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Annotated bibliography

Research indicates that there is the positive link between the development of human capital and organizational performance. Human capital does make a significant impact on performance. Today, the most important human capital challenges involve engagement, retention, and providing strong benefits and compensation. In this annotated bibliography, it focuses on the research done on human capital and how to deal with the challenges.
Fitzenz, J & Bontis, N (2002). Intellectual capital ROI: causal map of human capital antecedents and consequents. Journal of intellectual capital, 3(3)
In this study, the researchers examined the antecedents and consequents of effective human capital management by integration of the qualitative and quantitative measures. In this study, the study used a sample of 76 senior executives from 25 companies in the financial industry. The researchers developed a holistic causal map on the ground of integrated constructs from fields of knowledge management, human resources, intellectual capital, accounting, information technology, and organizational behavior. The study was effective as it provides the driving factors which determine the effectiveness of the human capital capabilities.
Hooper, D & McCrindle, M (2006). Generation Y, attracting, engaging and leading the new generation at work. Drake International White Paper, 3(1)
The report is based on a survey conducted by Drake International of 3000 Australians, and it focuses on the group studies of Generation Ys to help the businesses in understanding how to approach generation diversity in the organization. The authors tend to outline the biggest shifts in the workforce that include transitioning generations and call for employers to meet the needs of the multi-generational workplace, aging population, redefined work life of a new multi-career generation, and increasing the employment options. The authors claim that so at to manage Generation Y, employers must advertise in the right places and use language that appeals to this generation. As a way of retaining these employees, businesses should continue providing continual training, flexible working conditions, promotion opportunities, and rewards and recognitions.
Ahmed, Z Roy, H & Huang, Z (2002). Benchmarking human capital strategies of MNCs in Singapore Benchmarking an International Journal 9(4)
The researchers aimed at exploring the role of human capital strategies in survival and growth of promising local enterprises and the existing multinational corporations in Singapore. In the study, the researchers aimed at benchmarking the human capital practices of the multinational corporations to the degree of if promising local enterprises are learning from human resource strategies of multinational corporations. The results of the study indicate that many promising local enterprises can learn from the human capital strategies of multinational corporations in certain areas. They include the broadening focus of training and selection methods to include teamwork, leadership, and critical thinking, developing different methods to enhance the value of human capital, align organization culture with new values of teamwork, leadership, and learning, and also expand the reward system apart from extrinsic incentives.
Fox A (2014). Keep your top talent, HR Magazine 59(4).
In the article, it looks at employee retention through focusing on high-level, top-performing employees. Based on the researchers, most employees usually report low levels of engagement with their employers, but the article provided recommendations for how the HR department can participate in making sure that key employees are retained. The article does suggest that training the managers to hold recruitment conversations with the valuable employees can encourage them to stay long in the company. According to the author, employee engagement is a crucial piece of the retention puzzle and employees tend to feel engaged when they do have a solid relationship with managers. In this study, it cites some examples from different companies that have used the strategy and have observed positive results. The author recommends that by using stay interviews and survey on employee engagement, it can provide the company with an idea of intended employee turnover.
Shuck, A Twyford, D & Reio, T (2014). Human resources development practices and employee engagement. Human resource development quarterly, 25(2)
While using the social exchange theory, the study aimed at understanding the possible linkage of the human resource department practices and employee engagement to the turnover intentions. The researchers used the Internet-based self-report survey as the primary tool of data collection. The results of the study suggested that the participating in the human resource development practices and the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral engagement negatively relate to the turnover intent. The study indicated that engagement partly mediated the relation between the turnover intent and the HRD practices. Based on the findings of this research, it supports the value of supporting employee participation in the HRD practices so as to improve the employee engagement and also reduce the turnover intent.
Adeosun, O Ogunyomi, O & Akindipe, O(2013). Effective reward system and worker’s productivity under dynamic socio-cultural and legal environment in selected Nigerian insurance industry. Alleviation, income redistribution & rural development in developing countries. 402-421
The authors tend to summarize the study on the effect of the reward system on the productivity of workers in certain insurance companies in Nigeria. From the study, the results show a positive form of relationship that does exist between an effective reward system and the productivity of the worker.
Deckop, R. & Cirka, C. (2000). The Risk and Reward of a Double-Edged Sword: Effects of a Merit Pay Program on Intrinsic Motivation. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(3)
Deckop and Cirka tend to examine the wide-spread merit pay programs that are usually used in non-profit organizations and then discuss the risks. According to the authors, one of the risks is the possible negative impact of the program on the personal motivation of employees. In the study, the researchers present a study on employee motivation in the non-profit organization before and after implementation of the merit pay system. Based on the results of a study, the merit pay program caused a decrease in employee’s personal motivation. Factors that relate to justice also have an influence on employees who initially supported the merit pay plan after the implementation believed of being assessed unfairly and showed a significant fall in the intrinsic motivation. The study concluded that the merit pays produced decrease in intrinsic motivation for employees.
Mathauer, I. & Imhoff, I. (2006). Health worker motivation in Africa. Human Resource for Health. 4(24)
The study tends to assess the role of non-financial incentives for motivation in cases in Benin and Kenya. The study uses semi-structured qualitative interviews with nurses and doctors from NGO, public, and private facilities. From the study results, health workers are strongly guided by the professional conscience and aspects related to professional ethos. The authors found that many health workers are frustrated and demotivated because they are not able to satisfy their professional conscience and hindered from pursuing their vocation because of lack of supplies and means and also due to inappropriately applied HRM tools.


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2014 Annotated bibliography.
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