Management (7)

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:22

Announcing an Additional Employee Benefit

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Announcing an Additional Employee Benefit


TO: All Employees

FROM: Director of Human Resources

RE: Additional Employee Benefit

DATE: (Insert Date)

I am announcing an additional employee benefit package plan for new and current employees. I understand we have employees who provide care to the aging people in the age of 65 years and above. The company wants to make it clear that the employee will have enough time to take care of their relatives based on the company’s rules and regulations that define every employee’s duties and activities. My human resource office in the next few weeks will provide information and referral services for long term assisted living and elderly day care or nursing care.

In the mean time, I will list the names and address of those people who are willing for part timer or full timer as care givers. I suggest that every benefit named in this plan will help the company provide services to customers in an effective manner and at the same time allow employees have enough time for their activities. In the next one week, I will sponsor seminars on ways of dealing with elderly parents, which will cover, on how to use a nursing facility forms when needed.

My office has decided to develop a new policy which will allow employees to use their personal time off plus sick time so as to provide care to any family member. I want to make it clear that employees must notify supervisors in advance about their absence and must follow up and make up the time later in the month. The office has provided an opportunity for those who want extra time, but they will only be allowed to take unpaid leaves for a maximum of 15 months and they can resume their positions when they are through. The employee policy is scheduled to take effect in the next month.

Director of Human Resources


This memo demonstrates the details for the proposal of course project

Although most health care facilities are moving from the world of paper health record system to electronic health record system, there are some challenges that have prevented this thing to be fully implemented. Based on results from different studies, implementing electronic health records may be rewarding and at the same time challenging in respect to the approach used to develop the ideas. Most healthcare facilities are changing their health records from a paper system to electronic systems.

I have decided to focus on some of the major challenges that affect the implementation of electronic health records in healthcare facilities. By researching on the implementation of electronic health record system to replace the paper health record system, I will be able to evaluate some of the key challenges that hinder the implementation of EHR in the health care setting. There are several reasons why I am interested in covering this topic. One of the reasons is not that I am in the health care setting but due to the problems that I have seen nurses encounter when serving patients. Small health care facilities are the affected areas of health care because they lack several things that are needed in the implementation of this healthcare system.


My audience is the healthcare industry which will focus on the management departments. Due to the increased need of quality and effective health services, most health care facilities are interested in the implementation of EHR system and abolish the old system of paper health record approach. Although technology in the health industry has brought some advancement, there are some challenges and problems that develop in the process of implementing these technologies.

Topics of Interest

In order to cover this study fully, below are some of the topics that will be investigated.

Impacts of new technology in the health care setting

Benefits and detriments of electronic health record system in healthcare facilities.

Software maintenance costs and starts up costs of the system.

Legal barriers of implementing electronic health record system in nursing facilities.

Privacy and hardware limitations required in the implementation process.

Qualifications or knowledge required in implementing the system and experts required to handle electronic health record system in the place of implementation.


There are some challenges in developing this project based on finding results that explain the findings. Poor networking in most rural health care facilities has been a problem in the implementation of EHR. I will develop a study that will inform me one some of the key areas that have prevented in the implementation of EHR in healthcare. The focus is to evaluate on those issues that affect how technology is integrated in the health setting and how the management in the healthcare industry are responding into these challenges.

Research Methods

Apart from the internet research, I will read on healthcare journals. I will also conduct some interviews where I will engage some top and bottom management of several healthcare facilities.

Work Schedule

Week Activity
June 16 – June22

Selection of project topic plus conducting a preliminary research

Develop  and submit a research proposal

Come up with a checklist of activities

June 23 – June 6 Literature review of EHR and its challenges
June 13 – July 20 Develop interviews with selected health care management
July 21 – July 27

Summarize data collected from the sources

Develop a rough draft

July 28 – Aug 3

Revise rough draft

Counter checklist and timeline

Aug 4 – Aug 10

Come up with the final draft and develop cover page, TOC, etc.

Create visuals for the presentation

Aug 11 – Aug 17

Submission of  the final draft 

Practice oral presentation

Actual oral presentation


Jha AK, Ferris TG, Donelan K, et al. How common are electronic health records in the United States? Health Aff (Millwood)2006;25:w496–507. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.25.w496.

Thursday, 24 March 2016 20:16

The Role of Financial Management in a Firm

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The Role of Financial Management in a Firm
In an organization, financial management plays a critical role pertaining to the financial success of the organization. Therefore, an organization should always consider the financial management as the key component that contributes to the general management of the firm. Financial management includes strategic goals and tactics that are related to the financial resources of a firm. Some of the specific roles that are included in financial management systems include, book keeping, accounting, accounts receivable and payable, risk, and investment opportunities. Therefore, the financial management must understand they key financial documents of an organization, such as the balance sheet, statement of cash flow, and income statement. This paper observes the role of financial management in a firm by analyzing the various aspects that pertain to financial management.

Various Aspects of Finance that Management Must Understand
The management of an organization acts as the major determinants of the financial success of an organization. This is because decisions made by financial managers tend to intensively influence the way all the business activities of an organization are conducted.
A financial manager, as the leader of the financial team of an organization is responsible for providing financial support and advice to colleagues and clients in order to enable them make effective business decisions. Therefore, in a business organization, the role of financial manager goes beyond accounting to other multifunctional aspects of effective operation of the firm. Financial managers, therefore, must understand all aspects of the organization to enable them offer adequate support and advice to the chief executive officer pertaining t decision making and enhancing the company profitability and growth (QFinance, 2013). The management must, therefore, understand financial reports, how to implement cash management strategies, direct investment activities, and implementation of long term goals.

An effective financial manager must be able to go through the financial reports of an organization and understand what the indications means to the firm. Through this, the financial manager will be able to provide sufficient advice on measures to be taken for the effective running of the business organization. Similarly, a financial manager should be able to weigh out on the most effective investment activities of the organization.

Why a manager needs to understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets
A financial market is a place is a place whereby financial instruments are traded or exchanged. It, therefore, provides the following major economic functions: Price discovery, reduction of transaction costs, and liquidity. Price discovery is an important function of the financial market because the price of the traded asset is determined by buyers and sellers interaction in the market and the nature of the traded asset. Liquidity function is essential because it provides information of the ability of the subject commodity to fairly sell in a given market at any time, contrary to this, the investor may be forced to hold the commodity. Reduction of transaction costs, on the other hand, implies the charges that the participants in the market are subjected during a transaction (, 2010). Therefore, a financial manager must understand the characteristics and importance of financial markets in order to make effective decisions pertaining to trading in the market.


QFinance, (2013). The Role of a Financial Manager. Retrieved From, On June 21, 2013., (2010). Financial Markets. Retrieved From, On June 21, 2013.

Many organizations today are putting much focus and effort on ways of enabling their workforce is effective and efficient. Organizations all round the globe has established programs and structures that help employees boost their performance and to perform in their best level. These organizations align the programs and structures with the goals and objectives of the organization. This effort has now come to be known as Performance Management. Organizations have generated the system of evaluating and appraising employee’s performance as a means of measuring and gauging productivity in operations and situations that are work related.

This paper evaluates the contribution of the management of individual performance to the overall performance of the whole organization. The paper will present in-depth examination of factors impacting on Individual performance and the overall importance of the organization to have a robust system for performance management system. This is through the various approaches of performance management, cultural diversity and performance techniques and tools, issue on compensation and reward and finally the performance measurements and appraisal.

1. Approach performance management
Considering the approaches to performance management involve a discussion of inherent key issues and processes and how they impact the organization. Examining these processes and approaches indicate the main reason that the organization has chosen a specific approach in its performance management system. The main reason for adopting a given approach is to improve organizational and individual performance.

A. High performance work system

Performance in organizations enables organizations to attain organizational performance at a high level. This is because of the firm’s ability to manage the employees (Armstrong and Baron, 2004). High targets of performance are achieved via the effectiveness of the required skills and knowledge in applying the effort needed in work and having the appropriate behavior. Organizations that utilize the High performance work systems (HPWS) have adopted the modern day approach related to scientific/ mass production management. The use of HPWS approach leads to the greatest potential of a company to attain and sustain its competitive advantage. This is because the organizations use this highly distinctive managerial approach that enables people attains high performance.
The key dimensions of HPWS according to Jefferet Pfeffer are; 1.) Selective means of hiring new employees 2.) Decentralized decision making by self-managed teams 3.) Employment security 4.) Extensive training, 5.) High Compensation contingent for organizational; performance, 6.) reduce barriers and status distinctions and 7.) Extensive sharing of performance and financial information all through the organization. HPWS is mainly concerned with the empowerment, involvements and commitment of employees in the organization and not controlling them.

B. management by objectives

Management by Objectives is an approach where the subordinate managers write to their superiors about performance goals in the future and their steps and plans for achieving these goals. Management by Objectives presents an extensive and in-depth process of management. The approach is helpful in performance management for it enables organizations to examine whether employees outcomes and work are consistent with the set goals and objectives. The approach specifies the outcomes and work that will guarantee the firm of its success in the implementation of business strategies (Noe et al.2000).
Performance management process through the objective approach presents employees with the groundwork layout of excellence. It aligns the individual objectives of employees with the overall organization’s strategic mission and plan. It sets out a clear concept of employee’s contribution to the attainment of businesses objectives. the set performance expectations and goals determine the behaviours, actions and results of employees.

C. Human performance technology system

The technology used in the workplace determine if performance management practices are conducted by a group of employees or individually., in case technology is designed for work carried out by an individual, performance appraisal, goal setting, jobs and reward system will focus on the work behaviours of an individual. Similarly, if technology is designed in a way that is highly interdependent for groups, the performance management will focus on the group behaviours.
The level of employee involvement in an organization determines the nature and practices of management practices. Organizations operating under high bureaucratic levels suffer from low participation level among employees. In such organizations, it is essential to formalize and administer rewards systems, goal setting and performance appraisal by staff personnel and the management staff. Organization with high-involvement, on the other hand, requires heavy participation in performance management. This involves both the employees and the management staff setting appraisal, rewards and goals on performance. In high involvement organizations, employees in all stages of performance management are participating and are involved in administering and designing practices.

2. Performance tools and techniques and culture diversity

Organizational success is achieved via an integrated and strategic approach aiming to improve performances among individuals and teams through developing their capabilities (Armstrong and Baron, 2005). Despite the fact that organizations have been driven by competitive pressures to ensure performance management, firms have used performance management as a means of driving and supporting culture change. It further place importance on self- development and individual performance (Fletcher and Perry, 2001). This means that in setting goals for performance management at an individual level, it is essential to acknowledge the issue of cultural diversity. The culture of an individual does impact on the appraisal process.

Shih et al (2005) indicates that the context affects operations at an international, national and at the organizational level. Therefore, the culture of a nation is a vital variable that impacts on the establishment of performance management. Understanding cultural diversity l will help in the selection of the right tools and approaches for performance measurement. Managers will identify the aspects that need to be measured since they are aware that they at a point of diversity. The managers are responsible for ensuring that employees work well in a diverse environment. A tool to assist employees is the Cultural Adaptability Program that will help employees enhances their skills in motivating others management of cross-cultural teams and communication.

Performance management is a driver of the cultural environment and involves ensuring that performance management systems and career planning in the organization facilitate harmonious and inclusive workplace (Hofsede, 2001). This can, for example, involve establishing objective and fair management system. This includes the incorporation of measurable standards for evaluating job performance.

Ensuring that opportunities for posting, training and assignments are accessible to all employees based on objective criteria. Last is that the promotion process should be related to job requirements. Organizations should take into account the ability of employees to work and manage diverse teams.

Another vital tool to ensure a harmonious and inclusive environment in the workplace is facilitating beneficial interaction and understanding among colleagues with different profiles. Some of the practices which organizations can incorporate to ensure a harmonious and inclusive workplace culture are as follows;

1.) workplace designs; the workplace has to support the interaction among employees.
2.) workplace activities; it is essential to organize informal and formal activities to encourage the interaction of employees of different departments and profiles
3.) employee networks: this is through employee mentorship and group’s programs as a support system for advising and helping employees.
4.) Buddy system this system will help new employees to settle into the firm. the program will guide them.

For an organization to address the issues of diversity, it has to consider the question on what practices, policies and ways of thinking and organizational culture different from other b other groups. There is a need for the organization to undertake the necessary changes so as to meet the diverse workforce needs and further maximize each worker’s potential. Cultural diversity in the workplace can be dealt with when every person acknowledges that people have differences according to their culture, generation and physical aspects. The employees should also recognize that each person has his or her own knowledge that is useful to the organization.

Last is the assessment of employees is also a tool to measure the preparedness of an employee to embrace diversity. This involves examining the employee’s attitudes and how they cope with others. It will be possible to find out the issues that might hinder them from interacting with other employees.

3. Rewards and compensation

The reward system involves all the mechanisms used to distribute and determine the tangible and intangible returns as a result of employment relationships. The tangible returns such as compensation can be in the form of benefits or cash compensation. The intangible returns include employment security, status and recognition, learning opportunities and challenging work. Not all these returns have a relation with performance management systems since not all theses returns are attributed to performance management. This is because all return types as are given on the basis of past performance (Schraeder, 2007).
Performance management systems are meant for different purposes. The first function is the strategic purpose thank link the activities of employees with the goals and mission of the organization. The performance management systems ensure to maximize the extent that employees display the intended behaviours and wanted results. The performance management systems also serve as the administrative purpose for they lead to the production of information needed in HR decision-making and in the reward system such as disciplinary action, termination and promotion (Rummler and Brache, 1995).

Generally the performance management systems are a vital factor for determining if an organization is capable of managing its talent and resources effectively. Performance management gives information on the person to be trained and the specific areas of training. It also shows the employees deserving rewards and the type of skill that is lacking at a unit or organizational level.

A review of the employee’s performance can be done after six months or within an interval of three months. It is appropriate and convenient that completion of appraisal coincide with the rewards after the period that an employee receives information about his or her performance. These rewards will motivate and encourage good performance in the firm.
Rewards, recognition, and compensation are the key drivers to improve performances of employees. Recognition and reward are mainly used by organizations to influence predominance and behavior of employees. A reward and compensation system cannot be well implemented up to when there is a sound process of performance management that is perceived by all employees as being equitable and fair (Redman and Wilkinson, 2009).

Most forms give rewards to employees in the form of bonuses and other different types of compensations. This is with the firm’s expectation of enhancing performance. In order for the organization to achieve its intended goal, it is essential that it provides compensations and reward in a timely way and close to the time of the occurrence of desired behavior. The common perception that people have on rewards is that they are mostly in monetary forms. On the contrary, non-monetary recognition is a valuable tool that can be used to influence the behavior of employees. Recognition can be simple such as complementing an employee for his or her noteworthy performance. It is entail for firms to select rewards perceived to be valuable to an employee (Schreader & Jordan, 2011).

Cummings and Worley (2009, p 435) indicate that the reward systems play a vital role in the design of an organization. The authors also indicate that the rewards system has to be effective by being aligned with employee involvement, structure and strategy of work. They show that the main features of a rewards system involve group vs. individual reward, performance based versus job/person based, there is the external and internal equity, security, and rewards mix, centralization, hierarchy and seniority, the external and internal equity of a reward meant that when the reward is compared to other organizations are similar (Jansen, 2009).

The reward and compensation system enable an employee to work and be motivated in the attainment of the desired goals. They will trust the system by believing that their effort and hard work will be compensated and rewarded. The value expectancy model according to Cummings and Worley (2009, p436) is the availability of rewards and timely provision of the rewards. the model shows that reward has to be related with the goal; meaning that an employee is rewarded after accomplishing a certain goal. Conversely, the reward is decreased when an employee does not achieve the desired goal. the value expectancy model also shows that compensation and rewards should last for a long time and has to be visible for all to see and other employee knows that the reward is available (Lawler, 2000).

The rewards can also be in the form of job title, authority and promotions. Research evidence indicate that the participation of employee in the administration and designing of rewards leads to increased understanding among employees and have a sense of commitment and control ( Cummings & Worley, 2009, p 445). The reward system has to feature job/ person based or the performance based.
Heneman, Fisher and Dixon (2001) show that a reward system should have value comparisons, analysis of unit, reward levels, reward measures, reward forms, communication, timing and administrative level. the two main forms of reward are the monetary and non monetary (Heneman, Fisher, & Dixon, 2001). The monetary forms include the cash value in the form of pay increase, base pay, stock options, bonus pay and benefits. The nonmonetary is the less traditional types, such as training, psychological aspects of work and recognition.

Unit analysis according to (Heneman, Fisher, & Dixon, 2001) involves the allocation of rewards on the basis of the responsibilities and duties of employees or according to their qualifications. Reward measure is an evaluation an employee performance before giving him or her reward. Finally reward level shows the allocation of a reward on the basis of unit performance, group performance, or individual performance (Mullins 2005).

4. Performance appraisals and measurements

Companies use performance measurements and appraisal for various reasons. Performance appraisal is used by an organization so as to communicate the weakness and strengths of an employee. It highlights the areas for continual development as well as areas in need of improvement. The practice gives the employee an opportunity to discuss vital issues and areas of concern with the manager. The performance appraisal system is, therefore, a vital tool for effective communication for it facilitates dialogue between an employee and manager. Performance appraisal is also used to determine the type and amount of compensation and reward to be received by an employee within a certain period of working (Moorhead & Griffin 2007).

Performance appraisal is usually done once in a year. It involves serious scrutiny of key elements and further poses a challenge in holding open talks between the employee and manager. The long duration taken for performance appraisals further poses the challenge of recalling the performance in various areas during the entire year. Therefore employee appraisals are normally conducted using the most recent performance before appraisal (Armstrong, 2000). An effective means of evaluating work performance of an employee is carrying out multiple progress appraisals during the calendar year.

Professionals have, in fact, agreed that performance discussions have to be conducted frequently. The frequent performance appraisals present motivational and positive purposes through enhancing and allowing dialogue to take place between and employee and manager. This, therefore, leads to the establishment of trust and further ensuring that performance is as per the organizational goals. The continual appraisals on performance are effective in continual assessment of performance more than the ones conducted ones in a year. This leads to the establishment of trust for managers have the ability to review performance in a fair and accurate manner (Guest, 1987).

The managers should beware of errors and their own biases in carrying out appraisals. Lack of preparedness is a contributing factor that hinders fairs and trustworthy performance appraisal. When the manager lacks the means and clue of conducting appraisal, his judgment is likely to be biased and subjective. Milkovich and Newman (2008, p 333) present a list of errors that can occur during the appraisal process. These are;

1. Horn Errors, which occur when the appraisals rates an employee poorly in all performance areas because of a mistake that occurred in one area.
2. Halo error ; Halo error occur when the manager offers favorable rating of an employee's job performances because of good performance in a single area.
3. First impression error. This is an error that occurs when the appraiser develops positive or negative opinions towards the employee even before conducting the interview.
4. Leniency error ; occurs when the employee is rated higher than he deserves by the appraiser.
5. Recency error; is the opposite of the first impression error. This error occurs when the appraiser does not use performance from the very beginning of the review process. This leads to positive or negative conclusions that are not guided by performance.
6. Severity error ; occurs when an employee is rated lower than he deserves.
7. Clone error happens when the appraiser rates an employee favorably as a result of his or her personality and behavior and not the real performance of the employee.
8. Central tendency error; the error occurs when the appraisals fails to use individual ratings on the rate and extremes of his or her performance as being at average.

The appraisers have to be aware of these errors. They further need training that will help them avoid and recognize the various types of errors. Giving employee’s fair and accurate performance appraisal is essential so as to determine whether the employee’s goals are aligned to the objectives and goals of the organization. Having an effective Performance System is essential to deal with challenges arising from performance appraisal errors. the effectiveness of this system is determined by incorporating a section that discusses the acceptance level of an individual to make the necessary changes so as to improve performance.

The system will also enable employees to express their concerns about the changes to be made. Therefore, the appraisal process provides an opportune time for the appraiser to provide employees with the in-depth reasons he suggested changes to be made so as to improve performance. the process is also a time to inform the employee on the need to be committed to changes especially if a person has negative feelings about the changes required. The performance approval is further the best time to explain to an employee on white he or she heard, understood and will place into consideration the areas to be changes. the appraiser will further inform the individual on the need to follow the directive given by the higher managers on the need to abide by the change process (Druckers 1954).

Performance appraisal can be web based so that they consume less time. the web-based process further has the advantage of accuracy since the managers will experience a less daunting process. the web –based appraisal further helps to combine all the necessary information without overlooking others (Boselie, Dietz, and Boon 2005).


Performance Management system that is effective include approaches, goals and practices for setting goals, issuing a reward set and performance appraisal. This paper has shown how individual performance management does impact on the overall performance of the organization. Having an effective Performance Management System enables easy setting of goals, performance appraisal and rewards. These aspects have to align so as to give the organization the ability attract and retain qualified employees. Organizations should ensure that it follows the guidelines of performance appraisals, rewards, and goals so as to minimize errors and issues within the organization. Frequent and consistent performance management review will help to ensure that individual goals of employees are aligned to overall goals of the organization. An effective system for Performance management will ensure information is given and fair awarding. Therefore, it is possible to achieve a successful workplace for all people.

Armstrong M (2000) The Name Has Changed But Has The Game Remained The Same? Employee Relations 22(6):576-593
Armstrong M And Baron A (2004) Managing Performance: Performance Management In Action. London Cipd (Chartered Institute Of Personal And Development)
Boselie P Dietz G And Boon (2005) Commonalities And Contradiction In Research On Human Resources Management And Performance Human Resources Management Journal 15(3):67-94
Druckers P.F (1954) The Practices Of Management New York Harped And Row Publishers
Guest D.E (1987) Human Resources Management And Industrial Relations Journal Of Management Studies 24(5):503-521
Hofsede G (2001) Culture Consequences Comparing Values Behaviours Institutions And Organization Across Nations 2nd Edition London Thousand Oaks Sage
Jansen E. P Et Al (2009) National Differences In Incentive Compensation Practices: The Differing Roles Of Financial Performance Management In The United States And Netherlands Accounting Organization And Society 34(1) 58-84
Lawler .E.E (2000) Rewarding Excellence: Play Strategies For The Economy San Francisco: Mosey Bass Chichester Wiley
.Moorhead And Griffin (2007) Organizational Behavior: Managing People And Organization 9th Den Boston Western
.Mullins L.J (2005) Management And Organizational Behavior 7th Den Harlow New York: Prentice Hall/ Financial Times
Redman And Wilkinson (2009) Contemporary Human Resources Management: Text And Cases 3rd Edn Harlow
.Rummler And Brache (1995) Improving Performance : How To Manage The White Space On The Organization Chart 2nd Edn San Francisco Joss-Bass
Schraeder Et Al (2007) A Critical Examination Of Performance Appraisals : An Organization Friends Or Foe Journal For Quality And Participation 30(1) 20-25
Tyson S (2206) Essential Of Human Resources Management 5th Edn Oxford Butter Worth- Heinemann

Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2009). Organization Development & Change (9th Ed.)

Mason, OH: South-Western.

Heneman, R. L., Fisher, M. M., & Dixon, K. E. (2001, November). Reward And Organizational Systems Alignment: An Expert System. Compensation And Benefits Review, 33(6), 18-29. Retrieved April 9, 2011, From ABI/INFORM Global.

Milkovich, G. T. & Newman, J. M. (2008). Compensation, (9th Ed.). New York : Mcgraw-Hill/Irwin

Friday, 18 March 2016 06:22


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According to Indra Nooyi, her goal is to build a healthy product line which is likely to be almost three times the current sales of PepsiCo products. This is because of the shift of the market towards healthier eating and shifting the company towards this direction is a moral imperative. As a shareholder of this company, I would support the vision of India Nooyi because people are now more focused on health and wellness. Therefore, this vision will result to better sales for the company. However, I would advise the company to make sure that it focuses on advertising its products so that people can be informed about the benefits of buying healthy products.

This is a vision that would encourage me to want to invest in the company because it means more success for the company and also bettering the health of people. Due to the fact that investors normally care about what is ahead, Nooyi has promised that the sales of the company are likely to increase, and this gives me confidence that, with this new vision, it is better to invest in the company. According to the mathematics by Nooyi, the profits are expected to increase in the future and in order for the profits to increase, PepsiCo has to change to healthier products. This is a vision that shows a win-win for investors and also the company and the customers.

It is not possible for a leader to try to do what Indra is trying to do to a company if she does not have referent power that she possesses. Indra is a leader who has referent power as she is able to influence the followers and also investors because of respect, loyalty, friendship, affection, admiration, and the desire to gain approval. Nooyi is a leader who has the power of influencing investor to doing something that appears to be possible. She gives the followers energy to try something with the trust that it will not fail. A good leader should never back from a challenge. According to Nooyi, she believe that the harder the business is the bigger the turnaround; therefore, a person should always go ahead and believe that they can accomplish anything. Referent power is very important in organizational leadership because it is all about influence and collaboration rather than control and command.
Indra has been able to influence her workers to work towards improving the company, and they have achieved, and she believes that it is achievable, for PepsiCo to focus on environmental, human, and talent sustainability. With this idea in mind, Nooyi will be able to influence investors so that they can invest more in the company. Therefore, a leader who does not have this power cannot attempt to do what Nooyi is doing to the company.

This is an approach that is sustainable for the company if Nooyi decides to leave the company. This is because she has already established a good platform and his followers are bound to work towards making it better. The workers in PepsiCo have been focused on health and wellness which will be hard for them to ignore. Cabinet members should be good leaders with all the qualities of leadership. Therefore for Nooyi to be successful, she needs to have courage, strategic planning, focus, and vision.

Friday, 18 March 2016 06:20

Emotional Intelligence and Ability

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Emotional Intelligence and Ability
Johnson& Johnson is a highly reputable company for being remarkable. It manufactures many leading products in the market, and it also has a consistent financial performance. However, this company had, unfortunately, taken some serious hits, for example, in 2010 when it dealt with 11 major recalls in the US. Secondly, some major recalls of eye care products also emerged from Europe and Asia, and ultimately, three of Jonson & Johnson manufacturing plants were subjected to federal oversight. In an effort to restore the reputation, this company took some highly visible and very expensive steps. It also took some of the less visible steps to address its challenges; therefore, it made an effort to assess the ability that the managers possessed. This paper, therefore, is an analysis of assessment of the management ability as done by the Johnson & Johnson Company.

Emotional Intelligence
Indeed, there was a difference in emotional intelligence among the high performing and the average performing managers at Johnson & Johnson. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability of an individual to recognize and understand his/her emotions and that of others. In fact, emotions affect every aspects of an individual life, and a person who has an excellent control of his/her emotions is professionally sufficient to adequately address every problem in a logical way. Therefore, professional who know how to adequately control their emotions normally perform highly compared to those who are poor in controlling their emotions. Therefore, there was a difference in emotional intelligence among the high performing managers and the average performing managers at Johnson & Johnson since emotional intelligence detects the level of performance of a manager.

The facets of emotional intelligence that are most applicable in this case are social awareness and relationship management. Through social awareness, a manager can be able to understand the needs, concerns, and the emotions of other people, giving him/her to feel socially comfortable, and recognize the dynamics that exist in a group. Relationship management, on the other hand, will also help a manager to communicate clearly, develop and maintain good relationships, influence other as they work in a team, and to manage conflicts effectively. The least applicable facet is self-awareness because it just emphasizes on personal emotions, therefore, does not apply to an organization setup.

Johnson & Johnson implemented a program whereby new employees would be evaluated to determine their emotional intelligence, performance, as well as promotional potential. This is an effective program because the employees who will be employed will have a high level of intelligence. This company also invested in educational programs in an effort to nature the emotional intelligence of its employees, a program, which is less effective because it is always difficult to emotionally nature an individual who have been used to a certain habit. Ability is a major idea that needs to be put into consideration for job performance. This is because it leads to innovation and excellent performance. However, some abilities should not be considered because it may lead to bias of employees because some can be talented and even some may be performing technical activities than others who excel in simple activities.

Employees’ emotional intelligence is an important aspect, and this factor may help Johnson & Johnson Company. This is because emotionally intelligent employees are able to lead and motivate others to perform excellently. Therefore, several errors that may compromise the quality of the Jonson & Johnson products will be avoided leading to reduction in the amount of products being recalled. Technical abilities should also be considered in section of the employee team at the Johnson & Johnson Company. This is because excellent technical skills are needed for quality control.

Inkling, (2013). Case: Johnson and Johnson. Retrieved From, On June 11, 2013.


This dissertation focuses on the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace. While the dissertation focuses on current trends, it also narrows down on future aspects and areas of research based on the notable gaps. For the study, a total of 291 respondents were used. In essence, this was a representative sample of the ageing population in the workplace. There are various reasons why this population has been studied with regard to the issue of age-based discrimination. Firstly, this population is immensely prone to age discrimination across different workplaces in North America (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009).

Based on the stipulations provided by the author, most employers in North America have established human resource policies which are more or less unfavorable to the aging employees. Another reason for focusing on this population pertains to the significance of equality at the workplace. The platforms and guidelines established for equality at the workplace are massively essential in terms of streamlining the operational efficiency of organizations. Additionally, the aging population in the workplace is strongly influential from the perspective of experience. In this study, the reason why 291 participants were used is that such a sample would facilitate for adequate qualitative and quantitative analysis. This is an essential aspect as pertains to research in human resource management. The need for future study in the topic of age-based discrimination in the workplace has also been identified in this publication (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). One of the identified areas of future research is the evaluation of variables which might affect the relationship between age-based discrimination and human resource practices. This is because the current studies have not focused adequately on these kinds of variables.

The second aspect of future research pertains to the reaction of different genders to age discrimination in the workplace. Based on the stipulations provided in the publication, male employees might react differently to the female employees towards age-based discrimination. Future studies must also examine the inherent associations or linkage between age-based discrimination and the framework for job satisfaction (Armstrong-Stassen & lee, 2009). These dynamics are immensely crucial in the attainment of human resource efficiency in the modern workplace settings.

Research Questions

From the gaps identified in the publication, it is immensely crucial to establish the most pertinent research questions. In essence, these research questions are significant from the perspective of addressing such gaps.
Research Question 1: What kind of demographic variables affect the linkage between human resource practice and age-based discrimination?
This research question zeros down on the pertinent dynamics of human resource practice and age based discrimination. While there are numerous potential demographic variables which influence such associations, they have not been critically addressed in current research (Morris, 2012). This underlines the significance of this research question as pertains to the topic of age discrimination in the modern workplace.

Research Question 2
: How does age discrimination influence the standards of job satisfaction in an organization?

This is another pertinent research question that relates to the identified gaps in research. The research question is helpful from the perspective of demystifying the connection between job satisfaction and age discrimination (Whitley, 2012).
Research Question 3: How can age discrimination be mitigated among the aging employees?
This also serves as a pertinent research question in view of the different gaps in research. The establishment of the most effective mitigation measures is massively influential from the perspective of streamlining human resource management (Brewster, 2012).

Armstrong-Stassen, M. & Lee, S. H. (2009). The effect of relational age on older Canadian employees’ perceptions of human resource practices, International Journal of Human Resource Management , 20(8), 1753-1769 Accessed on 11th June, 2012 from
Brewster, C. J. (2012). Handbook of research on comparative human resource management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Morris, S. (2012). Handbook of research in international human resource management, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Whitley, B. E. (2012). Principles of research in behavioral science. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis

2014 Management.
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