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The Internet Connected Smart Washer/Dryer


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Systems Analysis

Current existing washer-dryers have standard washing programs and software. They have limited configurations and settings that allow specific types of clothes such as cotton, human-made materials, and delicate fabrics. The current washer-drier has a limited range of different types of temperatures. Current systems are modeled with some additional options such as pre-wash, extra rinse, and spin. Washer-dryer have special cycles which are designed for specific scenarios manual systems such as hand-washing, curtains, sportswear and even trainers. The current washer-dryers have a filter designed for catching fluff which gets whipped up when drying. However, they have limited capabilities in filtering bits of debris. They are highly manuals and add tasks such as the need to be cleaned regularly. They are noisy and may cause pain on the back since some models are often close to the ground making them fiddly to open and operate. The system has problems associated with dry cleaning due to conflicting systems and configurations. The current washer dryers, when implemented, may either need to have an additional hook-up system, tool, or process behind the dryer. However, a manual configuration of adding water is usually required via a dispenser on the machine.

The condenser system in a washer-dryer cools most of moist and hot air inside the machine. However, the system has the poor disposal of produced water. The water is poured down the drain. The system must use water and cannot operate without the sustainable amount of water. The system cleaning process uses a lot of water. It fails to save water and conserve scarce resources. The lack environments friendly characteristics make the washer-dryers a poor choice for individuals whose houses have a water meter. Current energy ratings configured in Washer-dryers are rated at a range of A+ and G for energy efficiency. However, the A+ being the most efficient lacks to be compatible with machine temperatures due to ever heating (Deng, et al., 2015). Sometimes temperature ratings officially may go down to G levels; however, in real practice current machines cannot be found which are below C in the shops. The system has incorporated electric translation equipment that uses twice the energy making it poorer compared to an ordinary household electric current. Existing washer dryer system run on a 240-volt current that leads to heating up if coils. The system requires a special 240-volt outlet ports within laundry area.

Proposed Washer-Driers

The washer dryers should be installed with sensor dry which is a moisture sensor programmed with the high intelligent capability to detect the degree of wetness your laundry is automatically. It is capable of adjusting the drying time automatically according to user preferences after defining the level of damp or completely dry. The new capability is targeted to save time and money as well as energy costs. The improvement will prevent over drying thus maintaining a high level of extended life of clothes (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The proposed system is required to perform effective and efficient eco cycle which significantly enables continuous decreasing of energy through the use of accurate monitoring clothes’ dryness using automated programming systems that trigger eco cycle. The washer dryers shall be modeled with a monitor on their console. The platform shall facilitate easy displaying if the energy use and efficiency of various drying cycles. The embedded monitor is intended to enable easy interface fire users to work with the system. A dryer fitted with an eco-cycle will be capable of using less energy. The high performance shall be guaranteed by pairing it with a matching washer. The system shall have a high responsive operator system used for recycling various by-products by covering them into energy(Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The proposed washer dryer has an express dry software system that has the capability of controlling the dry cycle using large integrated blowers. It shall facilitate increased airflow to enhance laundry dries perform more effectively and efficiently. The system implements dry Express software to regulate streams reaching clothes. The mechanism has a complete configuration for facilitating well-advanced traits for removing stains removal as well as removing greases (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The project is focused on setting appropriate processor that can accommodate steam and control steam cycles through system registers. The systems shall have the capability of refreshing the outfit, enabling relaxing of wrinkles, and removing odors. The settings and configurations set shall involve the use of a small amount of water. This shall reduce the amount of water used thus enabling conservation of water. The water supplied will be in the form of sprays fed into the dryer drum after set level of minute’s interaction with heat. During development and installation of steam, controllers shall be set to trigger periodically during tumbling session. The arrangement will facilitate effective rearranging fluffing of the load as well as keeping wrinkles from forming. Washer dryer shall adjust settings and configurations automatically based on the number of garments feed in the dryer (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The system will be installed with highly delicate systems that facilitate effective and efficient coordination of cycles using an ultra-low temperature. The system will have high intellectual potential using analytical sensors to enable safely and gently drying of lightweight garments. The sensor mechanisms shall have the capability to identify loosely woven fabrics and perform best operations in implementing best strategies in cleaning and drying them. The new system guarantees that clothes will last longer as well as keep their color longer due to the use of the correct temperatures (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The system is intended to apply an effective and efficient application of sanitation that shall facilitate eradication of pathogen causing. The future washer and dryer shall have methods to kill bacteria and germs that find their way into fabrics. Dryer will be equipped with a sanitizing cycle that helps in providing relief to children, youths, and adults with frequent allergies. The system promotes a high level of health by ensuring that all forms of disease-causing organisms will be denatured by use of high heat or steam. The sanitization process shall be promoted through the use of processors coordination. The proposed system shall guarantee that health conditions are guaranteed so that they are easily washed. The process of sanitation cycle installed in systems shall ensure it shall be capable of eliminating up to 99.9% of common household pathogens and bacteria (Asare-Bediako, et al., 2012).

The Implementation of the Proposed System

The proposed system shall be developed using ARM Cortex-M33 processor which is the most configurable with washer and dryer using Cortex-M processors. The project is full featured with microcontrollers which support various classes of processors. The smart washer and dryer shall be based on the latest version of ARMv8-M architecture developed by ARM TrustZon vendors. The system shall be emphasized due to high security and improved digital signal processing. Through integrating Cortex-M33 smart washer will provide all of the security benefits as guaranteed by TrustZone security isolation (Goodwin, et al., 2013).Cotex-M33 guarantees full optimization of deterministic, trough facilitating application of real-time microcontroller classes of processor operations.

The proposed smart washer and dryer is intended to use ARM Cortex-M33 processor which supports a large number of flexible configuration and settings of options. Through new version of Cortex-M33 features such as the deployment of a wider range of diverse applications shall be facilitated. The systems implemented shall include well-connected systems of enabled Bluetooth IoT node. The systems shall, therefore, be easy and capable of using a dedicated co-processor interface. ARM Cortex-M33 processor supports Wi-Fi-enabled operations. The added Wi-Fi features allow users to implement IoT products which include issues such as Nest to control the washer and dryer. Use of Wi-Fi enabled applications allows running of the machine at lower energy prices. (Jing, et al., 2014) The system shall improve and extend the capability of the processors by use of frequently used applications to compute intensive operations. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor is intended to improve capabilities such as of delivering an optimum balance of high-level performance, effective energy efficiency, as well as security and productivity.

Significance of Proposed System

ARM Cortex-M33 processor provides a security foundation, that guarantee offering of isolation to ensure effective protection of valuable configuration and settings using TrustZone technology. The new smart washer and dryer shall utilize an effective extension of the processor operations that utilize tightly coupled co-processor interface. ARM Cortex-M33 processor is the most effective and efficient application architecture that simplify the smart washer and dryer design. The system enhances the best utilization of software development to facilitate the use of digital signals. The current system enhances utilization of control systems which has integrated digital signal processing (DSP) for allowing users to implement and feed instructions. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor system has best configurations for controlling temperatures. Smart washer and dryer use single precision floating point to compute an accurate measure of mathematical operations. The applied methods include up constant multiplier of 10x Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The system ensures use of equivalent integers as well as software libraries with the optional floating point units. ARM Cortex-M33 processor shall facilitate achieving most of the industrial system conservation of energy through the effective use of the integrated software such as controlled sleep modes, variable extensive clock gating as well as optional state retention.

Figure 1: System Integration Architecture for ARM Cortex-M33 processor

System Properties and Requirements


ARMv8-M Mainline (Harvard)

ISA Support

A64 is a new 32-bit fixed length instruction set to support the AArch64 execution state




Optional TrustZone for ARMv8-M

Co-processor interface

smart washer and drier require optional dedicated co-processor bus interface for up to 8 co-processor units for custom compute

DSP Extensions

Optional Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Single instruction, multiple data SIMD instructions
system requires extension with Single cycle 16/32-bit MAC
system requires extension with Single cycle dual 16-bit MAC
system requires extension with 8/16-bit SIMD arithmetic

Floating Point Unit

Smart washer and drier require operating single precision floating point unit
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 754 compliant

Memory Protection

Smart washer and drier require operating Memory Protection Unit (MPU) with up to 16 regions per security state


Non-maskable Interrupt (NMI) and up to 480 physical interrupts with 8 to 256 priority levels

Wake-up Interrupt Controller

Smart washer and drier require operating Wake-up Interrupt Controller for waking up the processor from state retention power gating or when all clocks are stopped

Sleep Modes

Smart washer and drier will be Integrated with wait for event (WFE) and wait for interrupt (WFI) instructions with Sleep On Exit functionality.


Smart washer and drier require operating Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) & Serial-Wire Debug Ports. Up to 8 Breakpoints and 4 Watchpoints.


Smart washer and drier require operating Instruction Trace (ETM), Micro Trace Buffer (MTB), Data Trace (DWT), and Instrumentation Trace (ITM)

Table 1: System Properties and Requirements

Smart Washer and Dryer A system Block Diagram

The smart washer and dryer are based on the ARM Cortex-M33 processor which is enhanced with different types of functionalities that enable smart washer, and dryer peripherals to perform cleaning functionalities. The smart washer and dryer systems are configured and installed with industrial interfaces such as EtherCAT and PROFIBUS. The Smart washer and drier support high-level operating systems (HLOS). It can be integrated with devices running Linux and Android. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor contains various subsystems as show and a brief description about the smart washer and dryer. The smart washer and dryer have microprocessor unit (MPU) subsystem which is based on the ARM Cortex-M33 processor and the PowerVR SGX (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The smart washer and dryer systems consist of PRU-ICSS which has a direct connection to the ARM Cortex-M33 processor this allows independent operation as well as high-level clocking for greater efficiency and flexibility. Through the configuration of the PRU-ICSS adding peripheral interfaces is easily enabled. It facilitates system to operate under real real-time protocols such as EtherCAT, PROFIBUS, Ethernet Powerlink, PROFINET, EtherNet/IP, Sercos, and others. The ARM Cortex-M33 processor, allow users to perform the programming of the PRU-ICSS, to work effectively along with its access to pins during washing events. Smart washer and dryer have microprocessors have system-on-chip (SoC) resources that provide flexibility in facilitating implementation of fast, real-time responses. Smart washer and dryer have microprocessor which is specialized in handling clothes operations (Xia, et al., 2015). Other functionalities allow customizing of peripheral interfaces. The systems can easily perform offloading tasks from the other microprocessors using cores of SoC.

Figure 2: A system block diagram showing component interconnect

Marketing Data and Information

Smart washer and dryer use up to 1-GHz Sitara ARM Cortex-M33 processor of 32-Bit RISC Processor with the following features

1. NEON Single Instruction Multiple data (SIMD) Core processor

2. 32KB of L1 Instruction as well as 32KB of Data Cache with Single-Error Detection (Parity)

3. 256KB of L2 Cache With Error Correcting Code (ECC)

4. 176KB of On-Chip Boot Read Only Memory (ROM)

5. 64KB of Dedicated Random Access Memory (RAM)

6. Emulation and Debug using JTAG

7. Interrupt Controller that can handle up to 128 Interrupt requests

8. On-Chip Memory which is shared on L3 Random Access Memory (RAM)

9. 64KB of General-Purpose Registers On-Chip Memory Controller (OCMC) Random Access Memory (RAM)

10. Accessible to all Masters

11. Supports Retention for Fast Wakeup

Features of External Memory Interfaces (EMIF) as applied in Smart washer and dryer

a. Memory uses mDDR(LPDDR), DDR2, DDR3, DDR3L controller with the following specifications

b. mDDR operating at 200-MHz Clock to 400-MHz Data Rate

c. DDR2 operating at 266-MHz Clock to 532-MHz Data Rated. DDR3 operating at 400-MHz Clock to 800-MHz Data Rate

e. DDR3L operating at 400-MHz Clock to 800-MHz Data Rate

f. Connection bus is 16-Bit Data Bus with 1GB of total addressable space that can support One x16 or Two x8 Memory Devices

General-Purpose Registers Memory Controller (GPMC)

Smart washer and dryer have a Flexible 8-Bit to 16-Bit Asynchronous Memory Interface With up to Seven Chip that programmed to use NAND, NOR, Muxed-NOR, SRAM processor makes use of BCH Code that Supports 4-, 8-, or 16-Bit ECC (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). It is configured with Hamming Code that Supports 1-Bit ECC

Features of Error Locator Module (ELM) applied in the Smart washer and dryer system

It is used in conjunction with the GPMC that are capable of locating Addresses of data and information errors from syndrome polynomials generated using a BCH Algorithm. It is designed to supports 4-, 8-, as well as 16-Bit in every 512-Byte.

Programming technology applied on block error location is based on BCH

Algorithms that supports Programmable Real-Time Unit Subsystem as well as Industrial Communication Subsystem (PRU-ICSS). The programming languages applied Supports Protocols such as PROFINET, EtherCAT, PROFIBUS, EtherNet/IP among others (Goodwin, et al., 2013). The processor is fitted with Programmable Real-Time Units (PRUs) with the following features

1. 32-Bit Load Storage component with RISC Processor which is capable of running at 200 MHz

2. 8KB of Instruction set which uses a RAM With single-Error detection parity

3. 8KB of Data using Random Access Memory (RAM) with single-Error Detection (Parity)

The processor runs a single-Cycle that enhances the use of 32-Bit Multiplier With 64-Bit Accumulator. It has enhanced GPIO Modules that provides a shift in and shift out support services with modified parallel latch on external signal systems. The system uses 12KB of Shared Random Access Memory (RAM) with a single-Error detection parity bit. The system is fitted with about three 120-Byte registers which are accessible by all PRU. The configurations made include interrupt controller (INTC) specifically for handling system input events (Wang, et al., 2015). It has a local interconnect bus that is dedicated to connecting internal and external masters that rely on other resources embedded inside the PRU-ICSS

The Peripherals integrated inside the PRU-ICSS

a. One UART Port With heat flow control pins supports up to 12 Mbps

b. It has one Enhanced Capture (eCAP) Module for facilitating camera capturing

c. It uses two MII Ethernet Ports that Support is dedicated to supporting industrial Ethernet which includes EtherCAT

d. It is fitted with One MDIO Port

Figure 3: block schematic diagram of smart washer and drier controller

Retrieved from: http://asic-soc.blogspot.co.ke/2007/12/embedded-system-for-automatic-washing.html

Power Control

Energy and power are controlled using Power Reset, and Clock Management (PRCM) Module. It is used to control the smart washer and dryer power consumption through regulating entry and exit of stand-By and deep-Sleep modes. PRCM is responsible for determining sleep sequencing using power or domain switching such as wake-Up sequencing, off Sequencing, and Power Domain switch-On

sequencing. The amount of power used in the system is determined by two none switchable Power Domains that works on Real Time Clock (RTC), and Wake-Up Logic (WAKEUP). The amount of power released on the system is determined by three switchable power domains which include MPU subsystem (MPU), SGX530 (GFX), and Peripheral systems infrastructure (PER) (Goodwin, et al., 2013). The power control devices implement Smart Reflex Class 2B for core voltage scaling. They sense and trigger power supply based on die temperature, heating process variation, as well as performance indicators for adaptive voltage scaling (AVS). ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has been programmed to facilitate dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS) using Real-Time Clock (RTC). It can be applied to specify real-Time Date regarding day, month, year, or day of a week to control energy consumption. Users can specify the time regarding hours, minutes, and second information.

System Clocks

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run the smart washer and dryer run between 15- to 35-MHz using high-Frequency oscillators. It is designed to generate a reference clock cycle for various internal systems and peripheral clocks. It has been to automatically run individual clocking mechanism that enables and disable energy control for subsystems. It regulates the amount of energy supplied through peripherals to facilitate reduced amount of power consumption.

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has Internal 32.768-kHz oscillator, RTC logic and 1.1-V Internal LDO used for controlling independent power using RTC_PWRONRSTn input. The system is configured with dedicated input pin called EXT_WAKEUP for controlling and managing external wake events. The system has been installed with programmable alarm systems used to generate automated internal and external interrupts to the PRCM during wake up or direct to ARM Cortex-M33 processor for abnormal event Notification (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). Users can perform custom programming using for automated alarm to facilitate external Output using PMIC_POWER_EN which enables the Power Management IC module to restore Non-RTC power domains

Peripherals for Power Control and Management

1. Use of up to three USB 2.0 High-Speed OTG input and output power ports With Integrated PHY

2. Use of up to three industrial Gigabit Ethernet MACs ranging at 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps

3. Integrated Switch

4. MAC systems Supports MII, RGMII, RMII, and MDIO Interfaces

5. Configured Ethernet MACs with switching systems that enhance operating at independent of other functions.

6. Use of integrated IEEE 1588v2 with a precision of specific time protocol (PTP)

7. Use of Enhanced Controller Area Network (CAN) Ports that supports CAN that gives 2 Parts A and B voltage supply that can transmit as well as receive clocks beyond 50 MHz

Programming languages used

ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer has been developed using tile-Based Architecture to deliver up to 20 Million Polygons per Second. The architecture implements Universal Scalable Shader Engine (USSE) is the main development engine for a multithreaded engine incorporating pixel as well as vertex shader functionality. The programming languages applied include advanced Java and JavaScript to design shader features. The platform for developing ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer includes Microsoft framework VS3.0, PS3.0, and OGL2.0. CSS has been applied for developing industry standard API that supports direct3D mobile devices, OGL-ES 1.1 and 2.0, OpenVG 1.0, as well as OpenMAX (Farokhi, Cantoni, & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference, 2015). The Visual Basic programming language has been used to program Fine-Grained Task Switching module, load balancing, and power management platforms. It has also facilitated the development of advanced geometry of DMA-Driven Operations such as minimum CPU Interaction.CSS has been implemented to facilitate programming of a high-quality image for facilitating anti-aliasing of fully virtualized graphics in the memory addressing for effective OS operation in Unified memory architecture.

Future improvements of ARM Cortex-M33 processor on smart washer and dryer

The improved system shall be expected to run 32 Bit, 64 Bit, and 128-bit eCAP Modules. The modifications will be configured to capture inputs using three auxiliary PWM outputs. The system shall support above Six UARTs (Ministerrådet, 2007). All UARTs shall support IrDA and CIR Modes, RTS and CTS heat flow control. The UART1 architecture also supports full modem control for both master and slave serial interfaces. The improved system is intended to support the following

1. Up to four Chip Selects

2. Up to 98 MHz

3. Up to Three MMC, SD, SDIO Ports

4. 1-, 4- and 8-Bit SD, MMC, SDIO Modes

5. MMCSD0 will have a dedicated power rail running 1.8-V and 3.3-V

6. Facilitate 48-MHz Data Transfer Rate

7. Supports Card Detection and Write Protection

8. Future system shall Comply With MMC4.3, SD, SDIO 2.0 features, and specifications

Future system shall enable easy device Identification through integration of electrical fuse farm (FuseFarm) which shall include some Bits being factory programmable to support features such as

1. Unique production ID

2. Device Part Number (Unique JTAG ID)

3. Device Revision code Readable by host ARM

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have modified debug interface to support features such as JTAG and cJTAG for ARM Cortex-M33 processor, PRCM, and PRU-ICSS Debug added supports shall include device boundary scanning with IEEE 1500 features

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer will have an On-Chip Enhanced DMA Controller (EDMA) with six third-Party Transfer Controllers (TPTCs) and three Third-Party Channel Controller (TPCC), which shall support up to 128 Programmable Logical Channels and 16 QDMA Channels (Ministerrådet, 2007). EDMA will be used for facilitating easy transfers to and from On-Chip Memories and Transfers to and from External Storage such as EMIF, GPMC, Slave Peripherals.

The future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have Inter-Processor Communication (IPC) interface that Integrates Hardware-Based Mailbox for IPC as well as connecting spinlock for Process synchronization between PRCM, and PRU-ICSS the system will (Ministerrådet, 2007). The Spinlock will have 128 Software-Assigned Lock Registers that shall support:

1. Mailbox Registers for Generating Interrupts

2. Three Initiators such as PRCM, PRU0, PRU1

Future ARM Cortex-M33 processor used to run smart washer and dryer shall have features to support security such as Crypto Hardware Accelerators using AES, SHA, RNG. They shall have secure boot and boot modes. The Boot Mode shall be selected through boot configuration pins or the interface LCD Latched on the rising edge of the smart washer and dryer PWRONRSTn reset input pin. They will be in the following packages

1. 298-Pin S-PBGA-N298 with channel package of (ZCE Suffix), 0.65-mm Ball Pitch

2. 324-Pin S-PBGA-N324 Package with (ZCZ Suffix), 0.80-mm Ball Pitch

Figure 4: Future changes and modification of smart washer and drier

Retrieved from: http://www.hitachi-sales.ae/eng/featureshighlight/washingmachines.html

Cost of Implementing Smart Washer and Drier

item description

Estimated expenses

Field research

$ 500.00

Consultation fees

$ 300.00

Operations planning

$ 200.00

Conducting internet searching expenses

$ 200.00

Facilitating Interviews

$ 200.00

Monitoring and managing development process

$ 1000.00


$ 3000.00

compact disk

$ 200.00


$ 1000.00

Documentation and deliverables

$ 1000.00


$ 200.00


$ 36000.00

Estimated Time for Constructing of Smart Washer and Drier











Planning and business analysis of the Smart Washer and Drier

Feasibility study scope definition and budget defining of Smart Washer and Drier

The designing and implementation of Smart Washer and Drier

The testing installation and documentation of Smart Washer and Drier


Asare-Bediako, B., Ribeiro, P. F., Kling, W. L., & 2012 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe). (2012). Integrated energy optimization with smart home energy management systems. 1-8.

Deng, R., Yang, Z., Chow, M.-Y., & Chen, J. (2015). A Survey on Demand Response in Smart Grids: Mathematical Models and Approaches. Ieee Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 11, 3, 570-582.

Farokhi, F., Cantoni, M., & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference (AUCC). (2015). Distributed negotiation for scheduling smart appliances. 327-330.

Goodwin, S., Dykes, J., Jones, S., Dillingham, I., Dove, G., Duffy, A., Kachkaev, A., ... Wood, J. (2013). Creative User-Centered Visualization Design for Energy Analysts and Modelers. Ieee Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 19, 12, 2516-2525.

Jing, Z., Taeho, J., Yu, W., Xiangyang, L., & IEEE INFOCOM 2014 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. (2014). Achieving differential privacy of data disclosure in the smart grid. 504-512.

Ministerrådet, N. (2007). Impact of energy labelling on household appliances. Copenhagen: Nordiska ministerrådets förlag.

Wang, C., Zhou, Y., Wu, J., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., & Wang, D. (2015). Robust-Index Method for Household Load Scheduling Considering Uncertainties of Customer Behavior. Ieee Transactions on Smart Grid, 6, 4, 1806-1818.

Xia, L., Alpcan, T., Mareels, I., Brazil, M., de, H. J., Thomas, D. A., & 2015 5th Australian Control Conference (AUCC). (2015). Modelling voltage-demand relationship on power distribution grid for distributed demand management. 200-205.







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