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Designing Research Featured

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Survey Design:
This project finds out how well the teachers of a community-based After School program are equipped with skills and knowledge of working with students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders and Autism.
Survey method: The survey method is vital for this study for it provides numeric and quantitative description of opinions, attitudes and trends of the studied population sample. The survey will be a cross-sectional study by use of structured interviews and questionnaires for the collection of data. This is with the goal of generalizing the findings from the population sample (Creswell, 2009).

Cross-sectional study
This cross-sectional study is an observational research whereby, the researcher records information concerning the subjects without having to manipulate the environment o f study. This study will involve recording on the issues that gauge the knowledge and skills of after school teachers of after school programs in handling students with behavioral emotional disorder and autism.

Methods of data collection

A. Self-administered questionnaire; the cost will involve that of administration and preparation. Online surveys are costly that this will mean that I personally visit the community based. The limitation is that there can be unclear answering. Advantage is the clear view and opinions of participants concerning the skills of after-school programs.
B. Structured reviews: many steps are undertaken in structured reviews and this means high costs. Time is taken for fieldwork, sampling, data analysis and approvals. The advantage is that it compares the redundancy of the study with other studies (Cozby, 2012).
C. Interviews; advantage is that it provides overviews of the problem of study through one to one communication. Can be less costly when done face to face.
D. Structured observations with observations the researcher will not participate in undertaking interactions. The researcher might fail to capture his view of participants. Advantage is that the researcher is unlikely to influence the participants in their real life environment (Creswell, 2009).

Population and Sample:
The sample will involve 4 community-based after-school programs. 10 teachers will be included in the study. Parents of students with autism and behavioral disorder will also be selected to participate. Eight Administrators of these after School program will be selected.

Single or multistage
This is a single study whereby I will access the names of the sample population.
Random versus convenience

This study will deal with participants who are readily and conveniently available. I will consider ways of minimizing variables since they will have an impact on the results (Creswell, 2009).
The unique characteristics (male and female) of participants are included and representative of the whole population. Other characteristics for stratification include education, income levels, and gender (Cozby, 2012).

The survey instrument used is pilot testing. The survey will test the opinions of after school administrators, teachers, and parents. No electronic method like Survey monkey will be used.
Content validity will consider the concurrent/ predictive validity to ensure that the results correlate with other similar studies. The construct validity will be achieved by ensuring that the hypothetical concepts and constructs are measured.
Piloting survey will help to measure the content validity and lead to the improvement of scales, format and items (Shah & Corley, 2006).
Dependent variables Training of teachers/ improving communication, lack of facilities for students with disabilities, and lack of facilities for students with disabilities

Intervening variable: poor academic performance, and lack of social skills among students with autism and EBD.
Independent variable: Equipping after school programs.

Shah S, & Corley, K (2006) Building better theory by bridging the qualitative and quantitative divide. Http://
Creswell, J (2009) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
Cozby, P (2012). Methods in behavioral research. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 9780078035159

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