I began immediately to collect the data from eth end users as I administered the questionnaire where I let the end users to stay with it for one day upon which I collected. I conducted one to one meeting with the stakeholders to make sure they adequately provide the required information. I recorded the data collected and analyzed the data from which I determine the requirements. I validated the outlined requirements to make sure they get the meeting of the company objectives as well as their relevance to the business. I lastly described the technical requirements of the system.

System analysis is an essential phase of developing any application as it aids the system developers in this case the database developers to outline the end user requirements and the system technical requirements. In this iteration, I began with the training about the database development platform. The training was to provide the understanding of the methodology that can get applied in the designing and develop the database. I observed that the company had an identified platform of using the SQL statements in developing the database. Despite the Oracle defined architecture of designing and developing the database, the trainers instead that the SQL was much applicable because of its flexibility. Subsequently, we had a focus on some critical components of developing a database, and the major focus was normalization and determination of the database components. Normalization is a very critical activity that if wrongly done will get a database with the highest level of redundancy (Sponaugle, 2014).

The data collection process was an essential process, and I made it very successful by collected as much information as I could especially the stakeholders. I had designed the questionnaire that captured the most critical information that is supposed to be considered while designing the database. The requirements were categorized into two, the end user requirements that defined what the database will get to do. The technical system requirements defined the applications that ought to facilitate the development of the application.
The analysis process was defined of quality since I applied the Tableau software in the data visualization. The application fastened the process and also reduced the human related errors during the undertaking of the data analysis. Another observation was that validation was required as this enabled the definition of the requirements that suits the development of the system that supports the meeting of the company objectives.

The iteration activities were conducted professionally. I can say that the training session made me enthusiastic about undertaking other activities as I eagerly waited to see how a database can get developed from scratch. The training session enabled me to have a good understanding that elimination of redundancy is only done during the normalization process. Therefore, I acquired the skills and knowledge on how critically a person can make normalization easy. The training was attended with the personnel that I did imagine they can attend such a session. This opened my understanding of how beneficial a database is to an organization and how determinant it’s to the meeting of the business objectives. The attendance got me with the wishes that the CEO could have also attended.
The definition of the object-oriented relational database management system requirements is the primary objective of undertaking system analysis. The data collection process was made successful with the chronological undertaking activities alongside the use of applicable and standardized software to facilitate the process. I had to use technology to make sure the most required ends user requirements are captured. I did consult the database administrators deliberately with the aim of defining the technical requirements.
According to the phases of software development lifecycle, system analysis documentation is well applied to the undertaking the activity of designing, developing, testing and implementing the application. The output was the beginning of pushing me to provide the actual database management system. Therefore, I moved ahead with the designing, developing, testing and implementing the database management system.

Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
The third iteration is defined to have the development of the technical architecture of the object-oriented relational database management system alongside the actual development of the system and to test the system for the verification of meeting the defined requirements. I began the implementation of the iteration with the defining the roles that I will get involved as part of the database development team. This was a short step to getting the processes done according to the confidence and readily acquired skills. The initial activity was the designing of the database architecture and designs. The applications displayed how the database will get to deliver its services to the organization. The implementation of the designs depended on the defined requirements and the third final normalization. Therefore, it means that the architecture and design accomplishment will get accomplished with the undertaking of the data normalization. The role assigning will take half a day while the normalization process will take a period of 2 days.
The second tier of the process will be the developing of the database into an actual appearance by the use of the defined and appropriate integrated development environment (IDE). The process will involve the coding of the database using the SQL programming language.
The third part of the iteration will be the testing of the application. The testing process will be undertaken in several steps of first defining inputs and the outputs of the database. The definition of the materials outlines the different formats that company save its information and other related formats that can cause faults to the database. This aims at providing some capabilities that can get implemented to ensure that the database meets the defined requirements and that the security is well enhanced. The testing process will take two days while the coding of the database will take five days (Microsoft, n.d).

The iteration defined the application of the skills of normalizing the objects that are supposed to be stored within the database. It also defines the designing of the database and the testing of the object-oriented relational database management system. I began with having the good understanding of the role that I was to undertake. The role definition is very important as it enables the creation and undertaking the required tasks as assigned. This was just a preparation for understanding the follow-up activities.
The designing of the database began with the determination of the database purpose. In the case, I had to review the requirements outlined in the early phase so that I get to have a good understanding of the facts that should get prioritized to get saved in the database. This marked my initial step of designing the database. Once I had determined the information, I developed the tables that will store the information. The creation of the tables meant the separation of the information int specific separate subject to answer that the purpose is focused. I organized the requirements into the tables such that the related information is grouped and defined within a single table for example employees table. A table contains attributes, and I had to outline the fields of the table (Microsoft, n.d).
I followed with determining the table fields. In this case, I identified the information that I wanted to store in the respective tables. The field will describe the kind of information stored in the table, for example, the employee table may have the fields of First_name, Last_name, Employee_No and Hire_date. Each table contained its respective fields in this case there are specifications and links between the tables.

I moved to the subsequent step of defining and introducing relationships amongst the tables. The process outlined the determination of the data field of one table is related to the field data of another table. This defined the normalization of the data. I finalized the design by analyzing the Object oriented relational management system design. This involves the checking of the output about the desired results. The analysis described the testing of the database as it displayed the meeting of the business objectives as according to the defined requirements for the system analysis.
The designing of the object-oriented relational database management system applied the object oriented principles which are greatly beneficial to any system. The appreciated principles of the object-oriented applications include polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation and inheritance (Wallen, 2005). The principles take to get a company with a flexible application that suits the requirements of the business. The database management system was developed, and it focused on the aspects which got the designing of the application to the required standards and expected the level of technology.

Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from
Database designing can be regarded as art because of the many decisions the database developer gets to make to make sure that the application will suit a desirable application. It means that there is no way two databases will look alike because they ought to describe specific applications. The designing of a relational database is outlined in a process of several steps. The first step is the defining the actual purpose of the database being designed. In this case, the requirements analysis is the activity to be undertaken. This will describe the objectives and expectations of the database. The second step of the design process is the gathering of eth relevant company information followed by the definition of the database tables with the specification of eth primary key. The phase explains the definition of the location where the data will get stored (tables). A relational model is uniquely identified with the ensuring that the table does not contain a duplicate of rows (fields) as data stored cannot be duplicated and thus the choosing of a column that will uniquely identify the table rows (primary key) (Anonymous, 2010).
The tables are linked to having the introduction of the relationship so that information can be located at any location in the database. The relationship is defined either as one to many relationships, many of many relationships or one to one relationship.

Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
Normalization is applied to ensure that the database is structurally correct and according to the defined objectives. Normalization is undertaken into four phases of First Normal Form (1NF), Second Normal Form (2NF), Third Normal Form (3NF) and the Higher Normal Form. The analysis of the design acts as the testing of the database in confirmation of meeting the requirements defined and objectives.

Table 2: Show many to many relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
The designing of the database in a proper way will guarantee the development team of elimination of redundancy. Redundancy is a challenge that will render the database insufficient, inefficient and ineffective. Redundancy elimination will get to have the storage of a single piece of data in one place but not more than one location within the same database. Also well designing of the database does guarantee data integrity and accuracy.
In my opinion, the process of designing the database was full of decision making, and this was challenging. The making of wrong decision resulted in the designing of a wrong application which forced me to have a retreat in re-accomplishing the application once more. The process was undertaken in a repetitive manner. I opt to have been a regular visitor the company database administrators who could have provided me the right direction on how to undertake activities. Another challenge felt was the difficult in outlining some of the critical facts that should get included in the design of the database application. The process was challenging. However, the good about the designing of the database was that the application was in the position of getting done repetitively without affecting the initial steps done correctly.

The approved certified object-oriented relational database management system was to get deployed for usage. The proper use of the system requires that the end users get to have a good understanding of the procedures followed in using the system. Therefore, it outlines the necessity of having the database installed which will get the end users through training. The deployment of the application does follow after then.
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
The iteration operations outline the deployment of the designed object-oriented relational database management system in replacement of the existing database. The process began with the determination of the appropriate operation of converting the system. I began with defining the available system conversion operations that are the plunged operation, phased operation, parallel operation and the pilot operation. After the analysis, I was able to outline the most appropriate operation that will get me deploy the object-oriented relational database management system designed. The deployment of the system should not affect in any way the operations of the system, therefore, It was essential to adopt a mechanism that is relatively friendly.
The iteration of installation training and the overall implementation was critical and the subsequent activity defining the conversion operation was the definition and installation of the appropriate software, communication facilities that will facilitate the functioning of the designed object-oriented relational database management system. This action involved the mechanism of making sure that the physical security is well planned and arranged for the database location. This will have the restriction of easy access to the database servers.
The third tier of the iteration will be the actual installation of the database within the company. The installation will be the overall configuration of the database so that it can get for use by the employees and the entire fraternity of company. Before the operational phase of the database management system begins there was training to the employees and respective users of the object-oriented relational database management system. Therefore, the fourth division of the iteration was the training. The training was immediately followed by the operation of the system. In support to ensure sufficiency, technical support was provided by taking to track and monitor the operations of the database management system.

Once the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system I had to install the application. I defined the application converting operations suitable for the deployment of the system. I outlined the procedures involved in each software conversion model and related to its impact when applied to the deployment of the database. Another consideration undertaken was the issue to do with the cost of installation and the security of the existing information on the company. However, all operations could have been applied because the management did not consider the cost but the efficiency of the operation. I followed with the involvement of the database administrators n the definition of the telecommunication devices and other relative applications required for the installation of the object-oriented relational database management system.

After I had identified the applications and devices, I got them installed and prepared myself for installing the database management system. I identified the prioritized data that was considered confidential to the company so that I provide the required confidentiality from the start of configuration up the usage of the system. However, at the early level, I defined and established the physical security mechanism to the database servers as well. The system was set into the operational phase. At that time, I conducted training to the end users of the system. The training was undertaken in four typical steps. I began by the preparation of the training. The preparation involved the summarizing of the procedures of using the application and the documentation of the system, defining the training objectives and securing the training room as well. I moved to a presentation the documentation summary and describing the procedures of how to use the object-oriented relational database management system. The actions defined the presentation step.
I moved ahead to the performance step where I measured the level of understanding of the trainees. This involved the group assignment discussions and presenting before the trainers. I finalized with the follow through which defined mastering of the concepts. I then moved to allowing the database to operate within the system. The followed activity was the monitoring the operation capability of the system to so that errors can get rectified and the overall provision of technical support.
Installation of the database is not such critical. It all bases on the principles and procedures of configuring the system within the company. I had to get the iteration actions undertaken in a sequential manner by making sure that appropriate steps are followed well. During the definition of the conversion system operation, I observed that the plunged operation was a faster mode of change over. It enables one to abandon the old system directly and start using the new system. I noted that the model was insecure in the case of the failure of the new system. It means that all information will get lost and thus getting the company to lose important information. Otherwise, if things go well, it was the appropriate model. The parallel operation was the most expensive as it was to get me to running the current database system and the new object-oriented relational database system. This guaranteed security, but it is much involving. The pilot operation, on the other hand, was to take time and was also relatively expensive. The phased operation was the most regarded as the best operational change over the model. It enables the changing to a new system in phases by installing module by module. I, therefore, settled to use the phased operation.
The installation process was undertaken well as I had defined the configuration procedures well. It got me the best as the implementation model applied was friendly for the entire process. Indeed, the idea of conducting training and making it as a separate activity was very important. The process enabled the end users of the system to acquire the relative knowledge required for using the system. The process was undertaken in steps, and this got the good impacting of understanding the end users. In any case, training is regarded as another important, crucial aspect when it comes to introducing new system within a company. This reduced the possible mistakes that the users could make.

Software engineering field was at one time under a crisis when the development of the projects did not meet the defined requirements. As a result, they defined a model for facilitating the designing and development of the application. As a follow of the international standards for developing applications, I had to get the iteration activities undertaken in that procedural manner. The activities were successfully done. I was able to define the appropriate software change over a model that is the phased operation which cost less and was efficient and effective. The installation process was also made successful as I had defined well procedures of getting the new object-oriented relational database management system configured. The training was conducted well, and it got the end users with the power to use the application well, and this reduced the human related errors as far as software application is concerned.
In my opinion, the process was successful only a few challenges of making a decision. I appreciate the fact of the company professional who provided me the guidance on how to undertake the entire process of installing and implementing the new database management system. However, I wished to have the attendance of the senior management executives in the training also to appreciate efforts done and provide some recommendation, but they did not turn up. I had to define mechanisms of getting to them to provide some recommendation regarding the activities I had undertaken.

Learning summary
Projects are the determinants of organization growth. An organization can opt to expand its operations and often improve the services and products by coming up with as many productive projects as it can to its capacity. The power of getting to develop an application requires the good understanding of the operations, procedures, and principles that govern an organization. It is necessary to have the understanding of the activities that gets the company to operate before embarking on developing the application.
The success of a project depends on the definition of the problem and the objectives of the project. It, therefore, means that system analysis process provides the good understanding of what is expected to be undertaken by the project team. At the same time, it facilitates the definition of the requirements that provide a guideline on how activities are supposed to be undertaken. Designing is well achieved by having a prototype that will define the functionality of the system. Upon producing the actual final product, the prototype will get the developer to have the understanding of the modules to get included in the process.
The designing of the database is also challenging when it comes to management and the use of the application. It requires that the development team come consults for guidance from the senior designers. Training is a necessity in any project development. It enables the eradication of the ignorance that costs organization at later stages. At the same time, training is a good contributor to quality of operations and quality of products. The training does provide awareness to some of the underlying technical challenges that can be handled by any end user of the application.

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Wednesday, 22 March 2017 13:47

New Internet Protocol Paper

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New Internet Protocol Paper

Most of the students, educators, and other computer professionals have found out that they need familiarity with networking protocols. The technical details are more sophisticated than most professionals, educators, and students need. Therefore, there is a need for an understanding of the basic uses, terminology, configurations, and features for the technical decision maker. The Internet’s dominance has made the computer professionals to become familiar with its basic functionality. At the moment, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the used standard for Internet communications. However, the Internet is expanding tremendously, and IPv4 is becoming losing the ability to handle the increasing demand. Therefore, there is a desperate necessity for a new standard which will allow the Internet to continue growing as well as function.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
Internet Protocol version 6 or simply IPv6 is the current standard for the Internet communications. Both IPv4 and IPv6 have a similar basic function, but IPv6 has some drastic differences. The differences come in the form of addressing, security, and configurations. At the moment, several established organizations such as Microsoft and Cisco are in the process of developing and testing the IPv6 protocol. Beta is software that enable construction of IIPv6 networks and which has been released to the public. Additionally, IPv6 provides significant advancements while IPv4 has a shortage of addresses. Therefore, many organizations have gone on implementing the new IPv6 (Minoli, 2013).
The conceiving behind IPv6 was replacing the previous IPv4 standard which had been adopted twenty years ago. The IPv4 was thought to be the robust standard which could be implemented easily. IPv4 has been used successfully while supporting the communication systems in the information society. It has also been updated therefore extending its life in IPsec protocol, and NAT mechanism. However, its capabilities have been found wanting in some areas such as exhaustion of its address, auto-configuration, Internet growth and routing table maintenance, security, quality of service, and mobility. Therefore, IPv6 was developed to help in overcoming the above problems. There are areas which IPv6 has greatly improved such as simplification of the header format. The basic header of a basic IPv6 is 40 bytes long despite the increased allocation of addresses.
IPv6 has also expanded its capacity for both addressing and routing. The previous addressing and routing capacity for IPv4 were 32 bits. The IPv6 has expanded this capacity from the 32 bits to 128 bits. This has enabled a huge increase in the number of address combinations, address auto-configurations, and levels of hierarchical address organization. This has also increased the number of address the current communication protocol can host 232 addresses to 2128 addresses which will not be exhausted easily.
The addressing scheme of IPv6 will also lead to the elimination of the need for network address translation (NAT). NAT causes several problems associated with networking like hiding several hosts behind the IP addresses pool in the end-to-end nature of communications through the Internet. The implementation of IPv6 also brings about a quality of service that several new computer applications such as IP telephony, interactive games, e-commerce, and video and audio require. IPv6 can be said to have been a best effort Internet communications service. However, IPv6 ensure that quality of service is achieved which is a set of requirements needed to help in delivering performance guarantee in the process of transportation of traffic over the network.
IPv6 also has the feature of Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). This unique feature of the communication protocol ensures that transport layer connection survives as well as allows the host computer to be reached easily regardless of where it is located on the IPv6 network. This ensures that the transport layer connection survives. Although the mobile nodes within the network change locations and addresses, the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) ensures that the existing connections through which mobile node communications happen are maintained. This has been accomplished by making connections to mobile nodes to have particular addresses that are assigned to the mobile node. These are the addresses the mobile node can easily be reached. The feature is well documented in the RFC 3775 (Lee et al., 2009).
IPv6 Deployment Status
The first step towards deployment of IPv6 is making them coexist with IPv4 across the globe. The IPv6 deployment forum was created in 1999, and its primary mission is educating the Internet users globally the benefits of IPv6 standard as well as promoting and implementing the global deployment of the protocol. The forum has an impressive membership which comprises of telecommunication manufacturers, telecom operators, Internet service providers (ISPs), and Internet solutions vendors. Others are consulting companies and research and development organizations among others. The current rate of adoption and deployment of IPv6 in different parts of the world is strongly encouraging, and it gives the idea of how the Internet will look like in the future (Lee et al., 2009).

Figure 1: IPv6 Deployment Status
The government of the United States issued a mandate as early as 2008 that all civilians, vendors, and defense to make a switch to the IPv6 by the end of summer that year. This move and requirement by the United States government boosted the deployment of IPv6. A firm in Canada dealing with research and development in advanced computer networking technologies has developed a tunnel server. The tunnel server allows the connection of IPv4 node to the 6Bone. This has led to the achievement of the International connectivity of IPv6 in the United States and other countries as well.
Security Benefits of IPv6
It is critical of some supporters of IPv6 who sell IPv6 regarding an increase in the number of IP address and performance benefits instead of considering the security benefits as well. Such security benefits include the previously discussed Internet Protocol security (IPsec) which was a development of IPv6 but it was back-engineered for application with IPv4. IPsec is an optional security component in IPv4 but it is mandatory and a critical component of IPv6. It makes man-in-the-middle attacks hard for attackers (Courtney, 2008).
Encryption has also been made mandatory with IPv6. Encryption ensures more data protection than with IPv4. The two protocols are different in that IPv6 was developed from the ground thus incorporating end-to-end data encryption. This encryption and checking of integrity in the VPNs has become a standard component of IPv6 which is also available for all connections as well as being supported by most of the compatible devices and systems (Courtney, 2008).
IPv6 also has strong measures for mobile devices. Each of the devices is allocated a consistent IP address thus enabling the businesses to have a definition for security policy for each mobile device that applies at the time the device is being used. Additionally, the abundance of IP addresses enables the allocation of businesses addresses their blocks of IP addresses. This helps in delivering another security benefit. Having such blocks of IP addresses under the control of businesses, they can apply several security policies to their corporate IP addresses which make the process to be managed easily (Courtney, 2008).
The IPv4 has remained with the old and familiar unicast, broadcast, and broadcast addresses. However, with IPv6, there is unicast, multicast, and anycast. The users no longer use the IPv6 broadcast addresses anymore. The broadcast addresses have been replaced with the multicast addressing. The unicast in IPv6 and IPv4 are similar in that they have a single address which identifies a single interface. The old IPv4 broadcast has been replaced with multicast in IPv6 where a packet which is sent to multicast addresses is delivered to each of the interfaces in the group.

This paper has discussed Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in details. Its benefits are immeasurable, and its impact on the organization upon implementation goes as far as ensuring the organization remains secure. It has impacted the organization more regarding availing them with more addresses which have gone on to improve the security of the network. This has made the implementation of IPv6 worth every resource and time at the organization and national levels. There is more information about IPv6 and its implementation that has not been discussed in this paper due to the levels of comprehension. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and professional users to embark on unearthing such information to benefit the users.

Courtney, M. (December 01, 2008). IPv6 crosses the line. Engineering and Technology,3, 21,
Lee, J.-H., Han, Y.-H., Gundavelli, S., & Chung, T.-M. (August 01, 2009). A comparative
performance analysis on Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 and Proxy Mobile
IPv6.Telecommunication Systems : Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, 41, 4,
Minoli, D. (2013). Building the Internet of Things with IPv6 and MIPv6: The Evolving World of
M2M Communications. Wiley.

Tuesday, 24 January 2017 04:14

Communications and Networking

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Communications and Networking

In communication systems the communication channels play a crucial role in the transfer of data. The transmission media can either be wired or wireless. For the wired communication media there are twisted pair wires, untwisted pair wires, the coaxial cables, and the fiber optic cables. Each type of media comes in different modes and subtypes. In this paper, the cat6 UTP cable, the coaxial, and the single-mode media are comparable discussed. 
Unshielded Twisted Pair
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables are used in many telephone systems and Ethernet networks. The CAT 6 cable is sold in units of one meter and it is designed for use in high-speed networks where it can support Gigabit networks.  The cost of the cat6 UTP cable per meter in (2017) is $0.1-3.0.  The cost of installing cat6 UTP cable is $250 charged per one thousand feet.  When the cat6 cable is used for back-end networking, it can support Gigabit Ethernet needs. It supports the frequency of up to 250 MHz plus the 10BASE-T, 10GBASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T standards, and it can handle the throughput of up to 10 Gbps (Damico, 2011).  When this cable is used for the Gigabit Ethernet and below, it can run for a distance of 100 meters, and when it is used for the 10GBASE-T speeds it can run a maximum length of 55 meters. 
The cat6 cable is also used to connect various devices to switches, routers, cameras, network interface cards among other devices and media. This type of cable also uses horizontal cabling because it interconnects the devices and media across a building.  The RJ45 also terminates the cable. This type of cable has the advantage of speed and performance because it can handle up to a maximum speed performance of 250 MHz. the cable is also backward compatible with the cat5 and cat5e cables (, 2013).  The cat6 cable is however expensive and if it does not show significant improvement in the network, it will be a waste of time. It also does not guarantee full speed if all the other components in the network do not work at full speed. 
Coaxial Cable
The coaxial cable has an inner conductor that is surrounded by an insulating layer that is in turn surrounded by a conducting shield (, 2013). The cost per meter of the coaxial cable ranges between $0.05 and $0.25 depending on the type of cable.  The cost of installing a coaxial cable ranges between $50 and $300 and it depends on some factors including the total length of the cable, the access difficulties, which do the work, and the wages in your area among other factors. They are connected using the BNC connectors.  The broadband has a bandwidth that can go as high as 100Mbps. The upstream for the broadband internet is 5-65 MHz band with the downstream being 85-750 MHz. In Australia the coaxial cable has a radio frequency of 7 MHz (Bykov, 2002). 
The coaxial cable can run for longer distances as compared to the cat6 UTP cable. For instance Ethernet can run for about 100 meters using the twisted-pair cabling but using the coaxial cable that distance can be increased up to 500m (with the 10BASE5). The coaxial cable is used in feedlines to connect radio transmitters and receivers, digital television signals, and computer network connections (Bykov, 2002).  They are used as both horizontal and vertical connectors in buildings depending on the purpose for which they are being used. The coaxial cable interfaces include the BNC, Type-F, Type-F, SMA, MC-Card, SMB, TNC, and MCX. The coaxial cable has a sufficient range of frequency that can support multiple channels thereby allowing for much greater output. Its disadvantage is that it is more expensive to install than the cat6 UTP cables. 
Single-Mode Fiber Optic Cable
The fiber optic cable is gaining popularity nowadays especially in the areas of backbones, horizontal, as well as in desktop applications. It provides a greater bandwidth as compared to the other two types of cables discussed above. Its standardized bandwidth performance can go as higher as 10 Gbps. The fiber optic cable is not restricted to 100 meters distance of the cat6 UTP cable and it can run a distance of up to 40 kilometers depending on the wavelength, the network, and style of the cable (, 2002).  The single-mode fiber optic cable is sold in bundles of 300 meters that cost in total $199.9 (, 2017). The types of connectors for the fiber optic cable include the SC and ST connectors.  It can be used as a backbone cable and also to connect servers, televisions, and routers. 
The single-mode fiber optic cable has several advantages. For one, it offers greater distance as compared to the multi-mode cables and it can run for long distances without attenuation (Babani et al., 2014). It also provides maximum security because it does not radiate the data signals and it is difficult to tap into the data being transmitted. However, there are also some advantages for the single-mode and generally the fiber optic cable.  The transmitters for the fiber optic and the receivers are more expensive as compared to the electrical interfaces. Its lack of standardization in the industry has also restricted its acceptance. 
In conclusion, the transmission media are very crucial in the communication system because without them the data cannot be transmitted from point to another. Although the copper cables have been used for some time now, the fiber optic cables are attracting much attention due to the advantages of reliability, security, and speed. However, there is an appropriate area where each can be comfortably applied as discussed above. 
References (2017). Single-mode optic fiber. Retrieved from
Babani, S., Bature, A. A., Faruk, M. I., & Dankadai, N. K. (2014). Comparative study between fiber optic and copper in communication link. vol, 2, 59-63.
Bykov, A. (2002). Coaxial cable. Retrieved from (2002). Horizontal cabling costs: fiber vs. copper calculations. Retrieved from
Damico, M. (2011). 8 advantages to choosing fiber optic copper cable. Retrieved from (2013). The Difference between Fiber Optic Cable, Twisted Pair and coaxial Cable. Retrieved from
Saturday, 05 November 2016 05:57

Research Paper on Google

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Research Paper: Google



Course Instructor



Google is one of the global companies listed in the SEC and is based in Mountain View California, US. The company’s main focus is on the internet related services as well as products as search engines related activities, online advertising cloud computing as well as software development. The company was founded in September 1998 by Sergey Brin who is currently is a director along with Larry page, the CEO at the the standard University. Google’s headquarters are found in a campus known as “Googleplex” in Mountain View, California. Currently, Google has managed to extend and possess more than 70 offices all over the world across more than 40 countries (Google Inc, n.d). The companies international interest are enormous, with the best example being in 2014 when they extended their investment arm, Google Ventures to the city of London, with a preliminary capital of $100 million capital to start assessing for investment opportunities in Europe.

From this investment arm, Google has managed to open more than 5 investment ventures (Google Inc, n.d). In this assessment, there will be an evaluation of the financial, income statement, the balance sheet offers excellent insights into the company’s returns, with the best meant of assessing Google’s balance sheet being via the assessment of the company’s financial ratios.

The evaluation below is of Google’s (GOOG) 2014 yearend balance sheet as s means of assessing the financial as well as management strength.

The Liquidity Ratios

Through the use of Google’s quick and current ratio, it will be possible for us to assess the ability of the company to pay their liabilities. Google’s liquidity ratios encompass:

Liquidity ratios 2014 2013
Quick ratio 3.83 3.69
Current ratio 4.80 4.58

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

The assessment of the liquidity ratios follows that the higher the ratios, the more sturdy the company and in this case, it implies that Google is in a position to cover their current liabilities with their current assets. The current assets encompass those assets that can easily be changed into cash as the account receivables, cash as well as marketable securities. For the year 2014, the current ratio implies that for every $1 of their current liability, Google possesses $4.8 current assets, an indication that the company’s general liquidity is very good (Google Inc, 2014).

The Assessment of Google’s Efficiency Ratios

The assessment of these ratios will offer an indication of the manner in which Google’s uses their assets as well as liabilities, indicating the duration it takes to receive payment from customers, the duration the company takes to pay their bills as well as how effective they convert their fixed assets into sales revenue (Source: Google Inc. (2014).The assessment of Google’s efficiency ratios is as follows:

Efficiency ratios 2014 2013
Receivable turnover 6.86 7.09
Fixed asset turnover 3.27 4.22
Sales to net working capital 7.73 9.16
AP to sales 0.03 0.04
Days sales outstanding 56.73 54.80
Intangible % of BV 0.04 0.07

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

From this assessment, the underlying attributes encompass the assertion that the higher the receivables and turnover of fixed asset ratios, the more the sturdy the company. In this case, it is evident that Google can turn their receivables into cash. In the year 2014, the company collected their receivables approximately seven times every, which was slightly lower than the previous year but generally at a good pace. It is also evident that a higher fixed asset ratio is additionally preferable as it indicates that Google generates $3.27 in sales for every $1 they invest in fixed assets (Google Inc, 2014). The situation, however, indicates that the ratio has decreased slightly from what it was in the year 2013, in the same manner that is noted of the company’s sales to net working capital from the previous year. The lower accounts payable to sale, the days sales outstanding along with the days payable outstanding further indicate that there is a higher efficiency at Google. Although the company’s DSO is higher than those of 2013, there was an improvement in the DPOs, indicating that the company pays its bills (Google Inc, 2014).

The Strength and Profitability Ratios

The leverage and solvency ratios are vital measures relating to the levels of assets that are generated internally against what is provided by others in the form of debt. Additionally, the management or profitability strength is accessed via the return on equity assets and the asset ratios. The core ratios for Google include:

Strength ratios 2014 2013
Debt to equity 5% 6%
Debt to assets 4% 4.7%
Profitability ratios
Return on equity 15% 14%
Return on assets 12% 14%

Source: Source: Google Inc. (2014).

It follows that the lower the debt to equity, the better the company is and the assessment of Google leads to the realization that Google employs a lower proportion of debt that equity or assets in financing their assets and follows that the trend is better in 2014 than 2013 (Google Inc, 2014). The employment of the profitability ratios is to aid in the assessment of the management’s strength as well as how the company can manage to generate profit from the assets or equity used. Google’s return on equity for the same year has been marginally favorable kin 2014 compared to the situation in 2013 while their return on assets is slightly lower. In general, the assessment of Google’s balance sheet, as well as management strengths, indicates that the situation was better in 2014 that in the previous year.

Valuation of the Balance Sheet-Based

Making decisions on whether to buy or sell GOOG shares of is further influenced by the valuation of the company. The common appraisal multiples encompass the price to earnings (P/E) as well as the enterprise value to EBITDA inputs that come from the income statement. The balance sheet additionally offers insights into how attractive of a company’s stock chiefly derived from the cash and book value furthermore how it changes over time.

Valuation 2014 2013
Cash/share 93.72 86.65
BV/ share 152.10 128.85

Source: Google Inc. (2014).

The assessment of the cash value per share in provides the investor with insight into the company even without profits. In this assessment, it is evident that Google can invest in itself at a rate of $93 per share. The book worth per share of $152 indicates that at the end of the year 2014, the company was trading approximately 3.5 times per share book value.

Google Products and Services

The main premise that informs the delivery of products and services at Google encompasses the provision of a perfect search engine that has the capability to understand precisely what you mean furthermore give back accurately what you want. Google has enlarged their service, and product delivery includes products that are beyond the search (Claburn, 2011). Through the diverse technologies that Google has at their disposal in addressing the search needs as Chrome and Gmail, their objective has been in the ensuring that the users find it as easy as possible to find the information they need.

The implication of this assertion is that they have made the search smarter as well as faster ensuring that it understands specifically what one is searching. The main products that Google provides to their users include:

  1. The blogger

The invention of the Blogger by the company allowed the clients to self-publish. The invention is currently accessible to the users in more than 20 languages globally, making it the premier tools that people can own blogs (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  Google obtained Blogger's creator Pyra Labs in the year 2003, with the acquisition allowing for the entire platform to become free for the users.

  1. Google translate

Google translate is an additional product offered by the company that ensures the user access free translation supporting up to 64 languages. The translations through this product are instant and that the service can translate sentences, words, as well as web pages between any combinations of the 64 languages.

  1. Advertisement

Contrasting most of the other advertisers, the ads that are delivered via the Google's platform are helpful most of the time. When the users search for a product, the advertiser can serve you an ad. This service makes Google lots of money moreover, helps users.

  1. Chrome

The product was developed in the year 2008 and is one most favorite browser mainly due to its speed as well as simplicity. The browser is additionally very reliable; an attribute that allows users to sign in with their Google account on several computers and ensuring that one enjoys a similar experience.  As of May 2012, the product had approximately 3% universal usage share of web browsers, which made it the most extensively used web browser.

  1. YouTube

This product stands out as Google's best acquisitions. According to Reuters, "YouTube, which is Google Inc's video website, was streaming more than 4 billion online videos daily, which was a 25% augment in the precedent eight months. The product that was rolled out in February 2005, it makes it possible for billions of users to discover, watch moreover share originally-created videos.

  1. Android

Android is the additional product that Google offer their users and the launched Android by in the year 2007 is considered a direct competition to Apple's iPhone as well as the mobile operating system.  Android operates on the Linux software and is seen to offer the users with a dissimilar way of experiencing their mobile phones. In the opening quarter, 2012, there were 331 million Android users with more than 934,000 activations taking place daily

  1. Google maps

The introduction of Google maps by the company changed everything. The service debuted 2005 help millions of users not get lost, allowing them to travel around the world from the calmness of their homes.

  1. Gmail

The introduction of Gmail by Google changed the manner in which the world saw the email. The product offers the users unlimited email storage ensuring that they are never compelled to delete an email to create space; an attribute that had been unheard of previous to the introduction of the service. By the end of the start of 2012 Gmail had 350 million active users.

Google Competitor Analysis

Looking at Google’s website section, it is evident that the company is in competition with others players as the Internet pioneer moreover media company AOL, search innovator Yahoo, technology giant Microsoft, career, and business social networking site LinkedIn, among other companies (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  In the evaluation of the overall advertising revenue section, Google is seen to be in competition with Yahoo as well as AOL and the employment website operator Monster Worldwide. The additional competition that Google faces is from the online travel corporation Expedia, media multinational E.W. Scripps Company, media company Scripps Interactive, along with the online auctioneer eBay.

Microsoft introduced their search engine, Bing, in the year 2009 to offer direct competition with Google. Microsoft made huge investments in the promotion of Bing and managed to successfully manage to increase their market share within a comparatively short timeframe. Relying on the statistics supplied by comScore, the Microsoft sites had garnered a 20% share of all the U.S. desktop searches as of April 2015. In the same way, Google, operates, Bing makes money from the selling of online advertising, allowing customers to place ads together with both Bing and Yahoo search results.

Yahoo began as an online directory in 1994, and by the year 1998, it had become the most accepted starting point for web users. Yahoo is further known globally for their web portal that provides content on subjects as sports, music, finance, along with movies. Consistent with comScore, the sites owned by Yahoo have a 12% share of U.S. desktop searches by April 2015.

The main threat that is posed Facebook is associated with the socially powered search that draws from the company's wealth of data. The evidence that Facebook has more than 1.4 billion users in the year 2015 as well as a deep comprehension of their interests along with relationships, Facebook is becoming ingredients that can make a difficult search alternative.

In the year 2014, Google chairman confessed that their chief competitors are not Yahoo or Bing but Amazon. He supported his assertion was supported by saying that the shoppers bypass Google, asserting that approximately a third of people desiring to purchase something started on Amazon, which is more than two time the number who went straight to Google.

Comprehensive Capabilities

There is an assortment of skills as well as capabilities that have been instrumental to the success that Google as a company has been enjoying. Among these capabilities include the coordinated leadership group whereby the coordinated group leadership has been central to their success (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012). In this case, the leadership at Google has been described to function as a single unit as well as the effective team that has been charting the way forward for the company.

The commitment to the cutting edge technology through the possession of the smartest and dedicated teams is one of the reasons that the company has managed to enjoy the success they have exhibited in the industry. The creation of the real-time search, universal search as well as the instant makes the searching process for information on the web both more revealing as well convenient for the users (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012).

The wise expansion employed by the company is additionally a reason they have enjoyed the amount of success, with Google seen to have an eye for the new ventures as well as acquisitions that are outside the search engine market, focusing on the areas that generated some synergy within their core. This capability has allowed Google users to the convenience through drawing more than 4000 news sources (McAfee, Brynjolfsson, Davenport, Tatil, & Barton, 2012). 

Subtle marketing is the additional capability that Google enjoys and is seen in the fact that they have become adept in marketing themselves as a brand name. The features that are found on the Google’s homepage mostly just the letters on the word “Google” colorfully displaced.

Google’s Competitive Advantage

Google, owing to their innovation, size, in addition to market position, exhibits an assortment of competitive advantages. Although Google has numerous competitive advantages, Google’s competitive advantages can be classified into three chief areas that include the innovative services, infrastructure, as well as market share (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). In the context of the infrastructure, Google possesses an exceedingly powerful infrastructure that cannot easily be simulated. In the same as Wal-Mart is identified for possessing a highly proficient supply chain infrastructure that has an enormous investment in equipment and plant assets that encompasses enormous warehouse facilities, high-tech inventory systems, and transport vehicles, Google possesses a huge technology infrastructure.

Innovative Services

The additional source of competitive advantage that Google enjoys is via their innovative services. Google enjoys more than 100 Google services encompassing the famous Google Search, Gmail, Google Finance, Blogger, Google Apps, Google Docs, as well as Google Chrome, among others. The immense value of Google’s services is found in the fact that Google has the capability to offer almost all their services at a zero cost to their users (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). The fact the number of services and users, Google can offer an eye-catching advertising model and additionally make billions of dollars each year. Through the infrastructure Google possesses they are in a position to offer users with a huge range of services. Additionally, even on those occasion that the competition offers similar services, Google offers the users with the opportunity to enjoy a “one-stop-shop” for their computing and Internet and needs (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014). The attribute becomes hard for the competition to meet with the fact that the company continues to make innovations further ensure they retain the competitive edge. 

The Wide Assortment of Products & Services

Google’s tendency of unvaryingly trying to increase their portfolio of products as well as services is one of the strategies instrumental to their sustained competitive advantage. From the time Google was incorporated, it has acquired more than 100 companies as a strategy to expand their products and services, particularly in YouTube as well as Motorola Mobility. YouTube currently serves over 800 million distinctive visitors on a monthly in addition to possessing the leading market share of more than 40% of online video market (Haucap & Heimeshoff, 2014).  Google further encourages its staff to adopt their creativity as well as innovation in the daily practices as a strategy of contributing to the formation of new products and ideas.

The Basis That Google Has Employed In Exerting Their Global Dominance

The reliance on the components of the resource based view, Google has managed to realize sustained competitive advantage as well as global domination. The realization of the global dominance of Google has been the observation of the criteria whereby they are rare, valuable, and imperfectly imitable as well as non-sustainable (Bloodgood, 2014).

Regarding the rare resources, it follows that Google possesses a rare portfolio encompassing the patented technology and the improvement in the number of patents held especially with the acquisition of Motorola Mobility in 2013 (Bloodgood, 2014). Through this acquisition, Google has managed to get an additional 24,000 patents.

The Valuable resource as the additional tool Google has been using in their global domination follows the assertion that Google among the best search engines (Bloodgood, 2014). The search engines have been Google’s most important resources that drive advertisements, accounting for more than 98% if their $37.9 billion revenue.

The inimitable quality encompasses the fact that Google’s scale of their infrastructure cannot be easily imitable (Bloodgood, 2014). The fact that Google does not reveal their infrastructure but estimation indicates that they own huge assortment of data centers all over the world.

The substitutability is the last domination strategy follows their clean, minimalist user interface; the use of Google search engines presents the users with an unparalleled mode of retrieving information fast that is hard to substitute (Bloodgood, 2014). Through the reliance on these attributes, Google managed to develop their competitive advantage and the consequent global domination.


The mains strategies that Google needs to adopt in ensuring they enjoy guaranteed success include:

  1. There is additional investment in R&D to develop solutions that meet market demand
  2. There is an increase in the involvement of the employees in the organization productions as a way of promoting creativity and commitment
  3. Encouraging innovations through rewards to ensure there is an increase in solutions that and productivity
  4. Training the management on effective leadership skills as a way of ensuring the company enjoys a working environment that guarantees success
  5. Implementation of CSR strategies to increase the awareness of the company’s products and getting goodwill from investors and users

Executive Summary

The assessment of the financial situation of Google encompasses the assessment and observation of an assortment of indications. For instance, the assessment of the company’s balance sheets offers great insight into the company as it tells the investors of the company health as well as the efficiency of the management in the running of the business. Additionally, the balance sheet assessments offer the necessary input that can be used in the calculation of the diverse line of items on the income statement. Some of the valuable lessons that have been learned from the assessment of Google case include the fact that:

  1. Effective management is central to the success of a company operating in the global arena
  2. Ensuring the focus of the business is to the users is additionally a valuable lesson that ensures a business is fully focused on ensuring the needs of their customers are met, they greater retention
  3. Giving employees the freedom to fix anything that appears out of place is vital to the success of the company as it ensures the company is better regarding addressing the possible shortcoming that affects their productivity.
  4. When data drive the operations of a company, it becomes easy to make decisions as they are all founded on substantiated facts.


(Google Inc, n.d). (GOOG), Stock. Analysis on net. Fetching financial data. Retrieved 1 November 2016

(Google Inc, n.d). Company profile, Hoovers. Retrieved 1 November 2016. From:

Bloodgood, J. (2014). Enhancing the resource-based view of the firm: Increasing the role of awareness. Strategic Management Review8(1), 61-75.

Claburn, T. (2011). Google Founded By Sergey Brin, Larry Page... And Hubert Chang?!?. InformationWeek. Retrieved from!/d/d-id/1072309

Google Inc. (2014). Google Inc. Annual Reports. Retrieved from

Haucap, J., & Heimeshoff, U. (2014). Google, Facebook, Amazon, eBay: Is the Internet driving competition or market monopolization?. International Economics and Economic Policy11(1-2), 49-61.

McAfee, A., Brynjolfsson, E., Davenport, T. H., Patil, D. J., & Barton, D. (2012). Big data. The management revolution. Harvard Bus Rev90(10), 61-67.

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:53

Google is Affecting Man’s Intelligence

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The emergence of technology has led to inventions aimed at making man’s life easier. Historically, man went about his day performing his tasks manually. Gradually machineries were invented to make work easy. Farm machineries simplified farm work that was characterized by hard labor. In offices machines took up task that man used to perform manually. Task such as writing and paper filing ceased to exist as they were replaced by computers. Technological changes are dynamic meaning inventions are bound to arise. The invention of the World Wide Web was the ultimate technological advancement that man had been waiting for. Any information that man needed could be accessed with ease via the internet. Students, instructors, researchers and virtually anyone can use the internet to access any type of information he or she may need. This form of technological advancement may be viewed as a positive step towards development. However, the internet/world web has resulted to a reduction of man’s intelligence as he has grown dependant on the internet even for basic common sense tasks.


The internet has resulted to a reduction of man’s concentration when faced with a task that requires intensive involvement of the mind. The joys of reading a text from the first to the last page are nonexistent as readers prefer to read the summarized versions found on the internet. Individuals with easy access to the internet prefer to read summarized notes of an article or a book than read the entire book. Man no longer has the concentration to read and entire hard copy of a text. The task of manually reading a book is nowadays seen as tiring and time consuming.

The internet has also affected the reasoning capabilities of man. In the past, a researcher would visit the library and peruse through different text, journal and articles before beginning the writing task. The emergence of Google has seen researchers take less than twenty minutes to source for information for their research. There mere click of a button in Google provides a researcher with immense information. While this may be viewed as a positive attribute to the internet, it has affected man’s ability to reason (Carr, 2008). Man only goes through the information provided after the internet search. The traditional mode of searching through different books and article in the library broadened the researchers mind as he read text and books that had information beyond his topic. Google fails to provide man with a broadened knowledge base as the internet search is very specific.

The internet also interferes with a reader’s ability to absorb information and retain it for long. The internet has created a sort of dependability that has made the human brain lazy. Man reads content for the sake of reading and acquiring the immediate information. For instance, when completing an assignment, a student will specifically search through the internet for the answer. He will have no interest in prior information related to the answer. The student will also write answers as provided on the internet without critically thinking over it. The internet also provides readers with the ability to scan over text hence low retention of information.

 In the past, reading through books required optimal concentration so as to absorb all information. A reader would be determined to comprehend all information on a book so as to avoid reading the text again (Carr, 2008). Information on the internet is, unfortunately, readily available hence reader see no need to delve so much on the information.  Readers no longer bother to recall information that they are confident they can find on the internet. A mere click of a button will take them to the exact material they are seeking. The hassle of reading text again in case some information is forgotten is none existent.


The internet has also taken up the role of the human brain to think, analyze and resolve problems. In short, the internet has taken over most task that involved intellectual activities. The emergence of technology saw the emergence of the internet that could be programmed to perform any task. For instance, man does not have to remember that he has an appointment at a given time on a given date. He can easily set his computer to remind him when the day arrives. The adult brain is said to be very plastic hence nerve cells breakdown, and new ones are created (Carr, 2008).  This is to say that an individual that was accustomed to critical thinking and analysis, as well as reading lengthy texts will gradually find it impossible to read long texts. The task of skimming through a document becomes attractive compared to the task of reading through paragraphs of a text.

Other than making man intelligent technology has diffused man’s intelligence by scattering his thoughts and attention. Traditionally, man used to read through one text at time, comprehending the details of the text before moving to another. Technology has introduced pop-ups ads. The pop-up and ads are short messages carrying snippets of information for readers. When a reader opens a web page, he is bombarded with information from the main text; pop-up ads ad text crawls on the screen (Carr, 2008). A reader thus gets tit-bits of everything, but lacks detailed knowledge of the little bits of information he has acquired. In the long run, rather than making man intelligible, and knowledgeable the internet turns man into a confused person with a mix up of relevant and irrelevant information.


There has a tendency for societies to glorify technology to the extent that man ignores the glaring deficits of these systems. It is undeniable that technology has made work simpler for mankind, but it is gradually replacing his intelligence and converting man into a robot that can be manipulated. Technology and specifically the internet have made man less intelligent than before. The desire to reason and think has dwindled as man has become reliant on the internet for all answers. The society, in an effort to keep up with the trend, has also molded to incorporate technology. It is common to see pop-up ads and   texts wraps scrolling through the television and the computers. The small bits of information leave readers with numerous bits of information that they cannot easily connect and make sense of them. Man’s ability to absorb information has also dwindled as he has become reliant on content from the internet. The process of reading as practiced in the past is now perceived as tiring task. Reading is no longer a prerequisite as any information can be acquired by a single click of a button. So before embracing all forms of technology introduced in the society, it is time man analyzes its effects. The negative effects of the internet may be slow and gradual, but they may eventually leave man like zombies, with minimal mental capabilities.


Carr, N. (2008). Is Google making us stupid? Retrieved from

Health Information Management Technology Resume




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  • Dedicated associate in health information management technology with twelve years of health information management technology experience.
  • Additional three years of experience
    as a direct care staff.


  • Registered Health Information management technology certification 
  • Knowledge of licensing, reimbursement and accreditation standards
  • AAS degree in Health Information Technology


♦ Good Communicator

♦ Flexible/Highly autonomous

♦ Reliable and Dependable

♦ Strong Team Player     

♦ Very Organized

♦Accurate Typing Skills

♦ Motivated and Innovated

Microsoft Word & Excel  


♦ Access

♦ Outlook

♦ ICD-9-CM  Coding

Work Experience

Absolute Care, 600 Lakeview Plaza Blvd, Ste. DWorthington, OH 43085. From: 09/2010 – Present

Direct Care Staff

  • Ensuring client’s safety, well-being and overall health.
  • Assisting clients with recreational activities
  • Assisting clients with personal hygiene
  • Administer client’s medication as prescribed
  • Encourage clients to make good decision
  • Promote clients independence and acquisition of daily living skills
  • Maintain accurate and up-to-date documentation

New Millennium Home Health Care, 6031 Cleveland Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43231. From: 05/2008 – 07/2011

Home Health Aid      

  • Facilitate mental and physical exercises to clients
  • Bathing, Dressing, and Grooming clients
  • Observation and monitoring behaviors of clients
  • Planning and Preparation of meal for clients
  • Housekeeping and Laundry for clients

Aero Port Services Inc. 216 W. Florence Ave. Inglewood, CA 90301. From: 01/2006 – 04/2008

Cabin Guard Security

  • Report any emergencies or major incidents.
  • Report any observed hazardous conditions such as inoperative lighting, and broken windows.
  • Prevention of unauthorized persons entering into restricted areas without proper LAX identification.
  • Prevention of any dangerous items passing through the screening checkpoint.
  • Maintenance of peace and order.
  • Daily verbal and written reports.

Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Prempeh 2nd Street, Kumasi Ghana. From: 03/2002 – 11/2005

Security Guard.

  • Monitoring Surveillance Cameras
  • Screen people and packages to prevent unauthorized items and individuals from entering the building.
  • Directing people to safety in case of emergency
  • Daily verbal and written reports


Columbus state Comm. College

Columbus, OHIO

  • Associate In Health Information Management Technology
  • HIT Practicum: Completed 130-hour clinical practicum
  • Program credited by the Commission on Accreditation
    for Health Information Management, in association with the American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA)
Related Courses:  Medical Terminology, Health Information Systems, Human Biology, Human Pathology, Health Statistics, Quality Assurance/Health Care, Health Record Applications, Desktop Database Software, Advanced Coding and Reimbursement, Intercultural Communication, Health Data Classification Systems I (ICD-9-CM and CPT), Supervision and Management Practices for HIT, Clinical Practice, and Pharmacology for HIT

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Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:33

Systems design

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Systems design

System design is described as simply the designs of the systems. A system is defined as an interconnected set of elements which are organized in a manner that achieves something. A system consists of element, interconnection, and purpose.  This paper will focus on examining a system design problem.


According to an article in the Washington post, the US weapons system designs were compromised by Chinese cyber spies.  According to this article, there are many designs of the most sensitive advanced weapon systems of the nation, which have been compromised by hackers in China. Some of the systems designs that have been stolen by Chinese hackers include missile defense systems like Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, the patriot advanced capability 3, and the terminal high attitude aerial defense. Some other systems that were compromised included aircrafts like E/A 18 and F-35 fighter planes, the UH-60 Black hawk helicopter, and the C-17 cargo plane (Nakashima, 2012).

There were also several control and information systems which were compromised by the Chinese hackers. United States has started increasing its pressure on China and tries to prevent state sponsored hackers to continue harming the US economic and national security. There are stronger actions that the nation has taken so that to deter any future cyber aggression. From them look of why the country has for long been attacked by Chinese, it is possible to conclude that US government has failed to ensure that all their systems are secure which include the systems that are used for storing information and also the participants in the departments.

According to this post, it is reported that, in the past years, there have been numerous computer systems around the country including those, which are owned by United States government, are being targeted for intrusion, which are attributed to the Chinese military and government. The Washington post, states that the US designs, which were compromised included those for combating ships and aircrafts and also missile defense vital for Asia, The Gulf, and Europe. From the post, it indicates that the report about the attack did not specify the time and extent of the cyber theft or even if the theft involved computer networks in US government, subcontractor, or contractors (Nakashima, 2012). The reason for the report not providing information about the method of getting the data was because it would provide Chinese people with knowledge which would be exploited in conflict like the ability of corrupting data and knocking out communication. The information would also help in speeding up china development of defense technology.


According to this book by Meadows, she focuses on offering some insights for solving problems on scales which range from personal to global. In order for a problem to be involved in the system design, the book explains that there is a need for team Cooperation. This will help in focusing the mind of the members to getting solutions that will, help solve this problem of attacks on US systems. The system designers must make sure that they think in the systems so that to avoid helplessness and confusion (Meadows, 2008).  This is something that these people should do so that to find effective and proactive solution to the situation.

The issues of cyber spies are normally connected with system designs. The means in which the hackers were able to compromise the systems of US is connected with problems in system designs. According to this article, it indicates that the majority of these problems are part of a growing and ongoing Chinese cyber espionage campaign to stealing United States technology, to advance the development of the Chinese weapons, and later turn them against their creator. The electronic intrusions tend to give China the access to advanced technology, which could accelerate the development of the weapon system and also weaken US military advantage in any future conflict (Hargroves, & Smith, 2013). The problem can be solved by US government making sure that the people they trust with the information are people who have a positive intention for the nation.

Something that US should focus on is securing the military systems.  This current situation of hackers being able to have access to US weapon secrets is as a result of lack of secure system design. US have worked hard at making sure that they keep their information system secure through hardening of the military systems. From what can be seen regarding this issue, the data was stolen from the military subcontractors and contractors. Therefore, in order to ensure that such an event does not happen again, it is necessary for the systems of the military contracts to be secured. China has not been able to attach the military systems, but have introduced other tactics that they can use which is attacking the military contractors (Nakashima, 2012). All the changes that have been done to harden the military systems need to be applied to the military contractors systems or any of the organizations which are normally trusted with the classified military plans.

A system need to be created that will cover this issue of cyber attacks.According to the book by Meadows (2008), she states that there is a need for the system designer to understand the layers of limits. The choice of the system that will help in avoiding attacks for the system is by making a choice that will provide security and also provides a limit to live within. When providing a limit for the military contractor’s systems, it will be necessary to change codes, communication, and encryption so that to, make sure that the hardware in the military system is not compromised (Kamara, 2007). According to Meadows (2008), she states that when a system is attacked it is extremely essential to analyze the system so that to determine what the attackers would have gained.

Therefore, the military defense system need to analyze the system so that to determine what China would have gained through having the designs and capabilities which will need to be modified in order to avoid being made obsolete. Another way that US can do so that to help in avoiding attacks on its system is through counter attacks. Counter hacking is a method that has been used by many people, which would help the military in destroying the stolen data or even recovering the data (Hargroves, & Smith, 2013). The system designers can also decide to create sites that contain bogus, but at the same tantalizing information that contain backdoors or malware that may affect the attacking system. This will allow United States to connect back into them.


A means in which these problems can be solved so that to prevent from happening ever again, it is necessary for United States to ensure that they start naming and shaming china. In order to do this, nation will require issuing more information that indicates China as a country with bad cyber actor. Later, the US leaders will use this information in calling out for china in speeches and also in diplomatic discussions.  According to reports about the system design being hacked, it is because US has been seeking collaboration with China about cybercrime (Nakashima, 2012). This is not the way to go because, it indicates that US is inviting China to steal US secrets. Instead of inviting China, US need to take a tougher line with china so that to cease cooperation with China on the issue of cyber security (Meadows, 2008).

Another possibility that could have resulted to increase on US system designs being compromised by Chinese hackers is that US has been engaging in cyber exchanges, and cyber war games with Chinese when these hackers have been taking advantage of the information that they acquire from the association, and they get to learn how to better hack United States systems (Kamara, 2007). The continued collaboration with China proves that United States known about the problem, but they feel to do anything about the issues which emboldens China.  This is the reason as to why China is still attaching United States system designs because US is not taking steps to help in solving the situation. It is necessary for US to consider working with allies who will help in taking legal and economic actions against the Chinese companies who tend to peddle the stolen property.

There are lots of United States military and business secrets which are being stolen by the Chinese as part of the extensive cyber campaign. From the information that Chinese get from US, they are using this information in advancing their economy and weapons capabilities; thus, making United States system design be useless. Therefore, in order for such cases to be avoided, US need to stand up to china and make them feel the pain of stealing their secrets (Meadows, 2008). Failure to do this will result to more incidences of hackers stealing US weapons system designs.  With the increasing rate in which secrets are being stolen from US military, it indicates that the nation fail to provide a better system that will ensure the safety of its secrets. A factor that would have resulted to United States military system being attacked is failure of ensuring the viability of the cyber capabilities and defenses.

There is a lot that the military system should do in addressing the issue of security by addressing cyber threats in establishing the right balance of integrated cyber forces, defenses, and capabilities. In order to understand the cause of the problem facing the nation, it is necessary to start restructuring the systems that they are using (Meadows, 2008). The system that is being used in storing information regarding the military operations should be changed through conducting research that will help in determining strategies that then military department with the use, so that to avoid hackers from accessing into US information systems.


Hargroves, K & Smith, M (2013). Whole system design Routledge

Kamara, F (2007). System design activities AuthorHouse

Meadows, D (2008). Thinking in systems Chelsea Green Publishing

Nakashima, E (2012). Confidential report lists US weapons system design compromised by Chinese cyber spies Washington Post retrieved from

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