Communication and Media

Communication and Media (13)

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:37

Letter to retirees

Written by

From Mr. H Young

Vice President, Human Resources

To Retirees

Ref: The Need to Switch to HMO

The company has traditionally provided the retired employees of this company a health insurance cover for those who had worked at the company for twenty years. However, with the challenging economic times, the company has to cut down costs of health insurance for employees.

This is by adopting the health maintenance organizations and abandoning the open-ended insurance. Though some of the retirees were not for this idea because of the need to maintain their doctors, the program is still very high for this company. The total number of retirees at this company are 41 and 15 of them suffer from chronic problems. The number of retirees needing our support gives us no choice, but need to cut down costs. Only 15 of them do not suffer from serious health problems.

We still stick with HMOs since they have the best ways of helping this company cut down cost. The HMO is paid at a flat fee. Our only choice for the retirees is to select a plan within HMO showing us their most preferred plan. An example of an HMO is the Accountable Care Organization. It provides coordinated care for those suffering chronic disease. This leads to the improvement of care to patients. The payment is focused on the achievement of health care quality outcomes and goals that lead to cost savings (CMS. Gov 2013). There are many other options which re well understood by retirees to suit their specific needs.
In order to discuss issues on HMO options, we will hold a meeting on July 15th to 17th 213 to explain to you the various available options. Retirees will then be given two months to return a card indicating their selected option. For those failing to return this card, company will select one for them.



CMS. Gov (2013) Accountable care organizations. Retrieved from

On June 26th 2013

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:46

Security and Privacy Plan

Written by

Security and Privacy Plan
Hospitals rely on various category of information in order to operate effectively. These categories of information include; patient specific information, knowledge based information, comparative information and aggregate information (Glaser, Lee & Wager, 2009). Patient specific information is essential in assisting the organization to plan for patient care. However, failure to establish an effective information management plan can expose the patient to privacy and security breaches. Similarly, the absence of an effective information management plan can also result in loss of information during disasters. In the Gulf Coast case, patients’ files were washed away with the receding water after the town was struck by a hurricane. This paper presents a plan that has enabled the Gulf Coast hospital to manage patient information effectively in the event of the flood disaster.

Patient Information Management Plan
Healthcare organizations provide highly sensitive services. Thus, the organization must maintain the highest degree of information system availability (Glaser, Lee & Wager, 2009). This is because the availability of patient information has a large impact on the process of care delivery. Patients’ health is usually at risk when there is lack of access to healthcare information in the event of a disaster. Loss of data in the event of disasters can also have economic implications on the hospital. These implications include loss of revenue due to inability to provide care during the emergency situation, loss of credibility and trust resulting in the long term loss of patients and penalties for non-compliance with government regulations. The hospital will also incur costs in the process of recovering and repairing lost data, as well as, in meeting legal costs. Statistics reveal that 43% of organizations that loss their information during disaster never reopen while close to 29% of the organizations that reopen close shop within two years.

HIPAA is a set of federal regulations that governs the management of patient information in the country (Lucchesi, 2011). HIPPA covered entities such as hospitals are expected to have a contingency plan to ensure that there is continued access of data in the event of a disaster. HIPPA disaster recovery requirements compel organizations to have a back-up plan, as well as, disaster recovery and emergency mode plan. In the Gulf Coast, patient files have been washed away by floods. The first step in the data management plan is to create a crisis communication team.

1. Crisis Communication Team

Disasters such as floods disrupt the normal operations of organizations. The hospital has to find alternative ways of running its operations. This can create confusion on the part of patients, hospital personnel and other stakeholders. Patients and stakeholders will not know what is happening and may become angry leading negative reactions (Kirvan, 2011). The communication team will establish ways of reaching patients and other stakeholders. The communication team will also convey the response plan put in place, by the hospital, to the stakeholders. For instance, they can direct the patients on what to do in case they needed to receive care. The second step in the management of the Gulf Coast situation is to activate the emergency mode operation plan.

2. Emergency Mode Operation Plan

The emergency operation plan describes how the hospital could continue to protect patient information and deliver services during an emergency situation (Lucchesi, 2011). Disaster destabilizes the normal operations of the organization. The hospital has to initiate an emergency operation plan in order to restore the hospital operations to minimally acceptable standards. The emergency mode operation plan is initiated after an assessment is conducted. The aim of the assessment is to evaluate the extent of the damage caused by the flood. The hospital has to evaluate the amount of information that is lost and how the loss will affect the operation of the organization. This exercise is known as the Business Impact Analysis (BIA).

BIA also entails identifying minimal resources that will be required to keep the hospital activities running (Lucchesi, 2011). For instance, if the flood had damaged the hardware used to store and retrieve information, the hospital will have to acquire new hardware so as to restore the operations of the hospital. The hospital management determines key patient care department. These departments are given priority during the emergency plan. The hospital management also determines critical information that is required in the hospital. This may include patient health records. The emergency plan also focuses on retrieving this information. The management also determines the data that each department can do without. This evaluation process enables the management to identify priority areas and focus on these areas.
The emergency operation plan is also determined by business recovery objectives and assumptions of the organization (Lucchesi, 2011).
This objectives and assumptions were developed during the development of the plan. They stipulate the organization priorities in the recovery of data in emergency situations. For instance, the recovery objective of the hospital may be to enable the hospital to provide emergency health services. Thus, the emergency mode operation plan will focus on retrieving data that support the operations of the hospital’s emergency department. The emergency plan also considers the operational, financial and reputational impact of the loss. For instance, if the hospital specializes in heart treatment, this cardiology department will form the focus of the recovery process as losses that affect this department will have high consequences on the organization.

3. Disaster Recovery Plan

The data recovery plan identifies processes and procedures that will ensure that patient information is restored in the event of loss (Kirvan, 2011). The flood that affected the hospital led to loss of patient files. The emergency mode operation plan has just restored the hospital’s essential operations. Recovery of all health record is essential in ensuring that the hospital reverts to its normal levels of operation. The disaster recovery plan assists the organization to recover all the data lost during the emergency situation.

The data recovery plan documents all the process and procedures required to restore the hospital operations to normal levels (Lucchesi, 2011). This includes identifying alternative site of operation and team participation. The plan will indicate hospital employees that will be in charge of the recovery process and their role in this process. The disaster recovery plan also stipulates the restoration sequence. The restoration sequence will also be affected by the recovery objectives and assumptions of the organization. The sequence will also be determined by financials and other considerations.

Risk Assessment

The hospital had put in place various measures for protecting patient information from such disasters. One of these measures is risk assessment (Lucchesi, 2011). Risk assessment is a proactive process of managing patient information. This approach entails assessing the hospital environment in order to identify potential threats to the security of patient information. This process helps the organization to identify both external and internal threats to health care information.
Risk assessment also entails the process of quantifying risk. The assessment focuses of identifying the magnitude of the risk, as well as, the probability of the risk occurring. The process of quantifying risk enables the organization to identify risks that the organization needs to assign the highest priority. At any given time, the organization is faced by numerous risks. Resource constraints make it impossible for the organization to plan for all the risks. The process of quantifying risks enable the organization to identify the risk that it should focus on and risk that can be ignored. The risk assessment process enables the organization to come up with plans for preventing or mitigating the identified risks.

Data Backup Plan

Another mechanism that enabled the hospital to deal with the emergency situation is the data backup plan (Ranajee, 2012). Data backup plan entails the creation of systems that allow the hospital to restore all the patients’ health information systems. The data backup plan comprised of multiple mechanisms for ensuring that patient information is recovered. The first mechanism entails writing information in removable media such as CD, DVDs and tapes and placing them in alternative locations. Multiple versions of hospital data were created and stored both onsite and offsite. The flood destroyed the information that was stored onsite. However, the information that was stored offsite is still intact and will be used in the emergency operation and recovery process.

The hospital had also implemented the synchronous data mirroring technology (Ranajee, 2012). This technology enables the hospital to copy data to another location at the same time as input is being made. The technology has enhanced the security of patient information as it ensures that patient information is backed up on a continuous basis. The CDs and DVDs were only written at regular period and thus could result in loss of information that was acquired between the writing sessions. The mirroring technology has also automated the data recovery process thus minimizing human error and making the recovery process fast.

The synchronous mirroring technology also enabled the hospital to create virtualized environments for storing and retrieving information (Ranajee, 2012). Virtual environments are easier to manage than physical environments. This is because information is stored in virtual locations rather than physical locations. This makes the loss of data impossible in the event of natural disaster. The virtualized environment also makes the process of recovering the information during disasters easy.

Personnel Training

HIPPA requires hospitals to train all hospital employees on the security and protection of patient health information (Kirvan, 2011). Disaster recovery plans have no use in an organization if they are not implemented effectively. These plans are implemented by employees thus making the process of personnel training vital in the management of health information. The hospital had put in place disaster recovery training and awareness programs. These programs’ target is to prepare employees to respond to emergency situations as stipulated in the plan. The training and awareness programs are design to equip the employees with skills that will enable them to implement their roles within the recovery process. The programs are implemented on a continual manner so as to ensure that employees are updated about modifications in the plan.

The data management plan also focuses on protecting the security of patient information during emergency situations (Ranajee, 2012). The plan has established a multilayered physical security system that includes; video monitoring, biometric technology, cages and private suites. Strict access control protocols have also been implemented to protect patient information. Only authorized persons can gain access to the data center.

Similarly, the disaster management plan needs to be subjected to regular testing and modification (Kirvan, 2010). The disaster management plan can only become efficient through continual improvement. The hospital management focuses on ensuring that existing security and disaster recovery systems are tested so as to identify points of weakness. Modifications are made so as to address the identified weakness leading to the development of an efficient data management plan.


Information is a vital element in the operations of healthcare organizations. Hospitals need patient information to design effective care. Hospitals also require patient and other information to inform their strategic and operational decisions. Disasters pose a significant risk to the security of healthcare information. Disasters can cut of existing infrastructure and wash away existing health records. In the Gulf Coast case, all patient files were washed away by floods. Hospitals need an effective emergency and disaster recovery plan in order to manage patient and other information during such incidents.
The Gulf Coast Hospital data management plan comprised of a crisis communication plan, emergency mode operation plan and data recovery plan. The crisis communication plan enables the hospital to inform patients and other stakeholders about the plans that hospital will implement in dealing with the situation. The emergency mode operation plans enable the hospital to restore essential operations by recovering vital information. The recovery plan enables the hospital to restore the hospital to normal operations by recovering the entire hospital data. The management plan was enabled by established processes such as risks assessment, data backup plan and employee training.

Glaser J. Lee F. & Wager K. (2009). Healthcare Information System. A practical Approach to Health Care Management. USA. John Wiley & Sons
Kirvan P. (2010). Data Center Recovery Plan Template and Guide. June 20, 2013.
Kirvan P. (2011). Disaster Recovery Awareness and Testing require Training, Strategic Plans. June 20, 2013.
Lucchesi R. (2011). Meeting HIPAA Disaster Recovery Requirements Tough but Possible. June 20, 2013.
Ranajee N. (2012). Best Practices in Healthcare Disaster Recovery Planning. June 20, 2012.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:39


Written by

In his video, Thomas Goetz addresses how healthcare professional can exploit some underutilized resources (people). He states that people have failed to utilize information dispensed to them. This has posed a major challenge in management of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and obesity which require behavior change. According to Thomas Goetz, behavior change is a long standing problem in healthcare. Despite doctors and other healthcare professionals depending on behavior change, there is little that is being done to change the worrying state of the situation. Doctors should strive to give information that educate, inform and help patients make better decisions and choices in life.

Thomas Goetz sites dentistry as one of the medicine fields that have effectively used behavior change to improve preventive health. He gives an example of Connecticut study where researchers studied a cohort the of population. In the research, efficacy rather than fear was demonstrated as the main force behind behavior change. The sense of efficacy as the driving force behind behavior change was also demonstrated by Bandura, who concluded that if a person believes they have the potential to change their behavior, and then they are more likely to adopt the positive behavior.
Therefore, in healthcare, the attitude and conviction of the patient is a strong force behind betting better. However, healthcare practitioners are not able to manipulate this concept among patients. Thomas Goetz notes that instead of using fear to pass behavior change information, healthcare practitioners should use personalized information. It is crucial for healthcare providers to give client specific information pertaining the potential outcome of their condition. They should connect personalized data with the lives of the patient.
Information should always be connected with emotions and actions. Despite the importance of personalized data in healthcare, many institutions have challenges in gathering and maintaining such information. There is lack of a complete feedback system between action and information given. Healthcare practitioners do not use the information to achieve the desired change. Thomas Goetz contrast how commercial adverts are craftily made compared to behavior change adverts, which are poorly done. Lack of good faith in the development and dissemination of health information is a major challenge. He gives a classical example of Scwatz and Woloshin, who used pharmaceutical advert to reach out the audience.
The advert gave particular information that relates to the audience. The audience is given information on the effectiveness of the drug, and then given choices. To describe how packaging of information is crucial, Thomas Goetz gives another example of lab test results. Lab report results are presented in a way that makes them unclear, not only for patients, but also to doctors. However, a proper presentation of the same lab report can be used to change behaviors among client. Thomas Goetz explains how itemization of the report can be effective in passing the relevant information. Healthcare providers can also use other strategies to simply and consequently personalized information. Through simplified versions of blood and CRP tests, Thomas Goetz demonstrates how healthcare providers can improve how they communicate with patients, and how they can use the information to influence decisions and choices made patients.
Personalization of risks while conducting PSA test is another effective way information can be used to communicate effective with patients. Identifying targets of any information is crucial in deciding how it will be packaged and passed. In conclusion, Thomas Goetz argues practitioners and patients to develop feedback report, which helps breaking down of information into understandable units that will help in decision making.

Healthcare is undergoing a massive transformation in terms of technologies, procedures, treatments and medications. Healthcare providers are expected to adopted these new technologies and procedures in their daily activities (Barbara, 2002). Use of technology in healthcare has increased efficiency in management of patient information. Electronic health records has transformed management of health records and consequently saved a lot of time. Physician have been given able time with patient because they do not have to saunter from one part of the hospital to other searching for a client’s information.

However, the revolutionary concept of technology in healthcare is not with challenge. Many healthcare institutions are adopting new technology to gain a competitive edge. Purchase and installation of some of these electronic devices is costing healthcare facilities a lot of money. Technology use is also being hampered by social factors such as the age of the physicians. With the use of EHR, maintenance of patient privacy has become a huge challenge.


Healthcare facilities and practitioners depend heavily on effective communication to achieve behavior change or even help patient decide. However, most health information is being communicated in unorganized, complex and not user friendly manner. There is a need to change the way information is packaged in healthcare setup. Physician should use language that is easy to understand, personalize information, offer specific and precise information that will help the patient understand the alternatives they have so as they can make informed decisions.


Thomas Goetz: It's time to redesign medical data. Retrieved from
Barbara L. M. (2002). Medical Informatics for Better and Safer Health Care. Retrieved on 17/6/2013

Thursday, 24 March 2016 19:37

Language Disorders

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Language Disorders
Language disorders are medical conditions that are characterized by difficulties in processing linguistic information. Language disorders can be divided into two broad categories; receptive and expressive disorders (Logsdon, 2010). Receptive disorders are signified by difficulties in understanding communicated information. Expressive disorder is characterized by difficulties in conveying information to other people. In most cases, language disorders are caused by unknown factors. Some of the known factors that can lead to the development of language disorders include; mental retardation, brain injury, neurological disorders, hearing loss and drug abuse.

Dennis (2010) has addressed some of the factors that may be responsible for development of language disorder. Dennis (2010) noted that language can be distorted by acquired and congenital conditions. Congenital conditions are conditions that develop before the child is born. Many children are born with defects in the brain mechanism that is responsible for language. One of these conditions is spina bifida meningomyelicele. This is a condition that is associated with structural abnormalities in the formation of the brain and spine. Inborn error of metabolism is another condition that can disrupt language mechanism. Errors in metabolic processes can result in distortion in the processing of language. Unilateral congenital defects can also affect language processing.

Language disorders may also be caused by acquired conditions (Dennis, 2010). One such condition is the seizure disorder. Clinical seizures can affect the language processing mechanism of the brain leading to language disorders. Vascular conditions can also cause language disorders. Vascular conditions that upset the delivery of blood to the brain can cause language disorder (Dennis, 2010). This happens when the disruption in blood supply affect the brain part that is responsible for language processing. Traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors, cancer treatment, infections and hypoxic disorders are other acquired conditions that can cause language disorders.


Dennis M. (2010). Language Disorders in Children with Central Nervous System Injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 32 (4): 417- 432
Logsdon A. (2010). Definition of Expressive Language Disorder. June 19, 2013.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 16:27

Feasibility Study

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Pinter smoothie Sensation and Gourmet Coffee Cyber Café are a shop that offers smoothie and coffee services. The feasibility study of Pinter Cyber Café was conducted in duration of seven weeks. A careful analysis of market, operational, economic viability, and the support required for the venture were developed. The accurate budget has been developed for the purpose of practicality and feasibility of this study. The purpose of Pinter Cyber Café includes providing tasty nutritious smoothie services to its customers and helps them use internet services for their needs. Customers will be able to enjoy a cup of smoothie and coffee while accessing the internet as well as hire internet knowledge and experience in a comfortable setting. The cyber café will serve people of all backgrounds and ages by providing them an innovative environment that other shops can’t afford.

Mission and Vision of Pinter
Pinter cyber café wants to become the best smoothie and coffee shop in the region. Our goal is to ensure that customers are satisfied with coffee and smoothies services at any time. The company aims at establishing an environment where people can spend their time and accomplish their activities without hurry. We want to create smoothing that will provide enjoyment services, provide innovate services, and education to the interested parties.

Purpose of Service/Product

Pinter cyber café will offer services such as introductory services to internet usage, scanning, printing, and internet application services. We shall also provide Usenet, FTP, www services, and email services. On the side of smoothie and coffee section, customers will enjoy innovative and unique environment for bakery items, sandwiches, smoothies, specialty beverages, teas, and coffees. Printer cyber café will be serving a perfect product and services to customers at a reasonable price at all time. The cyber café will develop an environment where students in college can socialize with experts and learn new things that assist them understand their surroundings, (Shen, et al. 2010).

Product Limitations

There are a number of limitations that are associated with the product that the firm will provide to the customers. The shelf life of food items, perishable items, bakery goods, smoothie blends, and dairy products is some of the limitations. Other limitations are the installation of refrigerators, coolers, blenders, and coffee espresso machines. Providing latest computer technology services such as high speed internet, printing, and scanning services are some of the limitations of development of the firm. The firm may fail in providing powerful software applications and efficient internet connection services to its clients, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).
Basic market
SWOT Analysis
• Friendly and skilled staff; At Pinter cyber café, we have gone to a point of hiring and training individuals who have passion for sharing and teaching internet skills. The firm has eager and skilled staff.
• Upscale ambiance; those who visit the firm always have a feeling of the technology around them. The environment around Pinter cyber café is well developed in such a way that customer’s feel that they are in the right place. We use high quality cappuccino machines as well as glass pastry display that entices refreshments to the clients. Pinter cyber café has large round tables that create a suitable environment for friendly meetings and gathering.
• Pinter cyber café has the best vision of the market need. We understand what it takes to develop and build a suitable cyber café with required equipments and services. We understand the technology we know the clients, and we understand on how to develop and build an environment that will bring and serve the two together.
• We use state of the art equipments. Part of Pinter cyber café experience is developed by state of the art computer accessories that individuals see when they pay a visit to that place. We use high quality printers, fast machines for surfing, and clients enjoy beautiful flat screen displays.


• Adaptability on the quick changing technology; the firm is a place that offers services to individuals who want experience on internet and technology. Evidence shows that technology in the current world change now and then. Since product lifecycles due to technology are developed and measured in weeks, the firm has to establish a well laid strategy on keeping in a move of the technology.
• High cost of maintaining and keeping the state of the art; cost factor is another weakness towards the firm simply because Pinter cyber café has to ensure that it is in line with the technology of the internet. This is an expensive experience to the firm which should always be met. In order to survive and establish a well defined market, Pinter has to balance technology needs with other aspects of the shop in order to retain clients. It is clear that the shop will not sacrifice one aspect for the benefit of the other, (Cateora, et al., 2009).


• Growth of internet users on a daily basis; it is clear that the relevance of internet in the current society is almost the same with that of phone. The need for the services offered by Pinter cyber café will increase as the population of clients in use increases.
• The social bond is fostered by the current internet settings. Unlike any other communication media in the world, internet has been rated the best and fastest means that bring people together from across the world. The firm will utilize and work on this aspect where it will create an environment that allows local and small internet users to meet and share their skills in person. It is through establishing community programs, and chat areas Pinter cyber café will have created a growth strategy. All programs and chat areas developed by the firm will have sole thought of building and improving customer loyalty.


• The rapid decrease in the cost of internet usage; the cost of using the internet in the current times is dropping at a steady pace. According to the current status, it is clear that internet access in the near future will become affordable and cheap that individuals will have no need to pay for its access. Pinter cyber café is aware of the situation and has in it some strategies on monitoring pricing conditions all through.
• Development of local competitors.; In the current time, the company is enjoying the market and taking advantage of the local Pinter cyber café market services. Competitors are developing where the company needs to be prepared for these companies entry into the market. Programs that are used by the firm will have to be established and developed in a way that it suits needs of the clients and build customer loyalty. Our upscale ambiance and quality services won’t be easily established and duplicated.

Marketing Strategy

Product and service position of the cyber café will be clear. This is the initial step into the market situation where the step is required to be fresh in order to establish consumer’s awareness of the product and service brand image.

Product strategy

The firm will combine the coffee services and internet services of competitors that will attract more clients into the firm. At the same time, the internet services offered by Pinter cyber café must be diversified. To enhance the added value if internet services, strategies have been established for this purpose and on how to improve services required to cater for the client’s needs.

Price Strategy

Pinter cyber café will have the best price for its clients. The price will always be relatively suitable than competitors. We shall use very simple and effective approach in pricing services. This will enable customers use services and products of the firm as compared to those of competitors. Pinter cyber café will have a flat rate depending on the nature of services a customer gets from the firm. The pricing process of our services and products will always be fair and attractive as compared to the one of the competitors, (Kingston, 2011).
Sale Channels

The firm will use different sales channels in advertising its products and services to the customers. We shall publicize services and products through the traditional direct approach of marketing. With the help of our qualified staff, we shall develop a corporate website in which clients will be able to make their inquiries and also online orders. Pinter cyber café will also be able to establish a promotion system in which law materials will be delivered. We shall be co-marketing our products and services with the help of other places such as offices that surrounds the café. Our sales will be unique and useful to the users in order to allow customers satisfy their needs at one place without looking services or products to another place. We shall always focus on the use and development of the latest technology in establishing our sales channels for the purpose of reaching a good number of clients, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).

Promotional Strategy

To achieve brand awareness and stimulate the early order of consumers, the firm will provide free coffee services to some clients. Extra technology services such as binding and scanning will be offered for free to some clients at specified intervals for the purpose of advertising. A cumulative system of ordering approach will be used in the determination of promotion after determining the cost of services and products that will be offered to the client. The action focuses at consolidating the existing client awareness and then expands the impact and brand, which assist to quickly dominate and grab market share from the competition from the upcoming competitors. So as to stimulate the loyalty and spending frequency of customers, we shall in the promotion process, consider the accumulated awards for the online users, by looking at the consumption level and determine on the type or nature of gifts to be awarded to the customer, (Lei, 2009).

Advertising Strategy

The nature of advertising in an organization plays a vital role in the development of the firm. Some firms fail simply because they use poor methods of advertising their products and services thus they are unable to reach the target population in the right manner. In this case, we shall use online advertising approach were we shall post our products and services in the firm’s website. Clients who use internet services from us will have an opportunity to see what the company has for them and at what prices. Our team of staff we always use and wear uniform when providing services so that customers can recognize them at any time. We shall always maintain a certain level of promotions in order to award customers who help us improve and develop our services. Our firm will collect contact information to our esteemed clients where we shall always update and inform them on the advancement of the company. The contact information will also be used to get and deliver offers to customers who are unable to come into our business, (Cateora, et al., 2009).

Economic viability
PESTEL Analysis
The current technology development and globalization of economies, there is a chance of a prolonged economic stability. Slight fluctuations of economic growth will not affect the business development because there are no indications of war. People are not scared about any shortage of food thus they will spend more on luxuries simply because they want to know more about technology and we shall have an opportunity to experience an increase in the population of users who seek services and products from us. The profit margin of the firm will not be affected simply because individuals are willing to spend more on advancing their skills and knowledge in the area of technology, (Islam & Jahan, 2012).


The possible economic stableness due to technology development means high level of customers. Individuals will want to explore more, and thus an increase in the economy will be experienced where people are going to spend more. This shows that the economic nature of the environment will favor in the development of the business. The need for improving technology skills will hike the prices of the technology services hence increase the revenue of the business at any time. Revenue of the firm this time will not depend on people with high incomes rather it will be as a result of all interested in improving their technology skills.


There are certain social issues that may impact the growth and development of the cyber café. Unsocial behavior and noise pollution from customers and the surrounding will pose some threats to the cyber café. Although such issues may arise, most people will focus on their own business thus the business will require no bouncers rather a strict management that monitors moves of the customers. Installation of CCTV cameras will be required in order to minimize the anti social behaviors of the customers.


Pinter cyber café will install the latest equipments in order to provide the required services to the customers. In order to establish a well and defined environment, the business will have to use the latest technology. This will allow the firm to operate effectively and manage to emerge the best among those in the same industry. The Pinter cyber café will have to determine the quality of equipments used in the development of the business so as not to interfere with the expected profit margins. It is the work of management to ensure that qualitative factors have been balanced out with quantitive factors at all times, (Kim, et al., 2012).


A cyber café license will be required before the business starts to operate in order to make it legal. Certain laws such as employment, burning, and internet use will be obtained in advance before the business starts its operations. Wages of the firm will be higher simply because the company will only hire employees who are over eighteen years.


The firm will have to evaluate on all issues that might be related with social issues. Noise and litter pollutions are dangerous to the development of the firm thus proper actions should be taken by the management in order to curb and minimize the impacts that may be developed by these issues. We shall use litter bin at areas where dirt may be littered.

Support Needed for the Venture

In order to establish this business, skilled, friendly, and knowledgeable staff is required in order to run all activities required in the development of the business. Without proper and trained staff, the business venture will not grow and develop, and that is why before starting its operations, the Pinter cyber café will have to establish and train employees. Another thing required is the state of the art equipments for the purpose of making the business unique. Evidence shows that technology is increasing rapidly thus in order to establish a well defined business, a state of the art equipment is required in order to attract, retain, and serve clients in the best way possible. Clean vision of the market required is another vital thing for the business because it will help the cyber café define its operations. It should know its customers and technology required so as to develop proper strategies that create an environment that bring customers and technology together. In other words, strengths are part of the support needed for the venture, (Cateora, et al., 2009).

A proper business plan, which is defined, is also part of the support needed. I believe that a focused business should have a business plan that helps the management work on the vision, goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. Planning for growth, developing operating and control systems, preparing to operate budgets, conducting an in-depth consumer and market research, and creating organizational and management structure all depends on the appropriative of the business plan that has been established. The cyber café will not require to license its service/products simply because it is in an open market where there are similar firms operating the same business. Capital will also be part of the support required for the venture simply because there is no way a business may start without capital. The selected management will oversee operations of the firm and establish proper strategies and committee to account for the expenses before the firm starts to realize its profits, (Kingston, 2011).

Cateora, P., Gilly, M., & Graham, J. (2009). International Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Islam, M., & Jahan, S. (2012). Analysis of Financial Products of Capital Market in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Development. International Journal Of Marketing Studies, 4(5), 119-128. doi:10.5539/ijms.v4n5p119
Kim, H., Kim, J., & Chen, Q. (2012). A product network analysis for extending the market basket analysis. Expert Systems With Applications, 39(8), 7403-7410. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2012.01.066
Kingston, J. (2011). Conducting feasibility studies for knowledge based systems. Knowledge-Based Systems, 17(2-4), 157-164. doi:10.1016/j.knosys.2004.03.011
Lei FangRogerson, R. (2009). Product Market Regulation and Market Work: A Benchmark Analysis. Working Paper Series (Federal Reserve Bank Of Atlanta), (7), 1.
Shen, L., Tam, V. Y., Tam, L., & Ji, Y. (2010). Project feasibility study: the key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice. Journal Of Cleaner Production, 18(3), 254-259. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.10.014

An invitation Letter to the Embassy of the United States in Freetown, Sierra Leone

Dear Consul,

Re: Request for Tourist Visa for Idrissa Jalloh
My name is Johanese Sandy, and I am a citizen of the United States of America, working as a registered nurse with Kaiser Permanente of the mid Atlantic states. Copies of my identification documents, including birth certificate are attached as supporting documents.

I wish to invite Mr. Idrissa Jalloh to visit the United States and attend the christening of my son Johanese Sandy Jr. Mr. Idrissa Jalloh is a close family friend. His attendance is highly significant because of the friendship held in high regards between the two families. He is a business man and the Chief Executive Officer of Kubia Business Center, in Sierra Leone. Identification documents including copies of passport and certificate of birth are attached. I am requesting that you assist him obtain a tourist visa, in order to attend the ceremony as my guest.

I am a home owner, and will provide boarding and all the requirements necessary to make his stay in the United States a memorable visit. I will cover all costs of his travel and stay in the country, until the time when he will return to Sierra Leone after the ceremony. This will include food, medical insurance, housing, travel within the country, and other personal expenses. I have also provided copies of my home ownership and financial documentation for additional details. He will visit and return to Sierra Leone immediately due to his busy schedule as a CEO and his engagement in other businesses.
I am grateful for your consideration of the attached tourist visa application. Do not hesitate to contact me through the above address in case of any required clarification. Thank you.

Johanese Sandy

Friday, 18 March 2016 11:25

Data Analysis

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Data Analysis
The quantitative research approach relies on statistical tools to analyze data. These statistical tools are classified into two broad categories; descriptive and inferential tools. Descriptive tools are used to define the characteristic of a given set of data (Kon, 2009). They assist the researcher to identify patterns and trends thus gaining insight into the data set. These descriptive tools include; percentages, frequencies, mean, median, standard deviation, range and mode. The appropriateness of a given tool is determined by the intention of the study (Kon, 2009).

The target of this exercise is to explore impacts of emotional disturbance on the quality of learning of students suffering from this condition. Thus, the study shade more light concerning the disease and its preferences. The researcher will utilize descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage to describe the prevalence of the condition and rate of the behavior. The study will also make use the mean to describe the occurrence of this condition.

Inferential statistical tools are used to define the relationship between variables (Elst, 2012). These tools assist the researcher to determine whether there is a relationship between variables. They also assist the researcher to determine the type of relationship between variable, whether direct or inverse. The tools also assist the researcher to determine whether the relationship between variables is significant. Examples of inferential tools include; cross tabulation, chi-square, t-test, regression analysis and many others.

The process of selecting the inferential tool will be determined by the hypothesis formulated in the study (Elst, 2012). For instance, one of the issues that the researcher may seek to explore is that of academic performance and emotional disturbance. The hypothesis may state; “students with emotional disturbance exhibit low scores in exams that children without the condition”. The researcher may use regression analysis to explore this relationship Regression analysis examines effects of changing the independent variable on the dependent variable.

Elst H. (2012). Foundation of Inferential and Descriptive Statistics. June 13, 2013.
Kon K. (2009). Introduction to Statistics. June 13, 2013.

Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:36

Rules Prevent Wellness Program Discrimination

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To The Editor
I have read about the rules that the Obama administration finally issued on 29th may, 2013 which are designed to help companies that are discriminating the sick. This is a wise approach, but we should also remember that companies are part of the society, and they should be left to come up with their own strategies of corporate wellness programs. The programs in the recent years have gained popularity simply because they are believed to give incentive to the employee for the purpose of improving their health.

Most companies are trying to practice exactly what these rules are saying in order to regulate and prevent employees from unhealthy conditions. This is a way of helping companies cut medical expenses for their employees and improve the working conditions. A good number of businesses are those who are responsible and take care of their employees. Those businesses, which do not mind about their employees, have seen an approach that betters their actions. It is true that firms that were doing this for the right reasons will not be shown.

There is a lot that is required in order effectively apply and work on these rules for the safety of employees in the working environment. Most companies are relying on these programs so as to encourage their employees on how to stay healthier and also encourage them adopt healthier lifestyles that will assist them reduce health cost both at work and at home. It is true that these programs have enabled most companies reduce health cost of employees and have assisted employees improve their health aspects in many ways.

Thursday, 17 March 2016 05:36

Validity, reliability, and Generalizability

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Validity, reliability, and Generalizability

Validity is described as the degree that a measuring procedure reflects, captures, or assesses the specific concept that a research is trying to measure. Validity usually applies to both the method and design of the research. Validity in the collection of data means that the findings of the research truly represent the phenomenon that one is claiming to measure. There are usually two types of validity including internal validity and external validity. Internal validity is normally affected by flaws in the study like not controlling some of the major variables or any problems with the research instrument. Findings can be stated to be internally valid because the findings could have been affected by other factors other than the ones thought to having caused them or even because data interpretation by the researcher has not been clearly supported (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).

External validity refers to the extent in which a person can generalize the findings to a larger group or in other contexts. In a research that lacks external validity, the findings cannot be used in any other circumstance other than the one a person carried out the research. Findings can be said to externally invalid because they cannot be applied in the context outside the one the research took place. Internal and external validity are important in analyzing the usefulness, appropriateness, and meaningfulness of the research study. It is necessary to consider the validity in doing a research study so that to ensure that the outcomes can be used effectively and that the variables which might threaten validity are controlled. Results, which are not deemed to being valid, are considered as meaningless to the research. Validity is extremely important because results, which are not valid, cannot be used in generalizing any findings and they end up being a waste of effort and time.

Reliability is described as the regularity of the results when the experiment is replicated in the same conditions. Research normally requires dependable measurements and measurement are usually reliable to the extent that they are repeated and any influence that tends to make the measurement different is a source of measurement error. The amount of error in a measurement normally establishes the amount of reliability. High amount of error mean low reliability and low error means high reliability of the research. Reliability is a research is important because a research that is not reliable means that we cannot be able to determine if the research that is carried out is evidence to suggest that the hypothesis of the research is significant (Powell, & Connaway, 2010).

Generalizability tends to investigate and design reliable observations. Generalizability is considered as a structure for doing and documenting qualitative research of high quality. This concept describes the extent in which the research findings can be applied in a setting other than that which it was originally tested. Sound generalizability normally requires data on a large population which provides the best foundation for production of broad generalizability (Baumgarten, 2012). In the concept of generalizability, the larger sample of the population, the more, the results can be generalized.

Survey research
A survey is defined as a tool of data collection for assessing opinions, thoughts, and feelings. Survey research is being used in different groups and sociologists and psychologists are using survey research in analyzing behavior. A survey usually consists of a predetermined set of questions that are normally given to the sample (Baumgarten, 2012). A good idea where survey research can be used is in the needs of media in evaluating public health officials. Some questions can be given to the officials when deciding to gather some information from them.

There are several advantages of survey research including high representativeness because a survey usually provides a high level of capability in representing a large population. From the large number of people, the data that are gathered tend to possess a good description of relevant characteristics of the population involved in the study. Surveys are usually able to gather data that are near to exact attribute of the population. Survey research also costs low as a person is only required to pay for production of the questionnaires. There is also convenient gathering of data because the survey can be done through a variety of methods. It is possible to set the questionnaires through email, fax or the internet. There is online survey method that tends to be a popular method for data gathering of the target population (Baumgarten, 2012). Survey research is also advantageous because of good statistical significance. Due to the high representation that is brought about by the survey, it is easy to find statistically significant results. It is possible to analyze multiple variables using survey research.

However, survey research has some disadvantages including being an inflexible design. The method of survey which is used at the start of the research cannot be changed all through the process of gathering data. Another disadvantage is the possibility of inappropriateness of questions. In a survey, questions are usually standardized before they are administered to the subject. Therefore, the research is normally forced to create questions which are enough to accommodate the entire population.

Probability sampling
Probability sampling is sampling where every person in the population has the same likelihood of getting selected. The selection of a person is usually based on some random procedure. Simple random sampling is normally considered as the simplest form of sampling which is simple to accomplish. Simple random sampling is a scheme with the chance that any subset of the sample has an identical likelihood of being the chosen sample. The method of selecting the sample is through a table of random numbers. Probability sampling techniques include simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. Simple random sampling cannot be able to provide samples that are more representative of the target population like the other sampling techniques. In the other probability sampling techniques, they usually require information on stratification variables, which are required for every element in the population (Boyatzis, 1998).

The information that is included in these techniques involves details on the section of the target sample which belongs to each stratum. This is information that is extremely necessary because it helps in getting the required data. When using the other techniques, there is normally limited possibility of sampling errors while in simple random has a high probability of sampling errors. An example where random sampling cannot be used is in studying the effects of drug abuse on the users. When performing this study, the researcher will be required to make sure that he uses another probability sampling technique and not simple random sampling because picking any person randomly might not represent the target population. The researcher will be required to ensure that he has target people whom have used drugs so that he can be able to gather the necessary information. Using simple random sampling may fail to yield the expected results.

Survey questions
1. Cyber crimes tend to be using increasing powerful and targeted attacks in stealing of information that range from credit cards to even personal information. The issue of cyber crime continues to being more professional, and it appears that the barriers to entry are becoming lower with the increasing emergence of powerful exploits and toolkits for sale online. However, the current general statutes are adequate to prosecuting crimes which are mediated through a computer.
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree

2. During all incidences, when the computer is the target of offense, the perpetrator normally tend to attach the computer through breaking into the computer or even attacking it from outside. Professionals tend to consider this kind of cybercrime as one of the most professional case in three of the categories of cybercrimes. According to the professionals, they claim this is because the criminal normally do the programming and uses some exploits on the computer. This is done by someone who has background information of computer science
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree

3. Digital surveillance is considered as a controversy to cybercrime and has an impact on civil liberties. It is claimed that the government surveillance networks normally monitor the enormous volumes of private communications, and it also apply artificial intelligence so that to filter out the relevant data. This is a strategy that is expected to decrease the possibility of cases of cybercrimes and doing this will require to infringe on individual privacy.
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree

4. Costs on cybercrimes are highly contested, and it is believed that for it to be possible to generate control expenditures and the power of overriding privacy, there is a need of very high figures. Cost in cybercrime is definitive, and the scale is between a slight summation of the known direct cost of the detected crimes and the speculative extrapolations from the subset the dimensions which sets are not known. Measuring the cost of cybercrime has become complicated because of having different sets of diverse acts that represent the different crime mechanisms.
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree

5. The issue of cybercrimes can be solved by raising a cyber army which is the need for a well equipped team which will be responsible of dealing with the new trends in the hi tech crime. The government is supposed to tech a new direction in constituting cyber crime cells in all the states and also the important cities. It is necessary to establish a cyber crime investigation cell that will make sure it deals with all the issue related to cybercrimes. It is also necessary for the judiciary to make sure that it shapes the enactment of the law dealing with the issue of cybercrimes.
Strongly Agree
Strongly Disagree

Data is referred to a set of values that are representing a concept. Data usually become information when it is analyzed and maybe combine with other data so that to extract meaning and to provide a context. Information is usually the end product of data. Data is the stream of raw facts that represent certain events that have occurred and information is that data which has been manipulated, organized, converted, and arranged and then presented in a manner that can be understood and used. The context and presentation are what usually separate data from information when conducting a survey every questionnaire usually contains data. This is data that may appear to be organized in a form, but yet it has to be given a contest and be presented in a proper manner for the intended purpose (Boyatzis, 1998). When this data is compiled, presented in the format that is recommended, this means that the data is useful and meaningful to the users or the purpose that it is intended; thus, making it useful information. Through conversion, organization, manipulation and also the transformative process, data can produce information that is of very high quality and the quality of information which is produced normally depends on outcomes of the transformation process. This is a process that normally determines whether the final information is accurate, understood, and properly communicated (Boyatzis, 1998).

Misuse of data tends to occur very much in research. The analysis of data can be done using the strategy which is not required or misinterpreted. These are incidences that usually result to misuse of information. The research can analyze the data in the wrong manner so that the results can fit what he is expecting. Therefore, the research will decide to change the data that was gathered so that it can result into something else. This is incidence that results to misuse of data because it is not being used according to what it was meant for (Denscombe, 2007). Misuse of data can also occur in the case when the data is not clear. If the research used questionnaires, when analyzing the data, it is possible for the research to find instances when certain answers are not clear; hence, ending up interpretation the data in the wrong manner. The researcher might interpret the data in a manner that he thought was what the interviewer meant, but ends up being completely wrong. In this case, the data will be misused because the data that was collected did not meet the expected results as it was wrong used when analyzing the study. The researcher can also decide to stretch the findings or even ignore some of the data which is a form of data misuse. All data that have been gathered should be used in the expected manner (Denscombe, 2007). The researcher can decide to stretch the results which end up to distortion. It is also possible for some data to be ignored; hence, fails to yield the expected results. These are some ways in which data can be misused.

Denscombe, M (2007). The good research Open University Press
Boyatzis, R (1998). Transforming qualitative information SAGE
Powell, R & Connaway, L (2010). Basic research methods for librarians ABC-CLIO
Baumgarten, M (2012). Paradigm Wars GRIN Verlag

Thursday, 17 March 2016 05:28

Fashion Trend Inspired in Moulin Rouge Movie

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Fashion Trend Inspired in Moulin Rouge Movie


Moulin Rouge is a film that is bound to set the current and future fashion trends in society. The film has managed to revive garments such as corsets and fishnet in a stylish manner. Soon after the release of the movie, the sale of the products and other similar commodities rose. Fashion houses such as Bloomingdale realized increased sale of clothes designed using the film inspirations. The film has enabled fashion designers to realize that clothes and designs considered out dated can be modified and returned to the market as trendy fashions. This is exactly what Moulin Rouge helped achieved, with the return of corsets and fishnets albeit improved adjustments to have the modern appeal.

Moulin Rouge is an American-Australian film released in 2001. The film is not only a romantic film but also a presentation of high taste for fashion and trends. Movie lovers have loved the movie not only for its excellent plot and story line, but for the great peek into fashion and beauty. Catherine Martin is the designers credited with the numerous fashion designs of costumes that the characters wore on set (IMDB, 2013). Movies are mainly reviewed based on their plot, story line and role of the characters. However, Moulin Rouge has been analyzed with regard to the fashion statements exuded by characters. Moulin Rouge is about fashion, trends and class as characters bring out a fresh perspective to fashion.

Freeman Hardley of the Guardian newspaper wrote an article Can-can do in which she pinpoints the great influence that Moulin Rouge has had on the fashion industry. Moulin Rouge has altered the fashion industry, people tastes and has resulted to a change of ward robe. Characters in the film wore Bustier, corsets and tulle skirts. Other movies such as merchant Ivory also introduced viewers to another level of fashion, but the pace that Moulin rouge has set remains unmatched.

Moulin Rouge managed to bring fashion trends that had been forgotten and believed to be fashions of the past. Moulin Rouge brought the corset as a trending fashion. The corset is a garment that is mainly worn to enhance the beauty of the woman. The garment is worn on the upper body of the wearer, to bring out the curvy shape of the woman by reducing the waist, and bringing out the hips and the bust (Hadley, 2001). Corsets have been in existence for many centuries with the fist records of the use of corset being during the Victorian era in 2000 BC. Corsets have been modified and changed over as fashion trends evolved. Corsets were originally worn as outer garments, though they are now mainly worn as inner garments. The 16tyh century saw the introduction of the corset as an undergarment. The corset as an undergarment originated in Italy before being introduced in France in early 16th century.

The film also brought back the fishnet hosiery in which the main character Satine (Nicole Kidman) wore in various scenes. Fishnet hosiery refers to the light material used in stockings and tights. Fishnets are considered sexy and are mostly worn as undergarments. Fishnets define the curves of the wearer as well as accentuate her muscles. The origin of fishnets is vague, but they are known to have first been worn in Paris before spreading to America. Historically, fishnets were considered garment for loose women such as prostitutes. Some of the fishnets were held up the body using garter belts. In 1980’s and 1990’s the popularity of fishnets had risen, and the garment became a popular were among professionals (The post and Courier, 2001). Models began to wear them down runaways as a fashion statement as business women began wearing them to work. In 2000, fishnets had become acceptable forms of undergarments worn mainly on the legs. The advent of Moulin Rouge brought the flames for fishnets as they became popular once again. Moulin Rogue had numerous scenes where the main character Satine wore fishnets hosiery with her other garments. The movie has managed to inspire fashion, an achievement that is rare for many films (Hadley, 2001).

The sale of clothe lines similar to those worn by characters in Moulin Rouge have been on the rise. The film has managed to make trendy, garments that were assumed to be outdated and old fashioned. Bloomingdale store, for instance, opened Moulin Rouge shops in New York and Los Angeles soon after the release of the film. Within the first two weeks, the chain stores had sold more than 2000 special Moulin rouge t-shirts (The post and Courier, 2001). Nicole Kidman, the main characters of the film has also become increasingly popular as the modeled the unique designs from the film. The fashion taste presented in the film has inspired current fashion designers to invent new fashion designs. The senior vice president of Bloomingdale, Kal Ruttenstein states Moulin Rouge was the used as the mark of inspiration by its designers. Other than clothes, jewelry and ornaments such as chokers, chandelier earrings, and neck laces have become common due to inspiration from the costume and fashion taste of the film.

Catherine Martin created the costumes for characters of the film Moulin Rouge. Her fashion statements and taste are evident in her film. However, she did not anticipate the fashion statements and positive reception that her fashion taste received. Moulin Rouge set the trend for current and future fashion. The film managed to bring garments such as the corset and fishnets, which were considered outdated. Fashion accessories such as jewelries also increased in sales as their popularity increased. Fashion designers are now designing clothes based on Moulin Rouge inspiration setting the pace for emerging trends.

The post and Courier, (2001). Moulin Rouge kicks fashion trends. Retrieved from,3239132
Hadley, F. (2001). Can-can do. Retrieved from
IMDB, (2013). Moulin Rouge. Retrieved from

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