Education (4)

Friday, 28 October 2016 03:04

Midterm Instructional Leadership

Written by

Midterm Instructional Leadership
Name: Alaa najjar
Course instructor

1. Identify elements of purposeful teacher planning. Why are they important for an educational leader to understand when assessing week/daily lesson plan?
The core elements of the purposeful teacher planning encompass the assessments, motivation, techniques and Sequencing, along with application, evaluation that is supported by follow-up. The illustration of these components revolves around the assertion that all lessons must exhibit an aim, purpose as well as an objective. The pre-assessment component, on the other hand, serves to determine the suitability of a particular primary objective (Reece & Walker, 2016). It encompasses an evaluation of the level of skill Furthermore knowledge that has been called for along with the determination of the complexity of the lesson. The classification of the nature of the lesson can be said to be too easy, too hard, or in other cases just right. It is thus imperative that the instructor can move on quickly and in greater depth on those occasions that the lesson is too easy. It is additionally imperative that the instructors develop a reliable means of assessing where each of their students is in each curricular area, and how they are going to design the small learning groups. As an addition to the motivation, which refers to the psychological situation within each student’s desire to learn what the instructor wants is teaching. It is necessary that this attitude is sustained throughout the lesson.

Additionally, the Techniques, as well as Sequencing of specific planning, is necessary to determine the teaching techniques that the instructor is going to adopt for a specific. The sequencing of lecture along with activities is an additionally vital important consideration that has to be reached before instruction starts the lesson (Burke &Krey, 2005). One of the requirements, in this case, is that the instructor ought to think about whether to use for whole group or small group configurations as well as on how they are going to move the class in and out of these attributes.

The additional component of the lesson planning involves the collection of materials for instructional use, before the lesson the instructor is going to teach. It is vital that the instructor thinks of how much time each aspect of the lesson is going take with the objective of furnishing the lesson intentions within the allotted time. A good plethora of time and thought goes into preparing smooth learning experiences (Education commission of the states, 2006). The application, evaluation, and the Follow-up refer to the issues of utility, effectiveness, as well as the place of the lesson in the learning series. One of the assertions by Aristotle relates to the emphasis on utility in his thinking on education, saying that the educators who ignore utility risk irrelevance to good communication.

It follows that the majority of the administrators receive oral, which implies that, accurate listening is essential for a legitimate comprehension of what is being communicated (Snowden & Gorton, 1998, p. 39). In that case, like the monitor, it is the duty of the principal to do more than just remain open to what others say and listen empathically. The assessment of the quality of communication in the school is occasionally a skill known as with-it-ness implying that it is necessary to be open as well as receptive to what is being said along with the messages sent by the peoples’ behaviors of. In addition to the openness, with-it-ness calls for the taking of deliberate actions that are meant to stay informed about what is being communicated to whom, by whom, where, when, as well as in what manner. Effective principals are for all time attentive along with reaching out for the information in their efforts to understand (Gupton, 2010). Principal acting as seekers of information entails more aggressive actions than the monitoring along with with-it-ness require. As an addition to the information, the principal can gather via being cautious as well as a good listener; it is imperative that he or she strategically sets in motion mechanisms that are targeted at gathering information that others would consider as being elusive (p.59- 61). It is imperative that the assessment is discussed moreover scheduled to guarantee an absolute expectancy of the time of application, the method of application, as well as the disposition of the assessment data. The implication of this attribute is that it makes it possible for openness to be the best of the mode of holding suspicion at least level as well as for reducing conflict that can from the evaluative process.
2- As a school leader, one of the first action steps that must be taken is to cultivate a positive learning culture. What are some elements might be considered by the school leader when establishing such a learning environment.

For the teacher to be in a capacity that promotes the cultivation of a positive learning culture, it is necessary that the following five chief conditions are considered. The first and most significant condition relates to the provision of a welcoming environment. In this case, it is necessary that evaluate their behavior since their actions have a major impact on the other stakeholders. Additionally, it is essential that the school pays attention to the physical environment, positive regards, along with community building. Teachers should not encourage risk taking as well as a potential failure but should instead value the comfort of their students along with satisfaction over challenge. The teachers have to value accuracy over probable growth moreover only occasionally challenge their students to broaden their thinking even if it implies preliminary failure.

The creation of a positive learning environment necessitates planning along with work by instructors. There exist certain qualities that make it possible to cultivate positive learning environment. It is additionally evident that there are various attributes that influence behaviors of the student, positive regards, physical environment, in addition to community building. Additionally, school leaders have to ensure that they encourage academic risks along with the assertion that the school leader has to possess the knowledge, skills, and character to lead.

3- As principal, discuss how would you demonstrate the essential components of the gradual release of responsibility model to teachers as the effective teaching tool?
It follows that the steady release of responsibility require that the teachers move from assuming all the responsibility for performing a task to a situation whereby students are assuming all of the responsibility. This attribute encompasses four chief components that include the focus, guidance, collaboration as well as independence. In that case, before the students can be expected to produce independently, it is necessary to ensure that they understand the rationale as well as experience and example (Fisher & Frey, 2008). The role of the teacher is in the establishment of the learning intention in addition to uses the modeling and demonstrating to show the manner in which to use the skills along with the concepts.

In the segment of guided instruction, it is necessary for the teachers to strategically employ prompt cues in addition to questions to get the students to do supplementary of work. The realization of this attribute requires careful investigation of the student needs as well as monitoring when they are incorporating new knowledge, against when they call for more overt support. Whereas the teacher meets with the student's group to offer guided instruction, it is necessary that other groups work collaboratively. It is during this time that the students will be working with peers to take adequately complex tasks to strengthen their comprehension of issues (Fisher & Frey, 2008). The last phase offers the students with an opportunity to that which they have learned to a novel situation and experience. In that case, it is necessary to ensure that the independent task aligns with other stages of instruction. It is imperative that they practice as well as apply what they have learned, now that they are equipped with cognitive assets they require to employ in self-directed tasks.

4- Building a culture of learning is a staff development concept. Apply meaning to this phrase as related to teacher learning.
For there to be the success in the building a culture of learning as a staff development concept, it is imperative that the leader must engage the whole community in structured as a means of identifying their needs as well as goals. The entire system has to be redesigned to realize those results. The underlying assertion is that the learning in practice does not take place on its own. Although a lot of research has supported the significance of teaching experience, it is essential to acknowledge that practice alone cannot produce perfect performance (Education Commission of the state, 2006). In that case, opportunities to link practice and expert knowledge have to be built into learning experiences for teachers. Additionally, learning about teaching develops through participation in a community of learners whereby content is addressed in contexts that they can be applied.

It is evident that teachers benefit from their participation the culture of teaching through working with the materials as well as tools for teaching practice. It facilitates the examination of the teaching plan along with the student learning while immersed in theory about learning, development and subject matter (NAOE, 2005, P.405). Therefore, it is imperative that school leaders adopt the quality of human potential and guarantee that they always keep the interest of all teachers at the heart of every discussion and decision (Sykes,). This attribute can be realized via the development of a culture of collaboration and learning. Teachers play the role of learners who collaborate with one another to study teaching along with its impact rather than isolation. It is additionally leaders must acknowledge that school is a community of learners consists of students, teacher’s parents, faculty, and administrators and they are lifelong learners. To realize the pre-assumed success, leaders must exhibit courage and openly discuss with the all community and work toward consensus. The school leaders can follow these strategies to reach the collaboration.

The first consideration is the assertion that the leader has to model this philosophy consistently and supports the development of formal collaborative structures through the departmental and grade level meetings. On the other hand, the principal needs to use structural planning time that manages school activity as a tool to encourage collaboration among teachers. One of the most effective collaborative strategies is through sharing ideas, cooperative teaching, informal rethinking, and motoring. Also, the school must promote the innovative methods of learning (Darling-Hammond,linda, &Bransford, 2005). Furthermore, the school leader could create the critical training program and value it by making optional attendance policies. These programs have to be created depending on the individual needs it is additionally imperative that teachers must see school principal attend like this programs and participate in becoming the partnership in training.

Burke, P. J., &Krey, R. D. (2005). Supervision : A Guide to Instructional Leadership. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.
Darling-Hammond,linda, &Bransford, john,2005, preparing teachers for a changing world, what teachers should learn and be able to do. Retrieved from: content/uploads/2009/06/PreparingTeachersforaChangingWorldChpt11.pdf
Education commission of the states, 2006, creating a school community Culture of Learning:Exemplary Leadership Practices in Four School Districts. Retrived from:
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Homework and the gradual release of responsibility: Making "responsibility" possible. English Journal, 98(2), 40-45. Retrieved from 7318345?accountid=8422
Gupton, S. L. (2010).The Instructional Leadership Toolbox : A Handbook for Improving Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin.
Reece, I., & Walker, S. (2016). Teaching, training and learning: A practical guide. Business Education Publishers Ltd.

Friday, 18 March 2016 12:48


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The research question that will be discussed is “what are the major indicators of emotionally disturbed student.” The data will be collected using a combination of interview and focus group discussion. The interviews will be conducted using pre-structured questionnaires. The questionnaires will contain a combination of open and closed-ended questionnaire to ensure detailed analysis of the problem. The focus group discussions will be conducted with key informants. The key informants will include school teachers, state educational officers and parents. The informants will be selected randomly from different schools in the study area. The research will also employ the use of observation to note and record some of the manifestation of emotional disturbance among students.

The data will be gathered from diverse sources. School administrators, teachers and counseling departments in different schools will provide some of the necessary data required to answer the question. Data will be sourced from primary sources such school records and other records found in the department of educate at the local level. Some of the sites that would be helpful include educational institutional sites and other sites that contain scholarly information on the topic.

The research will require permission from school administrators, participating institution and the participants. The researcher will also require permission from local education officer. Descriptive validity will be crucial for the research. Information provided by the key informants during focus group discussion will have to be validity using scientifically proven observations. The observations made by parents, teachers and administrators will be assessed for accuracy and similarity. They will also be assessed against theoretically documented observations. Interpretive validity will be used to classify responses obtained from the interviews and focus group discussions.

Joseph Maxwell (1992). Understanding and validity in qualitative research. Harvard graduate school of education

Friday, 18 March 2016 11:33


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Her BMI is 26.7. Her level of disease risk is relatively low because she is slightly overweight. However, other measurements such as cholesterol level and distribution of fat would be necessary to conclude on her disease risk level. Her daily energy need is 1973 calories while her energy requirement is approximately 1700.

This values slightly differ from the one provided in the table. The difference could be due to the fact that the figures presented in the table are for standard individuals. This creates a deficient of approximately 300 calories in a day. In order to lose 1 pound in a week, Tonya needs to lose 250 calories in a day. 2 pound per week is not realistic given her sedentary life style and her choice of physical activities. The target would put much pressure on her.

The amount of calories she would burn walking 305 mph is 231 calories given that she was walking at a slow pace and on a level ground. Given that, in an hour, she is losing 231 pounds, in a week she would lose 1617 calories. This

In order to avoid feeling hungry, Tonya should consume high fiber diet. High fiber diet provides physical satisfaction without adding the total calories consumed. Tonya should also consume whole grain foods instead of consuming highly refined products. Whole grain foods are high in fiber and take a longer time in the digestive system thereby providing physical satisfaction. Tonya may also adjust her eating frequency to small frequent meals instead of eating three main courses. In order to reduce her consumption of soft drinks, Tonya may choose to drink fresh fruit juices or consume fresh fruits.

Americans have a culture of guns. In 2009 about 124 million households owned over 270 million guns. Guns pervade our debates on crime and are constantly present in movies and news. How many times have we read about shootings, or how many times have we heard about tragic gun accidents, bad guys shooting innocent victims, members of warring gangs exchanging fire, police shooting or even shootings in the name of self-defense. Incidences of rogue shooting have increased in the recent past. A case in study is the Sandy Hook Elementary school massacre, which left 20 innocent children dead. Despite the defeat of Barrack Obama move to institute gun control, it is my strongest convictions that the government and other stakeholders should make up with some regulations to control the use of guns in the country. Background check should be incorporated in gun control measures to ensure arms are in the right hands.

The strongest opposers of gun control are the conservatives, who argue that the right to have arms is laid down in the second amendment of the U.S constitution and as such controlling guns would be an infringement of individual rights. They also argue that control of guns, whatever their political impacts they have only a marginal effect on firearms violence. There have also been arguments that gun control will not keep firm arms out of the hands of criminals and other high-risk individuals. Lastly, conservatives argue that the widespread gun ownership is one of the best deterrents to and defends against crime (Squires, 2000).
According to Gischler (2004), united state is the only modern democracy that does not impose strict guns control. The country experiences a much higher crime rate than those nations that impose strict gun controls. Therefore adopting gun controls like other democracies will lower the American crime rate.

Let’s explore some of the argument opposing gun control. First, opponents of gun control argue that gun control legislations by the government are aimed at “taking away our guns.” This notion is misguided. None of the current efforts by the government to control gun targets obtaining guns from citizens. The president had proposed the banning of assault weapons, and he did not intend to confiscate assault weapons currently owned by citizens.

It is a common believe among American citizens that the second amendment is intended to protect them from a tyrannical government. They believe guns provide a way through which they can rebel against the government. A thorough evaluation of the second amendment will shed light o these citizens. The amendment reads “a well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the citizenry to keep firearms, shall not be infringed.” A well regulated militia refers to a group of citizens who assume the role of the military. The second portion addresses protection of the national interest while the last portion gives the citizens the right to keep arms.
The intent of the amendment was to rally citizens to help the government in times of war or rebellion. It is also crucial to assess the context in which the amendment was enacted. At the time, the southern were fighting to control slaves. Therefore, the amendment could have served to increase the control of the southerners of slave uprisings.

Opponents of gun control argue that regulating guns will take away guns from the citizens exposing them to armed citizen. This is a baseless argument and a fallacy. The intent of gun control is to conduct a thorough background check on any individual intending to own a weapon. Why are people afraid of background check? It is through a background check that the government can identify past offenders, mentally unstable individuals and criminals.

Another common fallacy about guns is the argument that guns do not kill; it is the people who kill. True, it is the people who kill, but does that address the key issue? Guns provide an effective tool of killing. It facilitates the act of killing. Consider the skills and efforts that one need in order to kill using a gun. A person requires very minimal effort or even training to use a gun. The ease of killing using a gun varies with the type of gun. You cannot compare a pistol with an Ak-47 rifle (Shapiro, 2013).

In conclusion, a time for action has come when the American citizens and the government to reflect gun/arms ownership. It is crucial for people to prevent future Sandy Hook Elementary school massacre by effecting gun control. It is imperative for citizens to realize that gun control does not mean confiscating guns from citizens, and it does not infringe their rights. The idea behind gun control is to ensure arms are in the right hands. This can only be achieved through thorough background check that is conducted within the law and expeditiously.

Katrin Gischler (2004). Why has gun control become such a contentious issue in American politics? Auflage Publishers. New York, USA.
Robert Shapiro (2013). Main arguments against gun control lacks logic. Retrieved from on 8/6/2013
Peter Squires (2013). Gun culture or gun control? Firearms, violence and society. Routledge, New York USA.

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