Management

Management (8)

Wednesday, 11 May 2016 00:25

Moral Standing

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Study indicates that an entity is believed to have moral status if its interests morally apply to some degree for the entity’s own sake. In this case, the entity has the ability to wrong or can be wronged. We say that an entity has moral status if the actions of its suffering somehow develop a situation that can be termed as somewhat morally bad.


Moral standing and legal standing are almost the same, and in most instances they are used interchangeably. No standing, indirect standing, and direct standing are some of the common general views of moral standing used in different situations. Humans are believed to have direct moral standing, and that is the reason why they manage to develop sound decisions as compared to other animals.


Based on a utilitarian thought, using animals for meat production is not ethical simply because they believe that animals have moral rights and that they should never be used as a source of food. Animals should have the right of equality whereby animals should not be used for research purposes because this will create some pain during the research activities, (Goodin, 2010).


Consumerism is the organized efforts by governments, groups, and individuals with a purpose to protect consumers from practices and policies that infringe their rights to fair business practices. It is the economic policy that states that any given market is shaped by choice and strategies of consumers. The policy highlights down fundamental rights such as right to information, right to choice, and right to safety.


A number of factors contributes and promotes the aspect of consumerism. A shift in personal values, lack of financial education, aggressive and intrusive advertising, and easy access to consumer credit are some of factors that contribute to the aspect of consumerism. Evidence shows that easy access to consumer credit is the most prominent factor simply because credit card companies get a lot of revenue from the card’s fee.


It has been noted that in a market, that concentrate largely in activities of capitalistic, sellers always focuses on proper advertising campaigns for the purpose of increasing their sales. Although sellers to some point tend to fulfill the needs of the consumers, they slightly cut the value of what they offer to the buyers so that buyers can return and come back for more, (Goodin, 2010).


Studies that have been developed in the recent times, consumerist behaviors develop a lot of effects in the economy. Consumerist behaviors should be reduced due to a number of reasons. Evidence shows that consumer behavior affects environment, jobs, producers and that are why it should be reduced.


In order to end consumerism, there are several approaches that can be used. Shunning advertisements that come along will help reduce the level of consumerism in the economy. Another thing is by stop spending money on any advert that comes along. One should always be non competitive in order to stop and deal with the issues of consumerism.


It is true that in order to deal with poverty, we should do more than what we are currently doing. By doing more, I think my life will be different simply because I will have more sources of income, (Goodin, 2010).


 


Reference:

Goodin, D. K. (2010). Social Insecurity and the No-Avail Thesis: Insights from Philosophy and   Economic History on Consumerist Behavior. Ethics, Place & Environment, 13(1), 15-18.         doi:10.1080/13668790903554022

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 23:06

Cross-Sectional Cultural Management Plan

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 Executive Summary

American Express Company was founded in 1850, and it is one of the Dow Jones Industrial Average thirty components.   It was started in Buffalo, New York, as an express mail business later became a joint stock corporation that resulted from the merger of the express companies.   This company is the best known for dealing with credit cards, traveller’s cheques, and charge cards businesses.  American Express cards accounts for approximately 24% of the total credit cards transactions in America. 


It is one of the 20 most admired companies in the World and for years it enjoyed monopoly on the movement of express shipments throughout the New York State.   By arranging affiliations with other express companies, American Express extended its reach nationwide.  This company has, therefore, grown steadily through acquisitions, a series of mergers, and later its focus on their premium cards and processes services.  The American Express company currently operates in the four segments, which include U.S. Card Services, Global Commercial Services, Global Network & Merchant Services, and International Card Services.  It is focused on generating alternative global based revenues in areas such as mobile and online payments, and fee based services.   Various products and services are globally sold to diverse groups of customers, including small businesses, consumers; middle sized companies, and large corporations.  The channels through, which these services and products are sold, include direct mail, in-house and third party sales, direct response advertising, and online applications.  Indeed, it is a global services company that provides customers with efficient access to services and products.

 


Situation Analysis

 The primary focus of the American Express Company is business results and return on investment.  Therefore, it takes a center stage and pioneers research on how it can effectively deliver   the best training for its global leaders and the population.  Perhaps, many global companies struggle to offer training to their employees; however, they do little to support their ultimate investment decisions.  However, American Express being a 64$ billion global organization with global employees exceeding 65, 000 has put effective measures for the delivery of leadership training program, using the results to inform its training strategies, and to maximize on the return on investment.  


A large number of companies cannot quantify business impact, ultimate maximum return on investment, and the behavior change.  In addition to this, challenge of creating a maximum return on investment for leadership program and the results become even more elusive.  American express as an organization in the service industry is needed to inspire its employees to be more motivated and engaged.  The company is, therefore, determined to achieve this by increasing the capability of leadership.  By, equipping its leaders with the skills and knowledge to truly engage all employees, American Express will realize its talent strategy.  The Situational Leadership II© program launched by the American Express company has the ability to target specific leadership tasks and competences, while remaining flexible enough to translate across the diverse leadership population.  It, therefore, provides a situation whereby leaders can access or rather generate direct reports for diagnosing and generation of unique action plans.

 


Corporate and Swot Analysis

 Strengths

1. Global Reach and Presence

American express has a well established global market and operates in many countries and more so at home; the U.S whereby it is so far one of the leading company in credit card businesses.   The total number of American Express credit cards in circulation is about 50.6 million. The transaction volume of the American Express cards also stands at an approximate figure of $131.1 (CreditCards.com, 2013).


2. Diversity

Over the years, the American Express Company has added different services and products.  This diversity has given this company a potential to spread its financial risks over different channels; from business cards, to city specific rewards and airline cards, and a credit card that caters for all needs.  This company also has a unique arrangement from other credit card organizations because it has their own payment system and also issue credit cards directly to their customers.  This is convenient to the customers because if they have the American cards, they automatically know who issued them, the payment system that they utilize, and everything else that pertain to the cards.  Therefore, from an organizational point of view, this company has a complete horizontal scale across payments giving them diverse opportunities for their business to grow and drive innovation in the market place.


3. Innovation

American express has a study series of history in innovation.  In fact, many of the financial products that are taken for granted today were pioneered by American Express Company. It has also found ways of improving the delivery of its services.   It has generated rewards cards that are affiliated with specific stores, and these are commonly known as travel cards.  Pertaining to marketing, American Express Corporation has been famously known for inventive advertising.  It has since used highly visible personalities such as Tiger Wood and Jerry Seinfield since 1990s, AS American Express spokesmen a situation that has long played a role in sustain the recognition of American Express.  Ultimately, this corporation takes a holistic view of positioning of its brand and today’s advertising campaigns reflects the innovative business solutions and range of products of American Express Corporation and its unique ability  to provides customers with privileges and unique experiences.


4. Brand Loyalty

American Express Corporation has a large consumer base.  There is an overwhelming majority of people who continue to use the services of this corporation as their financial facility.  In fact, the J.D. Power and Associates 2010 Credit Card Satisfaction Study, ranked American Express as the top most company in customer satisfaction.


5. Travel Services Operations

American Express Corporation is able to appeal to customers who are constantly in the move, through a variety of travel cards.  By rewarding points and giving offers to the customers, it is able to ensure that American Cards are popularly used all over the world.

 


Weaknesses

1. Financial Credit Crisis

Credit businesses depend on the credit market and the confidence of the consumer. Therefore, if the spending of the customer is low, profits will also go down.   With the increasing economic crisis that are witnessed in the U.S. and other countries, holders of credit cards may fail to frequently use their cards to make transactions. Therefore, leading to poor financial performance of the American Express Corporation since credit card business is a major part of the operations of this organization.


2. Size

American Express as one of the largest Credit Cards Company in the world receives a big attention from the press.  Therefore, credit crunch hurt the image of this corporation even if the economic crisis times have passed, due to the great deal of attention that it receives from the media as a large company.


Opportunities

1. Limit Risk

Taking steps of limiting risks, for example, through diversification, could help American Express Corporation to better its strength.


2. Stability

Despite economic challenges that exist, American Express has relatively remained financially stable compared to some of its counterparts. I, therefore, mean a projected tremendous growth when the economy begins to recover.


3. Expansion to China

Cooperation of American Express and China UnionPay indicates an expansion in the business operations of the American Express.  This new cooperation between the two companies will explore new areas in China and the outside markets.

 


Treats

Macro Effects

The operations of American Express Corporation may be adversely affected if the US economy experiences a downfall.


Regulations

 The regulations in the business world seem to increase every moment. New acts governing business operations and the taxes levied are proposed and implemented regularly. This may tighten the operations of the long established business corporations such as American Express, making it less profitable in the future.

 


Environment of Country Selected

            American Express Corporation is a business that majorly operates in the developed countries of the world.   Business operations in developed countries are demanding.  There are several acts that have been implemented by the government to regulate the operation of multinational organizations.  In fact, some of the countries promote the use of the local products and services as a means of making the home industries sustain a good growth. Such event, therefore, discourage corporations such as the American Express from the international markets. Business operation in the United States is also challenging due to the competitive market and the adverse economic situation, which may finally make an organization to experience poor growth. In fact, government acts pertaining to business operations in the United States may sometimes dictates unfavorable actions for corporations, for instance by specifying how to treat the employees irrespective of the underlying financial challenges.


Goals and Objectives

The ultimate goal of the American Express Corporation is to achieve excellent returns on   investment through generation of adequate profits from its operations.  The objective, therefore, is to provide adequate training for the corporate leaders and employees through Situational Leadership program so as to increases their capabilities.


 Strategies and Tactics

American Express will realize its talent strategy through leadership and employees training on the effective methods of business operations.  This corporation will have to learn from other leading corporations on the effective methods to conduct business operations and sustain growth even during the tough economic times.

 


Control and Evaluations

             Corporate culture is an important factor in the successful development of a firm.  It cares for the resources of a company and helps in the personal development of the management and employees.  Effective leadership should be implemented in an organization in order to sustain the growth effective growth.


References

CreditCards.com, (2013). Credit Cards Statistics Retrieved from, http://www.creditcards.com/crd-industry-facts-personal-debt-statistics-1276.php On June 19, 2013.

Sitemaker, (2012). Human Resource Competency Study. Retrieved From, http://www.sitemaker.umich.edu/hrcs/executive_summary On June 19, 2013.

MindTools, (2013). Swot Analysis. Retrieved From, http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.htm  On June 19, 2013.

Slideshare, (2012). Cross Cultural Management. Retrieved From, http://www.slideshare.net/guest34faa6/cross-cultural-management On June 19, 2013.

Reuters, (2012). American Express Corporation. Retrieved From, http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=AXP.N on June 19, 2013.

 Plunkett, J., (2008). The Almanac of American Employers.  Plunkett Research, Ltd.

Job Position_______________

Age________________

Gender_______________

No of years in your job position (please tick your age)

  • Below 1 year ( )
  • 1-5 years ( )
  • 5-10 years ( )
  • 10-15 years ( )
  • Above 15 years ( )

Data Section

Is your health facility engaged in any activities that relate to the development of electronic health records? Describe these activities if any and the nature of your employee’s involvement?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What are the costs of maintaining and implementing electronic health records in your organization?

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What are some of consumer’s challenges relating to the implementation and development of electronic health records that your organization has identified? What are some of these challenges?

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Does the electronic health record system function in accordance with your practice expectations? Is the software imposing any new limitations on the organization? Does EHR provide some features that you feel are not needed or you will never use in your practice?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What are some of the EHR system initiatives would your organization like information about? Give examples

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What are the major legal barriers of implementing EHR in your organization? How does your organization deal with these barriers?

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Is there any software start up costs or maintenance costs that affects your organization? How have these costs affected the implementation of electronic health record system in your organization?

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Implementation of electronic health record system requires skills and qualifications. Does your organization have the required skill required? What are some of the challenges in respect to skills have your organization encountered and how does the company handle them?

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Who helps you implement the technology in your organization? Does the vendor help you train employees on how to operate the system?

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Does your organization encounter patient privacy issues? How has the implementation of electronic health record system affected privacy issues of your customers?

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Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:53

Management

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The economy is the most vital aspect that is facing management today. The current economic point of the economy calls for companies to undertake their business within tight financial constraints. The issues of economic constraints can be seen in various reports of job closing and cutbacks of various manufacturing plants and stores faced by companies. The global economy seems to be heading towards recession. In the United States, the economic standing has undergone significant and drastic changes in the last one year as a result of factors like natural disasters, war with Iraq and North Korea and unethical practices among various financial institutions. The American global activity has slowed, and there have been an increase of downside risks.


There is also the issue of global rebalancing that calls for the demand of a sustainable global growth which has become stagnant. The main problem that has caused the weakening of balance sheets and weak growth among governments, households, and financial institutions are negatively affecting every person in the nation. The loss of momentum in growth and worsening of balance sheets, there will be the threatening of fiscal sustainability, and there will be no policies that focus on salvaging recovery. The world economic position is faced with various complex challenges such as the financial markets turmoil and the European debt risk. These global issues do have an impact to the United States because it will be difficult to do businesses with nations facing economic challenges. The Global Economic Prospects shows that these challenges are likely to continue in the coming years (The World Bank, 2013).


When all these factors are combined they make businesses undergo a major financial burden in their effort to maintain the daily operations of their businesses. Therefore, businesses are expected to have in place sufficient plans that will assist them to survive in this critical economic and financial times. This is through having the right actions that will enable them to revive in times of economic falls. The management is the main department that has to undertake these strategies and come up with innovative ways of operating with the least cost. The survival of companies is determined by the ability to survive through the economic storm until when the economy improves (Griffin, 2012).


Currently, many organizations are identifying ways of operating within the limited financial resources. This involves the identification of the main problems causing increased financial expenditure and coming up with ways of operating at low costs in the production of goods and marketing services and products. This effort can be seen in Starbucks Corporation. Starbucks has managed to change its employee scheduling system so has to use a few number of employees having to work for long duration at the coffee shops. The program was developed with the effort of reducing the cost of labor and at the same time to improve sales by enhancing the familiarity among the corporation’s employees and customers. A smaller number of employees are best able to provide a more caring and inviting atmosphere than in the past where there were many employees.


Therefore, many customers are likely to come to the coffee shops to purchase the various coffee products offered by Starbucks. The economic challenges are the main concerns for managers, and they need to have the knowledge in operations management and use their experience in running the businesses effectively for the benefit of organizations. Managers have to offer their capability and services that are beneficial in maintaining, managing and running a company (Callan, & Thomas, 2009, p 89).


Reference

Callan, S and Thomas J (2009) Environmental Economics and Management Theory, policy and applications, p 89

The world bank (2013) Global Economic Prospects. Retrieved from
http://web.worldbank.org/wbsite/external/extdec/extdecprospects/extgblprospects/0,,menupk:615470~pagepk:64218926~pipk:64218953~thesitepk:612501,00.html

On June 2, 2013

Griffin R (2012) Management. Cengage learning, p 176

 

The management of diversity serves as the most critical issue in today’s executive leadership. While there are numerous issues of significance in today’s executive leadership, the management of diversity is highly prominent.


This issue centers on the consideration of the distinct needs of employees, variation in values, ethical beliefs, and religion. The modern executive leader must have adequate skills to manage this kind of diversity. This is considerably challenging especially when the values of employees clash with the organizational culture. Balancing between the two perspectives is not always straightforward for the executive leader. This essay zeros in on the management of diversity as the most significant concern facing the modern executive leadership.


Diversity

In the modern workplace, diversity is an outstanding feature. In essence, diversity has numerous dimensions. Among the most notable aspects of diversity is the issue of generational differences. Executive leadership in the 21st Century must address the different challenges associated with generational diversity (Bilimoria, 2012). These challenges include approaches to tasks, attitudes, and the use of technology among others.


While the younger generations are extremely keen on the integration of computer technology in the workplace, the older generation is seemingly reluctant to such frameworks. This puts into perspective the challenge of diversity management in the modern executive leadership. The executive leader must adopt appropriate leadership strategies for mitigating generational conflicts.


The critical issue of diversity management in executive leadership can also be assessed from the perspective of teamwork. For any executive leader, it is considerably challenging to establish an effective framework for creating teams in the workplace. Due to diversity issues, some individuals might oppose the idea of collaborating with others in the accomplishment of tasks. Some employees have strong preference for individualism while others are supportive of teamwork. The executive leader must implement appropriate leadership strategies for handling such diversity challenges (Chin, 2010).


Another notable dimension of diversity involves ethical beliefs or values. Different individuals are characterized by different ethical beliefs. The variations in the ethical values must be taken into account in the modern executive leadership practices. The diversity in ethical values can significantly hamper the capacity of executive leaders to successfully implement their respective plans.
For instance, the ethical values of an employee might not necessarily match with the organizational culture. This affects the overall levels of operational efficiency in the organization. The management of diversity is thus a critical issue for executive leadership with regard to the ethical values of different people.

 


Diversity is also exemplified by the different attitudes and perceptions of people. Variation in attitudes is a notable source of conflicts in the modern workplace or organizational setup. The mitigation of such disputes is strongly influenced by the tactics used by the executive leader. For any executive leader in the 21st Century, diversity management is thus a critical aspect (Acar, 2010). The issue of inclusion also plays a massive role in exemplifying the challenge of diversity in the modern frameworks for executive leadership. This challenge mainly occurs when the leader must address all aspects of diversity while including or excluding employees in organizational teams.


In view of the extensive levels of diversity in the 21st Century, the attainment of balance in the inclusion framework is a complex aspect for executive leaders. The challenge of diversity management also applies to the issue of decision making. Decision making is a pertinent role of executive leadership in the 21st Century. However, the different perspectives on diversity can easily mar the efficiency of decision making among executive leaders. For instance, it is a massive challenge for the executive leader to make a decision that conforms to the expectations of all followers (Kearney, 2009). Based on such perspectives, diversity management is the most significant concern facing the modern executive leadership.


Potential Resolution to the Issue

Transformational leadership serves as an excellent platform for resolving the issue of diversity management in executive leadership. Through transformational leadership, executive leaders can easily develop applicable strategies for coping with diversity (Bilimoria, 2012). For instance, this leadership approach accentuates on the significance of developing excellent ties with followers.


Such a strategy would be crucial towards managing the different diversity issues among employees (Chin, 2010). Additionally, this strategy would enable the leader to influence the employees positively. For instance, the executive leader can influence the employees to emphasize on organizational culture as opposed to personal values and ethical beliefs.


Conclusion

Despite the extensive challenges facing executive leaders, diversity is immensely significant. The top leaders in modern settings must deal with the numerous challenges associated with the management of diversity. Diversity can hamper teamwork and also act as hindrance to the implementation of organizational culture. In the 21st Century, diversity in executive leadership is also exemplified by generational differences among employees.


In order to resolve this issue, executive leaders must consider diversity as a positive aspect. Additionally, transformational leadership provides an excellent framework for dealing with the numerous challenges occasioned by the critical issue of diversity management among executive leaders.   


References

Acar, E. I. (2010). Analyzing the effects of diversity perceptions and shared leadership,    International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(10)

Bilimoria, D. (2012). Inclusive leadership, Leadership Excellence, 29(3)

Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world, American Psychologist    65(3)

Kearney, E. (2009). Managing diversity and enhancing team outcomes: The promise of     transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1)

Tuesday, 10 May 2016 22:35

Copy General Corporation

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To provide excellent services to clients while ensuring that their respective needs and expectations are met. The company also seeks to foster an exemplary culture among its employees in order to boost livelihoods. Through these kinds of values, the Copy General Corporations seeks to make a positive impact in the society.


Problems

Copy General Corporation faced numerous challenges during its establishment and also while rolling out across different jurisdictions in Eastern Europe.  Among the most outstanding problems is the issue of language barriers. As Paul sought to identify a suitable location for his new company, language was a notable challenge. Most people in Budapest could barely speak in English.


This served as a massive barrier for communication. In the establishment of any business in foreign markets, communication is usually a critical challenge (Bruton, 2010). Apart from language, another notable problem pertains to the acquisition of space in Budapest and also the other locations across Eastern Europe. These countries were recovering from communist regimes, and this complicated space acquisition for business. In any business, the acquisition of space is among the most essential steps towards success. This underlines the problem faced by Copy General Corporation as it sought to venture into the new markets across Eastern Europe (Rugman, 2009).


The issue of government bureaucracy is another notable problem in the case. This is a glaring attribute of socialist and communist regimes. These kinds of bureaucracies hampered the entire process of establishing the new business in cities such as Budapest and Prague. The different aspects highlight the numerous problems which are notable in the case as directly pertains to the organization.


Assumptions

There are various assumptions which can be drawn from this case. The first assumption pertains to the issue of capital. In line with this framework, there is an assumption that Paul and his compatriots had sufficient financial resources to establish the first office in Budapest. Without such resources, it would have been, massively challenging for Paul and his colleague to actualize the different logistics of establishing a new company (Hooper, 2009).


Another assumption hinges on the consideration that Copy General Corporation is a profit based company. While this aspect has not been addressed in this case, it is pertinent to make an assumption that Copy General is a profit-based entity. This helps in demystifying the extensive strategies to expand the company across the Eastern European region.


Discussion

The case presents numerous contexts that most concern the subject matter relative to cross cultural management. One of such situations is the scenario involving an interpreter as Paul and his colleague were seeking business space in Budapest. Interpretation is an outstanding aspect of cross cultural management. This is largely because of the language differences notable in the foreign markets.


Apart from language, culture is another pertinent management scenario that encompasses the cross-cultural aspects in this case. In the management of international business activities, cultural perspectives must be taken into account. Such an approach enables the business to conform to the different stipulations and expectations of the new culture (Kelly, 2009).
This is a pertinent reason why Copy General Corporation performed brilliantly in the Eastern European region. Connecting with a people’s standard of living is also a notable cross-cultural management aspect depicted in the case. The company did not encourage extravagant lifestyles in order to avert any kind of dissent among the local employees. This aspect is an essential dimension with regard to cross cultural management.


Functional Policies

Different companies are characterized by different functional policies. In line with such stipulations, Copy General Corporation is not an exception. Among the most pertinent areas of functional policies is financial planning and control. The company has an excellent policy which bars the employees from spending extravagantly. Marketing is another pertinent area of analysis with regard to the functional policies of Copy General Corporation.


The framework for marketing in this company is intertwined with the advertising policy in order to minimize operational costs (Bruton, 2010). Online marketing platforms have been widely employed by the company. The company has invested extensively in product development and research. These aspects enhance its competitiveness. In terms of human resources, the company trains its employees regularly. It also maintains exemplar standards of fairness while hiring new employees.


Solutions

In order to solve the challenge of language barrier, the company must invest heavily on local employees. These can connect easily with the respective clients. The challenge of government bureaucracy can be averted by establishing a neutral policy on political issues (Hooper, 2009). This can easily protect the Copy General Corporation from political controversies.


Plan for Action

In order to address the issue of cultural diversity, Copy General Corporation must develop a culturally-sensitive organizational culture. This kind of action would streamline the company’s efficiency while handling or serving clients from diverse backgrounds (Rugman, 2009).


The company’s extensive establishments in countries across Europe and Asia should serve as the platform for fine-tuning the organizational culture. Additionally, all employees must be familiarized with the different benefits of maintaining cultural diversity within a multinational organization like Copy General Corporation.

References

Bruton, G. D. (2010). International management: Strategy and culture in an emerging       world, Mason, OH: Cengage Learning

Hooper, M. J. (2009). The global business handbook, Burlington, VT: Gower Publishing   Company

Kelly, P. (2009). International business and management, Mason, OH: Cengage     Learning

Rugman, A. M. (2009). The Oxford handbook of international business, Oxford: Oxford   University Press

Friday, 18 March 2016 06:34

Organizational Culture: Zappos Case Study

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Organizational Culture: Zappos Case Study

Introduction

Zappo.com is an organization, which has been named one of the best places to work. This company is known to have many job many applicants since it has a good working environment for the employees; it offers free vending machine food, and free lunches. However, Zappos is stringent in selecting job applicants since employees need to fit into the specified conditions of the company. Therefore, only those applicants who match the corporate values are employed having been put through a tough test. In fact, a Zippos employee must be creative, adventurous, open-minded, and humble. This paper, therefore, is an analysis of Zappo.com’s values that pertains to employees.


Culture forms the identity of an individual. It is a set of activities that an individual is used to, and; therefore, forms the identity of a person. Zappos is an organization, which is known to conduct an interview on the job applicants that demonstrate the core values. However, it is difficult to ask questions that measure the values of a person because values are factors that cannot be fully demonstrated within a short time period, but requires a long term stay with the subject individual. Interviews, therefore, cannot effectively measure a person’s values because they only they only involve a short interaction with an individual, and they are also subject to factors such as pretence, and level of preparedness. However, the best way in, which values can be tested, is by seeking background information about the history of the prospective interviewee, for example, from the former employment or by conducting an analysis through observations as he/she practically conducts his activities in the new workplace.


Formal feedback on the operation of an organization’s activities is an important aspect of communication. This is because it enables the employees and other individuals that are interested in the organization’s activities to have a clear formula of undertaking the activities of an organization. Jo related task performance should be communicated to the employees to enable them understand their tasks at work, how to conduct such tasks, and the acceptable results. Therefore, in a case whereby an organization fails to provide a formal feedback on job related task performance, it means that the employees of the organization will fail to identify their areas of duties, fail to accomplish a given task or even perform poorly in a given task. Therefore, Zippos will generally perform poorly if it fails to provide a formal feedback for the task performance.

An employee is said to fit into an organization culture if he/she can meet the organization’s expectations, and even exceed the given expectations. Zippo.com expects the employees to be adventurous, open-minded, creative, and humble. The employees in this company are also expected to be punctual, have the technical ability and relevant experience, and also be team players, among other expectations. Therefore, employees who fit the culture of this organization will be identified overtime by their ability to display the acceptable behavior. On the contrary, employees who do not fit Zappos’ culture will also be easily identified as they display the acceptable behaviors and they will be uncreative, timid minded, non-adventurous, and lack humility. Therefore, appropriate and inappropriate employees will be noticed over time.

Reference
Inkling, (2013). Zappos Case Study. Retrieved From, https://www.inkling.com/read/organizational-behavior-colquitt-3rd/chapter-16/case-zappos On June 15, 2013.

Thursday, 17 March 2016 07:04

Organization Diagnosis Theory and Model

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Organization Diagnosis Theory and Model
Janicijevic N. (2010). Business Processes in Organizational Diagnosis. Management Journal. 15 (2): 85- 106


This article promotes a process focused approach in organizational diagnosis. The article suggests that managers need to include business processes into the diagnostic models that are used to manage organizational change. The author notes the role of organizational diagnosis in assisting firms to manage change. The diagnostic process helps the organization to understand the causes of change and the content of the change. The author holds the view that the diagnostic models must be based on the business process in order for the organization to have an effective diagnosis. The article goes further to point out business processes components that need to be considered when developing an organizational diagnosis model. The article divides business processes into three broad classes; back processes, middle and front processes. The article also explains action plans that may be used to improve the processes.


Hamid R. et al (2011). The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis based on Six Box Model. Higher Education Studies. 1 (1): 84- 92
This article describes the use of the six box model in conducting organizational diagnosis in a university. This article describes organizational diagnosis as a process that uses different patterns to understand organizational problems with the aim of effecting necessary modifications. This process requires the use of systematic approaches in understanding organizational problems. One of these approaches is the six box model. The six box model examines six vital elements within an organization; rewards, structure, purposes, relationships, leadership and helpful mechanism. The article creates a better understanding of this model by describing its application in a university context.

Singleton L. Anderson D. Humphrey J. Taneja S. & Pryor M. (2008). Challenges Facing Change Management Theories and Research. Delhi Business Review. 9 (1): 1-20

This article explains a number of change management models and research and addresses the challenges facing researchers and organizational researchers in implementing these models. The authors note that the relevancy of the change management theory and research in the modern business environment has been questioned. The authors hold the view that change management models are still worth and relevant. However, the complexity of the modern business environment has introduced challenges in the implementation of change management models and research. The article examines a number of models including the action research model, Lewin Three-step model, Kotter’s Strategic Eight-Step model, and Jinks Ten-Step model. The modern business environment is characterized by multiple and simultaneous changes, changes occurring at increased speed and complex changes. The article makes recommendations on how leaders and researchers can overcome these challenges during the implementation of change management models.

Bushe G. & Marshak R. (2010). Revisioning Organization Development. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 45 (3): 348- 368

This article examines contemporary forms of organizational development practice and compares the original forms of organizational development. The authors have noted that contemporary practices in organization development do not adhere to the prescriptions and assumptions created by the founders of the concept of organizational development. The article argues that the original concept of organizational development had a positivist perspective. This original concept of organization development assumed the existence of discernable and objective reality. Contemporary forms of organizational development take a constructivist perspective when addressing organization issues. This contemporary form of OD assumes that social organizations are open to multiple realities. This article helps readers to understand the origin of the concept of organizational diagnosis, and how this concept has evolved over the years.

Hassin A. (2009) Effective Diagnosis in Organization Change Management. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. 5 (2): 23- 28

This article explains how an organization can enhance the process of organizational diagnosis. The author notes the significance of the process of organizational diagnosis in the management of changes. Modern businesses operate in highly dynamic and interactive environments. This environment exerts pressure on businesses in terms of meeting stakeholders’ expectations. The organizational diagnosis process helps an organization to have an accurate assessment of it environment and identify areas that need changes. Wrong diagnosis makes the change process ineffective. Manager need to design effective organizational diagnosis mechanism in order to implement changes that are meaningful to the organization. The article points out that the choice of organizational diagnosis model is determined by the organization, its context and the type of problem.

Khan W. (2012). The Functions of Dysfunctions. Implications for Organizational Diagnosis and Change. Consulting Psychology Journal. 64 (3): 225- 241

This article explains the impact of organizational structure on change management. The author argues that a highly hierarchical system undermines the change management process as it creates multiple purposes within the organization. The author notes the significance of having a common purpose with the organization in ensuring the successful operations of the organization. However, a highly hierarchical structure creates fragmentations with an organization and divides the employees of an organization. This results in misalignment of purpose thus resulting in resistance to change.

2014 Management.
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