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Waterfall Methodology Research Paper

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Waterfall Methodology Research Paper


Waterfall model refers to System Development Life Cycle Model (SDLC) that used in software engineering through sequential flow. It is m also called linear sequential lifecycle model. It is characterized by proceeding from on phase to next in systematic manner. It requires developers to implement and complete the requirement of one phase before initializing next phase. In the waterfall model, results of one phase act as inputs to the next phase. It is usually divided into six steps. During software development using waterfall model no iteration of phases, developers are required to complete a phase perfectly well before proceeding to next phase. The stages have no overlapping or going back to previous stages.
Sequential Phases of Waterfall Model
Waterfall model has six steps, which includes requirements analysis, system design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance. The software engineering process follows the named processes to facilitate standard development of the software system. Software developed proceeds in the following steps (Prasad, 2008).

Figure 1: Sequential Stages of Waterfall Model Retrieved from
Requirement Analysis Stage
Requirement analysis stage involves the collection of business requirements. Data and information are collected from users to facilitate easier understanding of user needs and specifications. The session implements the basic software and hardware requirements through conducting systems analysis. Deliverables in phase include requirement specification (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Systems Design
Systems design phase involves reviewing requirements gathered in the previous phase. System design architecture is then prepared according to the collected needs and specifications. Inputs, outputs as well as the hardware and software tools are collected and designed to indicate the location of each component in system architecture (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Implementation stage performs the process of converting the design into a working program. The phase divides the program into smaller manageable modules. The modules are developed separately focusing on implementing the final project. After each module is completed, it undergoes the process of testing to verify and validate the developed system (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Deployment Stage
Deployment stage performs combining of the modules developed in the previous stage. It extends further testing to by conducting functional and nonfunctional testing. The prepartyi0ons for installing developed system takes place in the session. Backup practices, upgrading procedures are implemented in the session. The final product is then installed in company department using one of the deployment methodologies. Approval for marketing developed software takes place by releasing software for sale on the market (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Maintenance session involves making system manuals, and user guide. The session incorporates the activities like training the end user on how to use developed software. Maintenance session makes and compiles mall deliverables into a single documentation. The stage implements the upcoming issues with the system like improving the developed system performance, improving compatibility with the system and solving the issues arising as a result of errors and bugs. The customer solutions that include technical supports are involved in maintenance sessions (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
The defined stages follow each other during system development process, and a new stage is started after achieving certain goals and objectives are met. The stage is signed off, and next phase is entered hence the model is defined as waterfall model (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Applications of Water Fall Model
Waterfall model is applied in projects where requirements are well defined and are known in advance. The projects supported by waterfall model must be deterministic in nature. Waterfall models support projects with well and predetermined milestone.
Waterfall Model Pros and Cons
Waterfall model allows high level of managing and controlling projects through ensuring that projects will get full completion after the certain session. The stage acts as a follow-up or assessment session to determine the progress o f the software system under development (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
Waterfall model guarantees high-quality system product due to strict principles enforced by the model. The stages of the methodology must be accomplished as well as the respective goals, and objectives of that stage for the system to proceed to next step. The defined quality measured ensure particular results must be achieved before next step is started which promotes quality (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
Waterfall models put more emphasis on production of deliverables in each stage. The documents allow the high level flexibility that ensures that when a developer leaves the company new developer can use available deliverable to continue with the development process. Deliverable documents act as the evidence that can be kept for future references (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
It is can be impossible to determine what is required in each phase. The developments required in particular phase may require clarifications from following phases. The fully satisfying results may require a reaction from actions of the next phase to facilitate easier and fully satisfying results (Stephen, 2003).
Changes encountered within the business enterprise may suffer from difficulties in implementation. When has been exited the user of the system may not have a chance to bring a new need for business and be considered. Most vital changes may be ignored when the phase requiring implementing change is among completed stages (Stephen, 2003).
Waterfall model may compromise the quality of software .delivered due to strong emphasis, on deadlines. The developers may work in haste to complete required tasks. However, completed work may fail to match user specifications. Developers may complete software with minor flaws which may contribute to extensive maintenance as well as wastage of time in reviewing documentations and deliverables (Stephen, 2003).
The problem with waterfall model is that n it does not provide a chance for iterating activities. The development process is expected to be continuous until the end. Such operation is a drawback which causes operation of the developing software using many systems developers reject waterfall model. The addition of new ideas and innovative operations is never supported by waterfall model thus making the innovation and invention difficult. However, with the application of iterations within waterfall model can attract many developers using the model.

Behrouz A., & Firouz M. (2013). Foundations of Computer Science, USA: FredsPress
Levi M.,& Sladana B. (2012). Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium SymOrg 2012:
innovative management and business performance, Serbia: Zlatibor
Prasad K. V. K. K. (2008). Istqb Certification Study Guide: Iseb, Istqb/ Itb, Qai Certification,
New Delhi. Dreamlech Press 19 – 30
Stephen H. (2003). Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering, USA: Pearson
Education Inc. 13 – 14

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