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BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE ON HEALTH CARE                     

Gouni Sindura

Wilmington University

Computer Science

Course Code

January 23, 2016

Business Intelligence on Health Care

1. Executive Summary

Business Intelligence is the assortment of a range of computer-based techniques that are for extracting, identifying and analyzing business data. It is possible to determine the present and future business operations views by using the business intelligence technologies. Some of the general business intelligence functions with no regard to the industry implementing it are for online processing of analytical data, for data mining and reporting. The core objective of business intelligence in its implementation is for supporting and improving business decision making which forms a process known as the decision support systems (Verse, 2014. There are diverse business intelligence technologies which are applicable to a wide range of company and business purposes varying from one industry to another. Some of the purposes are analytics, measurement, collaboration, reporting, and knowledge management (Versel, 2014).

An organization can customize its business intelligence technologies to be integral to the operations of an organization and be mission oriented that can have enterprise-wide implementation or one that is central to a project, department or as per the user’s demand (Versel, 2014). Thus, it is crucial to integrate the business intelligence technologies within the health care setting. This document provides a project strategy implementation can be within an oncology facility assigned the task of to implementing several new customers as part of its system but is facing the challenge of information transfer from a single system to another.

2. Strategic plan

For the management of date within the oncology department, it is crucial to start making the IT infrastructure changes. These are the steps to take:

A. Hiring the administrators of Information Technology

B. Hiring data scientist and data analysts

C. was having the computer equipment such as PC machines with the latest technology such as systems with 8GB RAMS, hard drives of 800 GB, LEDs, Core i7 processors, soft padded mouse and soft keyboards.

D. well established security system for monitoring tangible data security and breaches of information security.

1. RF staff ID cards

2. Scanners for thumb impression

3. Pass keys and codes assigned according to security level within hierarchy

E. in-house server system to support data storage to house

F. Providing training to medical staff in using the business intelligence technologists to record and report data in the best and meaningful manner.

Using this project strategy has to implement the essential components so as to

Enable the transfer of information smoothly from one system to another. In doing so, the following are some of the concepts that have to be adopted by the oncology department to enable the smooth transition of information in an effective and efficient manner.

A. Healthcare analytics

B. Enterprise data roadmaps for healthcare

C. master data management for healthcare

D. healthcare data governance

E. Centralized data environments within healthcare.

3. Cost Benefit Analysis

Implementing a centralized data environment when there is a balance between best practices, processes, technology and organizational constructs The department for ecology will have to incorporate a software that places into consideration data integration, data acquisition, data storage, data modeling, metadata management, user access and collaboration. The data environment centralization will enable an efficient and smooth data transfer that provides client’s information from one system to another (Perficient, 2014). The software incorporation also means enabling access to information of client’s from various systems that authorize access and search of this kind of information. The key aspect in the implementation is centralization that is effective for resolving the problem being faced by the oncology department.

Additionally, implementing the master data management in healthcare will enable the health care organization to connect the data foundation of the organization. Many healthcare organizations are presently facing the problem of integrating their master data and are moving towards the adaptation of standardizing their systems. Thus, in such an instance, organizations are performing the 5010/4010 migrations. They also prepare their ICD-10 as way of standardizing their systems (Andrews 2014). However, the setback is that as more and more healthcare organizations are searching for ways to move towards an enterprise view of data they have to be careful in assessing that the concepts have consistency. For example on physical masters, patient indexes, procedural codes and diagnoses codes. Therefore, the oncology department has to find ways of enabling a master data management system which will ensure a high level of data backup and security.

4. Value proposition

       By implementing a centralized data environment as well as the master data management for the oncology department, it will be possible to manage the client’s data in an effective and efficient manner. Any other department or the oncology department in the healthcare facility will enjoy the benefit of finding a centralized data environment for transferring the data from a system to another system.

         Given the modern challenges that the healthcare organizations face today and in the near future, the ability of the organization to effectively transform data to information and this information into intelligence is vital for the survival of the organization. Also with the evolving economics of the healthcare organization, modern health care organizations are in need of robust processes, methodologies, technologies, and architecture to transform and capture raw data into useful and meaningful information. Thus, effective utilization and implementation of BI is becoming increasingly important for the healthcare industry. The BI help in empowering an organization in leveraging clinical information for improving outcomes, enhance decision making and also to remain competitive (Howson, 2008).

             Successful implementation of BI should generate a high return on investment. BI provides organization with a direct sight line as well as total cost of care. It also helps to streamline reporting and reduce the revenue cycle length. It reduces exposure to some malpractice litigations, provides measurements for clinical quality and increases the efficiency of operations. BI enables healthcare organizations to track their performance against the strategic plans, goals, and align business metrics and goals. The BI helps in the proactive discovery of business opportunities and trends and enables rapid responses to the new demands of customers. The BI also helps in prioritizing business activities. Furthermore, the implementation of BI can also assist organizations in reducing the information asymmetry effects and provides access to cost-saving information exchanges, plans and other incentivized programs provided via the government or other third parties (Koh, & Tan, 2011).

5. IPO chart

             The Input Process Output (IPO) Analysis is used to develop algorithms and analyze problems. It helps to summarize and organize the problem analysis results. It shows the location in which a solution can be in its processing (Versel, 2014). The organization of the results is in the IPO chart

Input Processing Output
Data

Filtering, summarizing, formatting and Sorting

Decision making on aspects like

1. Number of products to be produced

2. The amount to spend on advertising

3. How many people to be hired.

Sales volumes increase after a given period

Size and number of back-order.

Gained knowledge on:

1. ways of avoiding inventory shortages

2. Balancing the costs for carrying inventory against the cost of product shortages.

           One of the ways of examining the possible relationship between knowledge, data and information is to use the IPO model perspective on information system. The input side contains data. The data is them manipulated or massaged in various ways such as Filtering, summarizing, Formatting and Sorting so as to obtain information. Data transformation into information by use of a computer program or calculator for the purpose of analyzing information systems we are mainly focusing on a situation that requires the employment of computer programs. For example we consider the type of “what if” analysis provided by an electronic spreadsheet package. We make use of our present understanding of the situation for developing a model of how sales will go down or up by a certain factor based on factors such as pricing or the amount spent on advertising (Osborne, 2013). The resulting information from such an analysis is to reach decisions such as how to spend cash on advertising, the number of products to produce and the number of people to be hired. From these decisions, the outcomes are observable results like the size and number of back-orders, sales volumes increase after a certain period. There is also gaining knowledge on how to balance the costs of carrying inventory against costs resulting from shortages of products or knowledge to avoid inventory shortages (Ghosh, & Scott, J2011)..

6. Metrics & KPI chart (more detail)

        For the health organization to succeed, it is crucial to use utilize and track its Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Business metrics have two essential categories which are the results metrics and the Performance metrics. The categories can mainly be of the sense of cause and effect. The performance metrics measures the activities that are necessary for achieving certain objectives of the businesses such as booking meetings with clients. The results metrics measures the outcome of a given objective/task/ activity. The lagging and leading indicators of KPI is the catch all for all Results and Performance Indicators. The term leading indicator is for referring to the lagging indicator and Performance Metric of a Result Metric. The Key performance Indicators are the main result and performance indicators (KLAS, 2013).

       Having a clear understanding of the underlying business is a key aspect of performance metrics. It is necessary to keep asking the why questions until one achieves the actual business need, which can be the need to increase revenue, decrease risk or decrease expenses. The suggested solution is one that relates to a business need. It also means communicating the business needs of all persons involved in a project so as to ensure success and adoption (Hsia, et al., 2006). Though the KPIs can differ from one department to another or differ as per the company, the main attributes that define the effective Performance metrics are the following:

•   Actionable

•     Strong influence on outcomes

•     One is not a financial amount

•   Metrics that Target the Audiences and have control

•     Happens early in the process and contributes to the desired outcome.

Behavior change is necessity in every performance changes.

         In order to change the performance is crucial to change behavior. Changing behavior needs aligning the corresponding process and actions for every Performance Metrics. It needs the inclusion of the required different actions when performance is with the specified, below or above the thresholds. It is vital for these processes or actions are clearly understood and communicated to all individuals being affected. Finally, it is crucial to breaking down the lengthy processes into subprocesses so that members of the healthcare organization can associate each action with a result (Ward, 2012).

           KPIs also mean the need to ensure that the performance metrics places emphasis on behavior reinforcement. Thus, the performance metrics has to create opportunities, not for losing, but for winning. Thus, the healthcare organization leaders have to ensure that the performance metrics performances and its quantity since quantity may come at a costs with quality. Finally it is also crucial to note that the business needs of a healthcare organization can change over time.                     Thus it also means that the performance metrics also change. Sometimes, various cycles are required for the progress of performance metrics. Healthcare leaders can make use of the 360 Degree approach in refining and defining their processes and metrics (Jinpon, Jaroensutansinee, & Jaroensutansinee, 2011).

Image I: (Dundas.com, 2016)

        KPIs can provide a central collection of data so as to provide a conceptual scorecard for the health organization business. The KPIs associates with a wide range of business activities in a range of value-driven areas such as productivity, financial value, trust, and risk. A large number of KPIs are in fact through performance measurement definitions that link with a range of various BI analytical activities.

           The conceptual value of BI is its ability to capture the definitions of businesses through the use of key performance indicators. BI also manages the definitions as part of the corporate businesses knowledge. It also provides a visualization dashboards reflecting in the measurements of KPIs in the presentation of a management review form. The BI dashboard displays the analytical results necessary for KPIs configuration. The results are in a succinct visual representation that can be selected for drill-down or understood instantaneously. Thus, BI does not only provide the real-time presentation on the KPIs but also provide a direct hook into the components of BI for drill-down.

7. Business Case

       Jefferson Medical Center makes use of the business intelligence software in its hospital for improving patient care and productivity. Jefferson Medical Center had no better way of monitoring the productivity of employees before implementing the BI software. By then the hospital had the belief that it can lower costs and improve patients care through effective measuring of productivity. It is according to the Morie Mehyou, the president of decision support and information management. Thus, the hospital at the moment was facing a unique challenge (Hagland, 2013).

             Jefferson Medical Center is county –owned hospital of Pine Bluffs. Ark, located at the Southern Delta region. In the past year, almost 48, 000 patients visited its emergency room. Mehyou says, “Unlike other hospitals Jefferson Medical Center is frequently visited by the largest number of low-income patients who are either paying for their own medical care or receive government -subsidized plans”. Additionally, the hospital lacks private endowment and, it only relies on insurance payment and government for funding. Alongside, Jefferson is making efforts to improving its services and investing in new healthcare technologies. In doing so, productivity is vital but there was the looming problem of measuring productivity. Measuring productivity meant nothing when the officials would claim that they were doing all they can. Some of the aspects that the hospital measures at that time were through pulling data from paper reports on financial statistics. Managers would receive the reports when data was more than two months old and, some reports showed wrong data. Thus, Mehyou says that that did not inspire confidence in the reporting system or improve productivity (Hagland, 2013).

         It was not until eight years ago that the hospital purchased the Web Focus BI platform. Mehyou was the first people to use the software from being a simple tool for reporting to the vital operational Business Intelligence resource. Web Focus BI platform has today become a system for pulling data from payroll software, patient accounting software among other internal systems. Mehyou has also managed to integrate other third-party sources such as the benchmarking data of the U.S that has enabled the hospital to view how it is performing relative to other national averages.

           The rewards of implementing the BI system are the development of new incentive programs for managers. It also measures its departments through metrics like supplies used, dollars spent on a patient per day, overtime, staff hours, and expenses. All managers can now monitor these metrics on a regular basis and take the necessary steps in improving the productivity of their departments.

8. SWOT Analysis

Business Intelligence for Healthcare

Strengths

1.     Global information

2.     Common business definitions

3.     Centralization of data

4.     Retrieving of historical data

5.     Self-service access

6.     Complete information

7.     Increases the reputation of the company

8.     Leading to a very efficient process

9.     Improves knowledge of advanced technology

Enables the provision of top class services

Weaknesses

1.   Slow queries

2.   Affected by issues of data quality

3.     Weekly update of data may mean lateness in doing a timely action

4.     Need to train and educate all healthcare officials on the market needs and products innovation

5.     Slow upgrade on customers information

6.     The technology only places emphasis on the company’s internal need and not external issues such as marketing.

Opportunities

1.   Canned dashboards and reports guarantee timely response times

2.   Increase risk awareness and safety in healthcare

3.     The rapid rising costs of health care

4.     Increase in profile through environmental issues

5.     The increasing number of the aging population means that there is need for more care

Threats

1.   May be expensive if every department is forced to buy its BI tool and generate their extracts

2.     The challenge of custom-coded reports against the expanding ERP system

3.     Technologies fast changes

4.     Cut backs on government spending

5.     New competitors joining the market

9. Dashboard and a scorecard

           The first step of using the balanced scorecard methodology is to have a strategy. The strategy is in the strategy map format that provides the cause-and –effect chain of logic connecting the desired outcomes from a strategy with drives leading to the strategic outcomes. It involves the specifications of hypotheses leading to the attainment of business objectives. Using a balanced scorecard hospital managers can have multiple perspectives it becomes possible for the healthcare leaders to ensure that the organization supports its strategy.

       Dashboards are necessary for improving the quality of care in a healthcare organization. Thus, it empowers managers to take part in on the sports improvement of quality and make timely decisions. The scorecards and dashboards can also provide indication information for critical measures to the success of the organization. For example, the dashboard below of a health system shows diabetes quality metrics within a period. It shows the high-level indicators that enable the organization to progress towards its targeted goals (Ramsey et al., 2013)

 

           Other dashboards can be used to provide visual cues of health conditions progress within a specific period through the traditional graphs, line charts among other dashboard indicators such as gauges showing the current performance. The content of a dashboard varies as per the organization regarding the availability of data and its goals. For example the dashboard or revenue cycle below:

Figure 3: (ezdatamunch.com, 2016)

Figure 3: (ezdatamunch.com, 2016)



10. Project Chatter

   When the healthcare leaders have understood what the bi project is about and learned about the PMI process groups, they can get started in drafting a project charter. They will make use of an executive sponsor to help them define the business need clearly and what the project needs to address. In a business’s project, reviewing is not just at the start of a project but also when beginning every phase (Sabherwal, & Becerra-Fernandez, 2011).

       For example, the executive sponsor can be the CFO, which is necessary to ensure the success of the BI project. The project charter formally authorizes a new project or the need to continue with an existing project to another phase. A project charter has care definition of the key stakeholders, high-level objectives, and high levels of deliverables; critical success factors and benefits the project charter document is the foundation of project planning.

  

 



11. Project Plan (steps: identify resources, timelines, etc.)

           Planning for the BI project involves coordinating, planning and negotiating which all have to be detailed information of the project. Such a document is the project management plan that provides details about time, scope, human resources, quality, procurement, communications, and risks. The project management plan is vital for the BI project since it is the basis of measuring the project. A project plan is vital for aligning in communication between stakeholders and it defines the timing and content of project reviews (Figlioli, 2011). Some vital elements making up the plan are:

-     Scope statement

-     -project charter

-     A breakdown structure on budget and work

-   Cost schedule, estimates and responsibilities of every deliverable

-   -risk issues registration

-     Milestones and target dates

-   Plans for management such as procurement, risk, communications, costs, schedules, and scope (Figlioli, 2011). The initiation phase involves creating the initial draft for the charter of the project. The planning phase involves updating the project charter and has the work’s project statement that describes the services or product of the project to complete. It also has the definition of the business need, strategic plan, and products scope description. Within the process group, the project scope statement needs further definition in the most v specific manner. It is also essential to document project deliverables, objectives and requirements ion a regular basis so an s to support future decisions on a project. After the definition of the scope it is necessary to show how to manage the scope in the plan. The work breakdown structure aims at breaking down the overall project’s deliverables into tasks that can be estimated and scheduled.

12.ROIC

-             Apart from the inherent value attained from BI such as faster decision making and increased productivity, healthcare providers are also seeing other returns on investments from such initiatives. b7y studying the ROI case studies, Nucleus Research managed to establish that those organizations having BI programs executions gain an average return of over $ 10 for every dollar spent on computer-based analytics applications. A survey by the IMB Institute for Business value (2013) showed that the number of respondents in the healthcare industry showed to gain competitive advantages through increased use of analytics from 35% in 2010 to 72% in 2012. These returns are manifested in improvised efficiencies in operations and lower overall costs of ownership. Additionally there is return via the direct ROI on cash-flow from cost-reduction opportunities and revenue generation that can be identified through the analytics (Walker & McKethan, 2012).

13. Comparative analysis 30

             Clinical benchmarking is dependent on a wide range of aspects that providers can use in managing their performance while aggregating information from various organizations. The providers can use the information to quantify and identify the highest performance levels from a diverse and representative sample from other providers. Benchmarking them is possible by use of Business Intelligence system, in which hospitals can undertake the comparative analysis. The comparative analysis will enable them to traps of standardizing nonfunctional performance levels. The comparative analysis also enables them to identify improvement opportunities that are not available in their internal data (Frye, 2010).

               The analytics provided by the BI software has the advantage of providing benchmarking and comparative analytics with other healthcare organizations. The inter-organizational comparative analytics and benchmarking are a significant aspect of a business model

 



14. Risks and how to mitigate that risks

       Risk management in healthcare organization is a challenging aspect. It is due to the fact that the hospital risk managers have to juggle a wide range of responsibilities to ensure the safety of their organizations. The risk managers have a duty to identify the high -risk is as that could harm visitors, patients and employees. They have to implement programs for averting risks and for the management of robust reporting processes in times of the occurrence of adverse events. One of the most crucial responsibilities of healthcare managers is to improve patient safety in the need to minimize financial risks while ensuring the health of a patient (Frye, 2010).

           BI provides invaluable view of clinical data during, before and after an encounter with the patient. It ensures the access of information from a single or more clinical system and it is no longer a barrier to the provision of superior quality of care to a patient. Thus BI provides the best tools for improving quality of care and improving the safety of patients. It is possible by comparing and trending clinical data against the standard benchmarks and provides information on the treatment plans that can be improved using evidence-based guidelines. The BI data also supports the efforts of pay-for-performances by highlighting the quality measurement gaps and calculations on some incentivizes after addressing these gaps. Thus, healthcare organizations can apply various BI strategies within their clinical settings to improve patient’s safety and the care delivery process (Ferrand, 2010).

15. Key areas concerns of securities

       Security is among the major concerns for healthcare organizations. Though technology is an invaluable asset for the healthcare practitioners when used properly, convincing them to adopt the use of another new technology has not been easy. Some physicians do away with the use of clinical decision support tools and instead favor to consult their colleagues. The main threat that healthcare organizations face with the installation of new technology for storing patient data is that it contributes to additional security concerns. The ability of the BI technology to analyze data without exposing the protected information is vital for determining its use in improving the healthcare delivery (Degaspari, 2013).

         Hospitals are now spending dollars to ensure the security of patient’s data against malicious actors. The amount spent is also for improving reliability and integrity of all dollars data being transferred all through the digital ecosystem. For all kinds of business the security of digital information is valued in three provision of a factually accurate record that serves as a proof of truth with evidence. In achieving this goal, information security and governance personnel have to collaborate with development teams at the beginning of every new project so as to create the controls and information classifications of relevant data. The teams will form the produce design documentation that is part of the overall governance of information program of the healthcare organization (Andrews, 2014).

16. Regulations associated with your particular areas

         The business intelligence software enables organizations to tap into their numerous databases and provides an easy-to- understand insight for business partners, management and employees. The business intelligence is being used by numerous healthcare organizations to establish new revenue opportunities, relocate resources, and improve efficiency in operations and for reducing care costs. When used in data for healthcare organizations, the BI provides insights on these areas as well as complies with the industry standards and regulation. One of the regulations is the HIPAA-compliant electronic transactions under the considerations of readiness. It requires that every vendor, interface, and, the system to be adapted and evaluated and ensure financial reporting, operational reporting, case/ diseases management and also the provider contracts. Healthcare technology experts can assist practitioners in addressing the challenges of healthcare regulations.

References

Andrews, J. (2014). Clinical informatics: Data in action.

Healthcare IT News Retrieved from

http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/clinical-informatics-data-action

Dundas. Com (2016) Selecting the Right KPIs and Metrics for BI and Dashboard Success

. Retrieved from https://www.dundas.com/discover/article/selecting-the-right-kpis-and-metrics-for-bi-and-dashboard-success/

Degaspari, J. (2013). NorthShore University Health System. Healthcare Informatics, 29(1), 12-16.

Ferrand, D. (2010). Towards a business intelligence framework for healthcare safety. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 15(3), SS 1-9.

Figlioli, K. J. (2011). Closing the healthcare communication gap. Healthcare Financial Management: Journal of the Healthcare Financial Management Association, 65(9), 148-150.

Frye, G.W. (2010). Using business intelligence to build optimal decision support. Benefits & Compensation Digest, 47(2), 1-21.

Ghosh, B., & Scott, J. E. (2011). Antecedents and catalysts for developing a healthcare analytic capability. Communications of the Association for Information Systems,

29(1), 22, 395-410.

Hagland, M. (2013). Healthcare informatics. The Colorado Beacon Consortium, 29(1), 22-26

Proficient. (2014). Enterprise health information exchange. Retrieved from

https://www.perficient.com/Industries/Healthcare/Health-Information-Exchange

Howson, C. (2008). Successful business intelligence: Secrets to making BI a killer app. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Company.

Hsia, T., Lin, M., Wu, J & Tsai, H. T. (2006). A framework for designing nursing knowledge management systems. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge & Management, 1, 13-22.

Retrieved from

http://www.ijikm.org/Volume1/IJIKMv1p013-022_Hsia02.pdf

Jinpon, P., Jaroensutansinee, M., & Jaroensutansinee, K. (2011). Business intelligence and its applications in the public healthcare system. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology,

8(2), 97-110.

KLAS. (2013). Klas Report. Retrieved September 15 from

http://www.ndocsoftware.com/klas-homecare-hospice/?gclid=CITlrpHn8LkCFcuZ4AodeTQApQ

Koh, H, & Tan, G.(2011). Data mining applications in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Information Management, 192), 64-72.

Osborne, P. (2013). Improving NHS operations through healthcare data integration

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healthcare-data-integration

Ramsey, S. D., Ganz, P. A., Shankaran, V., Peppercorn, J., & Emanuel, E. (2013). Addressing the American health-care cost crisis: Role of the oncology community.

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105(23), 1777-1781.

Sabherwal, R., & Becerra-Fernandez, I. (2011). Business intelligence practices technologies, and management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Walker, J., & McKethan, A. (2012). Achieving accountable care — “it's not about the bike”. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(2), e(1)-(3).

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Versel, N. (2014). BI gains might on patient side. Healthcare IT News. Retrieved from

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