Items filtered by date: February 2018 - ResearchWriting.Education


Dental caries is one of the most prominent diseases that affect children and adults worldwide [1]. One of the major effects associated with caries is severe pain in the jaws and can lead to the progression of other dental problems. Promising treatments for this infection include the administration of probiotics into the patient's body system. This creates a need to find the most appropriate ways of dealing with the problem of its effect can be experienced. It is critical to locate the treatment for dental caries so that we can curb some of the adverse effects associated with it. One of the primary reasons we should examine the probiotic strains in the prevention of the dental caries is for us to come up with the appropriate cure for the infection. Caries can cause severe pain thus this disease might affect the daily chores of people unless it is treated/ controlled. Sugars/carbohydrate rich meals are favored by most of the population, which makes individuals more susceptible to caries. Due to the adverse effects associated with dental caries, there is great need to find a way to prevent it before its effects can be seen. Thus, probiotic administration research can be used to help patients control the abundance of Streptococcus mutans, caries causing bacteria, and reduce or halt the progression of dental decay in high-risk patients [2].

Probiotic strains can come in different forms that a person can establish to ensure maximum protection is provided. According to research, the study was undertaken using different probiotic vehicles/ samples of yogurt that contains the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG that showed the significant reduction in MS. There was the use of lozenges that contained the Lactobacillus brevis CD2 [3] that showed a significant reduction in the number of cariogenic microorganisms. The other probiotic vehicle applied was the use of powders that had the content of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces cereviasae combined for one powder and the Bacillus coagulans, for the second powder [4]. All the experiments showed the significant response of the probiotic contents towards the cariogenic microorganism, and this outlined the different samples of probiotic application in handling the carrier infection.

The intake of oral probiotic tablets at early childhood has a significant reduction in the number of children with the dental carriers. The intake of the strains should be administered in the required amounts so as to get the probiotic provide the antibacterial fight against the dental carries. Having mentioned that better natural prevention measures are the best, these probiotic strains are associated with their side effects with the major and disturbing issues of affecting the early development of a child [5]. When the tablets are administered and chewed on a daily basis, then they subject the person to fluoride which affects the normal functioning of the teeth. However, the brushing of the tooth with fluoride toothpaste will provide the necessary protection, but this still has its negligible effects though the benefit is outlined with the removal of the plaque and the experiencing of bleeding gums. Therefore, the administration of the probiotic pills should get restrained to the justified levels based on a dose-response relationship and the age of the applicants.

The handling of caries in both children and adults should be given the priority of using the probiotic pills for the disease prevention. Dental Carie's disease is highly associated with the diet that a huge population is taking that is rich in sugar that facilitates the dental decay. The basis then requires that the food manufacturing industries takes the caution on the amount of sugar within the foodstuff. There should be the need for creating awareness to the entire population to reduce the consumption of such food, especially at late times before getting to bed. However, this could mean that the intake of such foodstuff will be low, yet it is the stable food to large populations worldwide. This then provides the essence of early administration of probiotic pills to prevent dental caries before the decay and pain are quite well established. The content of pills should also get regulated so that they provide the maximum protection prior the bacteria developing resistance to the strains.


Dental caries is a dominating disease that people take to realize on their advance levels. The failure to diagnosis the problem earlier has made the problem to advance only that early proper lifestyle saves one from such complications. Probiotic strains have been adopted in providing prevention to dental caries and the pills des well especially when administered as prescribed. Despite the fact, the pills have some effects on the early development of the children the correct intake does not affect them to make them dwarf. The best cycle towards supplementing the use of probiotic pills at the early ages should be the observation of the person lifestyle that should be determined by the content of sugar/ carbohydrate taken. Brushing of the teeth using the fluoride toothpaste provides maximum protection against dental caries.



  1. Selwitz R.H., Ismail A.I., Pitts N.B. Dental caries. Lancet. 2007;369:51–59. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60031-2
  2. Cagetti MG, Mastroberardino S, Milia E, Cocco F, Lingström P, Campus G. The Use of Probiotic Strains in Caries Prevention: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2013;5(7):2530-2550. doi:10.3390/nu5072530.
  3. Campus G., Cocco F., Carta G., Cagetti M.G., Simark-Mattson C., Strohmenger L., Lingström P. Effect of a daily dose of Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges in high caries risk schoolchildren. Oral Investig. 2013 doi: 10.100.7/s00784-013-09-80-9.
  4. Jindal G., Pandey R.K., Agarwal J., Singh M. A comparative evaluation of probiotics on salivary mutans streptococci counts in Indian children. Arch. Paediatr. Dent. 2011;12:211–215. doi: 10.1007/BF03262809.
  5. Hedayati-Hajikand T, Lundberg U, Eldh C, Twetman S. Effect of probiotic chewing tablets on early childhood caries – a randomized controlled trial. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15:112. doi:10.1186/s12903-015-0096-5.




Published in Nursing

Describe at least two alternatives to oil that are currently available and discuss the barriers that keep these alternatives from replacing oil as our primary means of energy?

One of an alternative source of energy that may replace oil is a biochemical gas such as biogas. However, natural has not yet been used in place of oil since natural gas contains a small amount of energy compared to fuel like gasoline. Biochemical gas has been criticized due to the presence of weak infrastructure that requires expensive equipment for transportation. Leaking problems, invisibility, and high explosive characteristics make biochemical gas dangerous to be applied in daily operations (  Electricity is another alternative that can be applied on behave of oil. However, there is large and expensive technology required in the development of high power rechargeable batteries. Size and weight of machines required to store electric energy are directly proportional to the amount of energy required. Manufacturers require making electric vehicles which are very heavy due to huge batteries required (Turk, & Bensel, 2011).  Shocking and electrocution problems associated with electric energy reduce its direct implementation in daily lives.     

Additionally, utilizing at least two scholarly sources, discuss the role that government plays in ensuring a transition to such alternatives in a post peak-oil world?

Most government agencies are investing in researchers that can promote and improve electric and natural gas sources of energy to make them effective and efficient in providing energy. Funding and support combination of energies are being implemented to facilitate continuation of business operation


Response 2

The highest problem associated with natural gas is the presence of environmental complications such ground destruction through mining. Coal, on the other hand, is characterized by getting exhausted within a short period thus become unreliable for commercial use.  The US government is using strategies that ensure industries and business balances the application and utilization of energies ( 

Response 3

To prevent exhausting available energy sources such as coal and natural gas, other available sources of energy such as electric energy should be encouraged. Electric energy provides high level of reliability since it can be tapped from naturally occurring resources such as sunlight, the wind, running water, and recycling of materials. Hence electric energy provides the friendly human environment and environment-friendly (



Tom K. (2010). The Best Peak Oil Investments, Part VI: Barriers to Substitution. Retrived from:

Turk, J., & Bensel, T. (2011). Contemporary environmental issues. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint


Published in Social Sciences

Advance Practice Nurse (APN) Discussion

Mary as an Advanced Practical Nurse (APN) has acquired verification to work as a nurse at any level where her expertise is required for validation as a Registered Nurse (RN). She has quality attributes to use nursing knowledge and skills especially in delivering complex decision making when the patient is in critical conditions. She has all qualities of working as APN through her long period as a practitioner with practical training in diagnosing, management of common medical conditions and treating chronic illnesses ( Her decision in working as an APN will fulfill her passionate desires in providing a broad range of healthcare services. Through her profession, she shall be required to work in collaboration with doctors and other health care experts to deliver quality nursing services to patients. Her main duties shall include

  1. Delivering advanced assessment of patients
  2. Administering therapies to patients with mental problems, depression, and drug addicts
  3. Managing potential and actual health care services within her unit level
  4. Implementing development of evidence-based practical through integrating theoretical and practical analysis to influence the development of nursing, health care units by changing policies at the local level and national level (
  5. Promote and inducing research that leads to discovering off better methodologies, tools, as well as medicines required by patients.

Scope of APN

Mary as an APN professional has a wide scope of competencies that are required to make her fully qualified to perform core clinical activities. She must have the potential to perform complex health assessments and physical examinations on individuals, families, and communities.   She is required to make decisions and give orders for performing laboratory, scanning, and radiological investigations. She should have potential to implement special analyzing of health cases to enhance collect diagnosing and management of healthcare problems.  She should have advanced planning and scheduling of patients for consultations, clinic checks with other sectors. She has to coordinate community awareness by initiating and coordinating public treatments and health education on individuals, families, and communities for their health promotion, disease prevention and immunization (Kim, & Mary, 2013). 

Mary should ensure that all stakeholders follow all principles, standards, and policies required in health education. She should observe protocols in the assessment of documents, diagnosing, and monitoring treatment as well as follow-up all members. She must have the potential to detect changes in patient conditions to prevent any possibility of having more complications on patient’s health. Mary must have qualities of maintaining clean and well furnished medical environment. She must have been ready to dispense medication services according to authorized scope of practices, procedures, guidelines, protocols and regulatory framework.  Ethical issues and practices must be applied in all aspects of APN (Kim, & Mary, 2013). She must be accountable, responsible and liable for every activity, duty, and obligation within her area of jurisdiction.

In the health sector, there are special branches of nursing levels where Mary requires ensuring she can offer support. They include

  1. Acute care APN's practice within intensive care units and other emergency sections like accident scenes
  2. Medical and surgical APNs that involve various activities such as general and specialized clinical units and functions like oncology, gerontology, neurology, and cardiology (
  3. Mental health APNs where health professional attend to both inpatient and outpatient medication support through arranging psychiatric setting at private and confidential environments (


References Advanced Practice Nurse. Retrieved from:

Kim L., M. & Mary E., A. (2013). ICN Nurse Practitioner/ Advanced Practice Nursing Network. Retrieved from:

Published in Nursing

Vitamins and Nutritional Diseases

In early 1800, bacteria were known to be main causes of diseases. Through the discovery of microorganisms and c how they were related to diseases new threatening causes of diseases were identified. Diseases such as beriberi, rickets, and pellagra were still dominating the world. However, biochemistry research studies and investigations were being conducted. In 1880, it was observed that when a young mouse was fed purified diet comprising of vitamins they died very quickly in contrast when they were fed with milk they flourished. Naval surgeon T. K. Takaki cured beriberi in 1887 of Japanese Navy through adding vegetables, meat, and fish to rice. In 1889 it was discovered that lion cubs were cured of rickets through feeding them crushed bones, milk, plus cod liver oil (Zhang, & Wu, 2010). First epidemiological impact in deficiency illnesses was discovered in 1886 when Eijkman observed that chickens fed on polished rice, suffered from beriberi. Chickens recovered when their diet was changed to feed on whole rice (Lee, et al., 2013). Physiologists discovered that beriberi was caused by lack of essential substances found in an outer layer of rice grain.

In 1906, Fredrick Gowland Hopkins researched on the pathogenesis of rickets and scurvy. Thro-ugh his research he explained that other forms of nutrition components existed and were essential for good health. Casimir Funk isolated chemical compound called amines in 1911; he added Latin word vita which is a word for life.  E.V. McCollum revealed that two factors were essential for growth of rats, a fat soluble “A” found in butter and fats and water soluble “B” found in nonfatty food like grains of rice (Lee, et al., 2013). Such discoveries led to a process of labeling vitamins by alphabetical letters. Heat stable factor was identified as responsible for curing rickets. Heat labile factor was capable of curing dryness of conjunctiva (xerophthalmia) that leads to the disease on the mucous membrane of the eye resulting in a deficiency of vitamin A. heat-stable factor was referred to as vitamin D, while heat labile factor was referred to as vitamin A.

Discovery of vitamin D led to linking of an observation made concerning rickets and cod liver oil. It cured rickets since it contained vitamin D. It was observed children exposed to sunlight were less likely to experience rickets. Kurt Huldschinsky proved that exposing children suffering from rickets to sunlight-cured rickets. This was due to the production of vitamin D in the body in the presence of sunlight since sunshine acted on fats. Antiberiberi factor referred to as vitamin B was also discovered as a cure for pellagra (Zhang, & Wu, 2010).

Currently, social, economic factors have contributed to increased number of deficiency diseases as a result of lacking balanced diet. Poverty conditions are currently major contributions to poor health. Pioneers in epidemiology have introduced and discovered germ theory, microscope equipment, vaccinations, and modern ways of diagnosing diseases. Earlier technologies have highly promoted good health in society through providing parents with better schedule and plan for health food. Such trends have led to current growth and development of improved healthy sector, by defining feeding habits of patients with complications. Compared with traditional living standards, epidemiology has improved nutrition problems by reducing the number of children suffering from deficiency diseases. Discovery of vitamins has equipped society with optional meals right for their health.



Lee, S. W., Devlin, J. M., Markham, J. F., Noormohammadi, A. H., Browning, G. F., Ficorilli, N. P., Hartley, C. A., ... Markham, P. F. (2013). Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses. Plos One, 8, 2.)

Zhang, H. L., & Wu, J. (2010). Role of vitamin D in immune responses and autoimmune diseases, with emphasis on its role in multiple sclerosis. Neuroscience Bulletin, 26, 6, 445-54.

Published in Nursing


            With the development and advancement of the modern technology, hospitals, and other health care centers need new ways which embrace the technology. One such way of embracing the new technology is the implementation of Electronic Health Records also known as EHR. There is a process through which EHR is implemented which is systematic, efficient, and less likely to cause challenges. Success implementation of the EHR involves all the people and facilities taking part in the process of giving medical care to the people who need it. Among the people involved in the process are the nurses.


Implementation of New EHR

            According to Rodkey (2010), new technology such as EHR should not be implemented in a hospital without having known the reasons behind the implementation. The question should be why do we need to implement the EHRs? This question should help the team behind the implementation practice their leadership traits. They should also assess the current state thus determining what is working well at the moment and what needs improvement. One of the concerns that need to be done to ensure success has been achieved is meeting the nurses before the implementation.

            Rouse et al., (2010) says that if the nurses want to use EHRs to enhance their record keeping, then it will be important to address the implementation in a way that will not disrupt their activities. New technological implementations and ideas come and go every day and are rarely sustainable. Therefore, there is a need to avoid initiative fatigue. Therefore, while introducing the EHR, I will not only focus on the new technology but also on the implementation and scaling up of the new technology. The way the nurses are going to be approached is by exhibiting leadership, communication, and training after the implementation of the EHR. The above approach is important in ensuring the technology helps the people intended now and after the implementation. Additionally, the nurses will be approached by employing effective change management and delineating roles of the different roles. Furthermore, the implementation will be done in stages to ensure that there will be no disruptions of the services the nurses provide to the patients and other people in the hospital according to Meehan (2015).

            While implementing the new technology, there is the likelihood of resistance. The way in which it will also be addressed requires skills. One of the ways in which resistance to the implementation of the EHR will be dealt with is communication before the implementation is done. The nurses will have to be told the importance of the implementation of EHR as a new technology and how it will revolutionalize record keeping at the Hospital Taylor (2010). After the implementation, the nurses will be trained on how to use the system thus being in a position to make use of it. Nurses are change agents and will, therefore, have a role to play. One of the roles is having the nurses take part in the analysis and redesigning of the workflow. Additionally, since they will be the main users, they will actively participate in the EHR development and specification of the customizable parts (Francke et al., 2011).



            There is a need for new technology in the hospitals. However, the technology such as the EHR cannot be implemented without the input of the nurses. Nurses are important in the implementation. This paper has shown some of the ways in which nurses can be involved in the implementation of EHR and the challenges likely to the implementation process.



Francke, A., Fleuren, M., de, V. A., & Bekkema, N. (October 27, 2011). Successful                     

            implementation of new technologies in nursing care: a questionnaire survey of                   

            nurse-users. Bmc Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 11, 1, 1-12. DOI:                   


Meehan, R. (October 12, 2015). Electronic Health Records in Long-Term Care: Staff                   

            Perspectives. Journal of Applied Gerontology.DOI: 10.1177/0733464815608493

Rodkey, G. V. (January 01, 2010). Electronic health records. The New England Journal               

            of Medicine, 363, 24, 2373-4.DOI 10.1056/NEJMc1010028#SA3


Rouse, W. B., Cortese, D. A., & Stead, W. W. (January 01, 2010). Electronic health                     

            records. Information Knowledge Systems Management, 8, 1-4.                                            

            DOI: 10.1002/9780470399484.ch8

Taylor, R. F. (January 01, 2010). Electronic health records. The New England Journal of              

            Medicine, 363, 24. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1010028#SA2











Published in Information Technology

The article on the impact of the background television of the parent-child interaction involves the investigation of the hypothesis asserting that the background television has an impact on the interactions that exist between the parents and the very young children. According to the article, very young children are frequently present at the time their parents or the other family members are watching programs that are intended for the adults. The basis of the assessment is that although the infants pay minimal attention to the adult programs, there is a huge likelihood that the programs can exert a developmentally significant influence. The assessments of the issue further follow the assertion that more than a third of the children below three years are living in homes whereby caretakers characterize as having the television on always most or most of the time (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009).

The assessment of the article from the onset establishes the fact that the problem is no simple issues with the abstract clearly establishing that the background television was having a significant impact on the quality of interactions that parents have with the young children. The author intends to elucidate on the issue of television exposure to children at the young age and the impact it has on their overall development (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009). In this assessment, the author of the article takes a time to different the study with the other common studies whose focus has been on time children watch TV without taking the time to differentiate between the watching of children programmed TV and that of the adults. The overall assessment of the topic is the assertion that the early exposure to television has a repugnant impact on the development of children, with the exposure greatly associated with negative outcomes (Vangelisti, 2012). The author’s intended audience in the development of this article is to all the stakeholders who are in direct contact with toddlers as the parents and social service agencies.

The argument that the author presents is logical and vital to the assessment of the development issues of children. The most common attribute about the growth and personal development of an individual follows that their formative years are the most significant to the quality of life they will lead as adults. It is true that when a parent has a TV on is most focused on what is being presented than what is happening with their children (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009). In this case, the assessment of the topic by the author establishes that the background TV interferes with the parent’s focus on the child. The author supports the position with evidence from an earlier experiment that established having a TV on reduces the play episodes of the children along with the fact that they were less focused compared to when the TV was off.

I support the position that the author takes in drafting this article as a parent’s sole focus in a child’s formative years should be in ensuring that the child gets all the attention they want. In this case, having the TV on inhibits this concentration as the parent has divided attention regarding following the TV and paying attention to the child. The most significant period of a child’s growth encompasses the first three years of their life, with the brain tripling in mass in a mere 12 months. These interactions are engraved within the social spheres with their immediate family members. The stimuli that the infant will get during this period of fast development affect their lives profoundly, mainly regarding their brain development (Vangelisti, 2012). The attribute is similar to the author’s assertion that the most significant issues that affect the development of a child encompass the social interactions with their family, peers, and teachers among others.

I further agree with the author that majority of the available research on the formative development of children relates to just the parent-child interaction. Among the most significant issues is the fact that the verbal simulation that a parent elicits on a child is vital to their development, with core significance being in the cognitive development of the children. It is in light of this assessment that I agree with the author’s position that the mere availability of a parent does not play the ultimate role in the effective development of the child (Vangelisti, 2012). The chief focus should be on the active involvement of the parent on the child’s active play, which plays a huge role in enhancing the overall cognitive development of the infant.

I, however, do not support the author’s position on the assertion that the exposure to violent behavior of children via the TV is one of the attributes that lead to them being violent in older ages. In this case, the violent nature that people develop is as a result of numerous elements in their lives, with socialization being the main contributing factor and not the background television. I, however, concur with the evidence from the study that the background TV inhibits a child verbal development as the parents who are watching barely engages the children in verbal interactions, delaying their development (Vangelisti, 2012). Overall, the study is right in positing that background television has the effect of disrupting the interactions that parents have with their children, with the early exposure leading to negative impacts on a child’s subsequent development.



Kirkorian, H., Pempek, T., Murphy, L., Schmidt, M. & Anderson, D. (2009). The impact of background television on parent–child interaction. Child Development, 80 (5), 1350-1359.

Vangelisti, A. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Family Communication. Routledge.

Published in Social Sciences

The debate concerning nature versus nurture has been a persistent issue in psychology while focusing on genetic and environmental concerns. Nature gets defined as all the genetic and hereditary aspects that affect our physical appearance and personality features. Nurture, on the other hand, gets defined as the environmental factors that influence our personality and appearance, as well as the experiences of our tender age, social relations, culture and how we got raised (Hardy & Heyes, 1999).The debate will enable us to understand the way our behaviors and personalities get developed by genetics and biological processes, and their effect on the environment, peers, culture, and parents. For example, the debate tries to show why biological children usually behave like the parents. Is due to genetic similarity or environmental factors and what do children obtain from parents?

What are your own thoughts on nature versus nurture? Did they change at all after reading your text, your classmate responses or from completing this assignment?

I think the differences in human nature get realized by genetic changes within our bodies and that our mental and biological behaviors differ due to the influences that our culture and environment has upon us. My thoughts on the debate did not change after the responses from classmates, reading the text and completing the assignments, because I compared both discussion and related to my personal experiences.

Include recent research (2005-present) on at least two specific behavioral traits that have to be studied. If you find non-scholarly sources (e.g., newspaper articles, magazines, etc.) feel free to include them in addition to your scholarly sources. Describe the research (e.g., what they studied and found).

The specific behavioral traits include the language spoken, the political party supported by an individual, musical aptitude, and religion practiced. The research claims that the traits depend on the environment, residence or tradition, but there are still other traits which relate to talent and temperaments which mainly concerns with the degree. The research compares sibling trait collaboration, whereby each trait gets measured and compared using identical (monozygotic) twins, genetically unrelated adopted siblings and biological siblings (not twins) (Slater, 2004). The researchers have analyzed groups’ behavior, while focusing on families to try to relate genetics and behavior; however they were unable to eliminate the behaviors that could not get affected by environmental factors.

Give your thoughts on the research. Was it surprising? Controversial? Consistent with your beliefs? Did you find contradictory evidence for the role of nature and nurture for the traits you chose?

The research about nature versus nurture seemed a controversial debate to me. The reason is that many psychologists, theologians, philosophers, and theorists have brought different meanings that appear true as far as the relationship between human genetics and behaviors are concerned. As from my personal thinking, it is not easy to understand whether human personality gets developed from our environment (nurture) or biology (nature).

Contradictory evidence: The story of a boy who got raised as a girl brings about contradictory evidence. The boy medically got given woman features such as breast and artificial vagina due to circumcision complications, but he was not acceptable in the company of girls. When he grew up, he noted the differences and did not accept being a woman. When he got given male hormones and mastectomy to be changed to male, he became comfortable with himself (Ember & Ember, 2003).



Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (2003). Encyclopedia of sex and gender: : men and women in the world's cultures. New York: Springer.

Hardy, M., & Heyes, S. (1999). Beginning psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slater, P. J. B. (2004). Advances in the Study of Behavior: Volume 34. London, UK: Elsevier Science & Technology.

Published in Social Sciences

There are many descriptions of the status of nursing workforce shortage in present as well as future. The surrounding of nurse shortage remains complex and interrelated.  Hence, isolating single factors or solutions for this problem is difficult.  Instead, a systems perspective review gives the greatest depth and understanding of the relationships between multiple variables. It remains critical to encompass the systematic aspects of education, work environment as well as health delivery systems. Additionally, the reimbursement impact, legislation, regulation as well as technological advances need to be put into consideration. Inadequacy in considering the relationships in these aspects hinders the full appreciation of the nurse shortage complexity (Porter-O'Grady & Malloch, 2016).

            Addressing this problem takes both leadership and management dimension. The alliance of autonomous nursing organizations focused on leadership for education, practice as well as research remains critical. While the organizations can have individual constituent membership as well as the unique mission, unity by common values and regularly convening dialogue as well as consensus building is important. The alliance's diverse interests encompass nursing job environment, health legislation and policy, quality of health care, nursing education, practice, research as well as leadership in all parts of health care system (Feldman, 2003). This alliance captures the total nursing's social, political, professional as well as moral authority nationally and internationally as a way of influencing and providing stewardship in the nursing profession. The organizations represent the nurses in practice, nurse executives as well as nursing educators. Therefore, while organization can help in leading the nursing profession to stick to their roles in providing health care, executives or managers need to make the nursing work environment a good place for nurses. This can help to reduce nurse shortage as well as turnover. Nurse shortage affords opportunities, but there exist consequences, too. Some nurses always need to work for long hours in stressful conditions, which can cause injury, fatigue as well as job dissatisfaction. Nurses who suffer in such environments are more likely to make mistakes as well as medical errors. As a result, patient quality can end up in suffering.  As a result of this, and more, nurse managers need to be dedicated to improving workplace safety for nurses across the nation.

            On the other hand, massive reductions in budgets for nurses, combined with challenges brought by an increasing nursing shortage can result in fewer nurse working longer hours and care for sicker people. This aspect in the nursing environment can easily compromise care. It also contributes to the nursing inadequacy through the creation of an environment which drives nurses from bedsides. In the United States, among the most critical problems that lead to nurse shortage and turnover is the aging of nurses as well as nursing faculty. The current average age of employed RN stands at 43.3 years, with registered nurses below 30 years representing just 10% of all working nurses. Nurse leaders need to take up this initiative by becoming forecasters of nurse shortage .hiring of new nurses must be tailored at solving future shortages. This strategy remains a responsibility of nurse leaders. Therefore, while managers need to ensure working environment for nurses is healthy, leaders need to see the future and come up with initiatives that can reduce shortages and turnover among nurses. The nurse leaders and managers need to recognize that other people have concerns about the nursing shortage and that different stakeholders continue to identify gaps, make recommendations and implement strategies that address nurse workforce issues. However, to succeed in encouraging development and deployment of nurse personnel with skills knit to health care system, the people, policy makers as well as a profession need to have an ongoing long-term planning, irrespective of perceived or real forces relating to the short-term need for nurse services. Without initiatives to change the trends nurse issues, people become exposed to dangers of facing adverse breakdowns in health care system. Strategies for recruiting and retaining remain costly and must be practiced with the assurance that the efforts can get accompanied by particular strategies in overcoming workforce problems that hinder long-term career commitment in nursing.

            When it comes to nurse leaders, there are some strategies that can help to handle shortage and turnover.  Leaders can implement strategies to retain experienced nurses in providing direct patient care. This can include Introducing of greater flexibility in work environment structure as well as scheduling programs. They can also reward experienced nurses for working as mentors and preceptors for new nurse hires. They can also implement appropriate salary as well as benefit programs. Leaders can also create partnership environment which can advance the practice of nursing through the establishment of appropriate management structures in the health care system and ensure adequate nurse staffing.  They can also provide nurses with enough autonomy over their practice in all situations.  Since leaders need to be influencers, they can also redesign work to enable aging workforce to remain active in some direct care pursuits (Laurent, 2000). Leaders can also advocate for increased funding for nursing education funding under the Public Health Service Act as well as other publicly funded programs to enhance the capacity as well as resources for the education of appropriate enough workforce. Advocacy on the identification of nursing services in Medicare, Medicaid as well as other reimbursement systems can also be a leadership strategy that can solve nurse shortage and turnover.

            Since managers are supposed to make things work well in an organization basing on the current resources, they can address nurse shortage and turnover using different means. They can investigate the potentials in utilizing technological advances in enhancing the capacity of reduced nurse demographics. They can also support initiatives in workforce planning through Division of Nursing as well as other public and private organizations to come up with models for personnel health planning that consider the need as well as nursing services demands (Blake, 2012). Managers can also promote the consistent collection of data at national, state as well as the local level to account for variation in all level to enable better nurse workforce planning for nurses. Nurse Managers can also help in developing career progression initiatives as a way of moving nursing graduates in graduate studies more rapidly and identify different option beyond the entry-level role like faculty, researcher as well as an administrator. Health managers can also support health care employers in creating and sustaining staff development programs as well as lifelong learning for long-term competence.

            On my job, rapid turnover is caused by the demand of highly trained specialized nursing skills in the emergency room. Nurses get faced with the competition of higher benefits and salary to meet their experiences and skill, so they hop from job to job for personal fulfillments. From my personal as well as professional philosophy of nursing, visionary leadership remains most appropriate in handling nurse shortage and turnover to create a new direction in nursing.  Visionary leadership’s goals can move nurses towards a new set of healthcare stakeholders’ shared dreams.  I perceive nursing profession as a calling that the society has great demand on it. Visionary leadership articulates where people go and not how to get there. It, therefore, sets people free to innovate, experiment and calculate input risks. This approach suits my leadership style because it provides an opportunity for a multidimensional approach to issues to promise a better tomorrow. Particularly on nursing shortage and turnover, leaders and manager can pursue different strategies from educational, legal as well as economic dimension to handle nurse issues in a sustained manner.



Blake, N. T. (2012). The relationship between the nurses' work environment and patient and nurse outcomes

Feldman, H. R. (2003). The nursing shortage: Strategies for recruitment and retention in clinical  practice and education. New York: Springer Pub.

Laurent, C. L. (January 01, 2000): A nursing theory for nursing leadership. Journal of Nursing Management, 8, 2, 83-7

Porter-O'Grady, T., & Malloch, K. (2016): Leadership in nursing practice: Changing the landscape of health care.


Published in Nursing

Reflection # 3 – Teaching the Children about “I am”

 Activity Summary

            The third mentoring was about teaching the children about “I am”. The mentoring was a visit to a kindergarten level children school in Mueller Elementary School. The activity I was to carry out was teaching these children about the “I am” by drawing, painting, singing, and dancing. Additionally, we had another activity where we learned about rockets and how they fly. We demonstrated this by building some rockets using papers and straws.  First, I went to the elementary school on Monday 06/27/2016 from 9am to 11am and met the children I was going to mentor. I talked to the children and let them know what we were going to learn on that day of mentoring. When I was talking to the children, I got to know about them and their capabilities. The children were very much interested in drawing, painting, singing, and dancing. The children were also interested in learning about rockets and how they fly.

 Evaluative Thinking

            As the tea break came close, I started thinking about the shortcomings of this mentoring program. One of the shortcomings is about the time I was able to spend with each of the mentees at the school. Although meeting once a week for an hour was a good thing, it was not good enough, and I thought it would not make any difference. The best way I was going to overcome the shortcoming was referring the children to a person who had engaged in such as activity. I was also limited by the fact that I would not talk to the mentee outside the school setting. This means that I was not going to exercise anything we had learned outside the classroom. Additionally, we could not see how rockets are made in the real life because of the limitation.

 Divergent Thinking

            The main goal of the mentoring session was teaching the children about “I am” by way of painting, drawing, singing, and dancing as a way of improving their way of thinking and reasoning. I accomplished this by talking to the mentees using the language at their level and ensuring that they understood. Additionally, I was accounting for the different personalities of the children while I was doing this. I had also gathered useful information about how I was to approach the mentoring and ensure I was succeeded in doing so.

Convergent Thinking

            I have improved many things after the completion of the mentoring program. Some of the improvements are communication skills as well as developing a comprehensive understanding of kindergarten level children. I would not have achieved this if I had not participated in the mentoring of the kindergarten children. I also learned something about how such young children think. I also noticed they had become active which was a show of my success in the program.

 Cognitive Memory

            I had an opportunity to validate previous theories on how one should talk and mentor kindergarten level children. I did this by being funny and attentive to the details which eased the tension in the children. Although there were many other strategies, I found this to be very effective because they soon became accustomed to my methods. I could tell how powerful it was to their level of understanding and how they liked me. I am planning on using this strategy in my future mentoring programs. I also validated my theories of encouraging and mentoring kindergarten level children.

Published in Social Sciences

Article Title: Oxytocin is associated with human trustworthiness

  1. Why was the study conducted?

            The study was conducted to examine whether oxytocin is related to trustworthiness between humans. The research paper is a report of an experiment to test the hypothesis in which trust and trustworthiness are assessed using a sequential anonymous “trust game” whose payoffs were monetary gains. The behavioral literature available for animals and human neurophysiology if hormone oxytocin formed the basis of the study in which oxytocin is involved in trusting behaviors in humans. Previous laboratory studies show significant amounts of interpersonal trust in the monetary exchange experiments.  

  1. What the researchers did?

            The researchers contacted one hundred and fifty-six University students (UCLA). They were in two groups, intentional condition, and random draw condition. The average age for those who participated under the intention condition was 22, and comprising of 50 % female unlike the other condition having a mean age of 20 and comprising of 53% female. For the Intention condition, the researchers did not obtain enough quantities of blood from three participants and the sample comprising of 96 participants. 48 of them were decision-maker 2s (DM2s). For the random Draw condition, three participants lacked behavioral variation and were removed. The sample comprised of 38 and 19 of them were DM2s. 

            The participants got $10 for participating and assigned an identity code. Random assignment to the role of decision-maker 1 (DM1s) occurred to one-half of them and the others to DM2. The researchers explained the consequences of each of the decisions made and that of the other decision maker but were not allowed to communicate directly unless via a computer interface. Whatever DM1 sent to DM2 would triple and added to DM2s’ account. The DM2s were then informed of the amount sent to them and the software queried them to send some integer amount back to DM1 in the dyad. They made single decisions and later 28 ml of blood drawn from each participant’s antecubital vein. The random draw condition eliminated the intentional signaling element from DM1’s decision. It allowed the extraction of behavior and endocrine effects of trust signal separate from the monetary transfer.

            The researchers assayed ten hormones using RIA or ELISA. The participants were also given a 155-question survey having 40 questions on effective intensity. It provides information regarding personal traits rather than the participant’s feelings during the experiment.      

  1. What were the results?

For the intention condition, the average amount sent by DM1s was $5.52, and the average amount returned by DM2s was $ 6.96. For the random draw condition, the amount obtained from the DM1 and sent to DM2 was $5.63 and DM2’s returned an average of $3.58. The trustworthiness levels were statistically different for the tests. The average Intention condition for oxytocin for DM2 in the sample is 278.46 pg/ml; which are higher than the average for the random draw condition.

            The test whether DM2 oxytocin levels were related to behavior in the Intention condition shows statistical significance whether or not the controls were included. The results did not show any overall difference in the trustworthiness of males and females in the Intentional condition. There was no endocrine evidence about the trusting behaviors by DM1s. Oxytocin response to the signals of trust but has no relationship with the production of trust by itself. From the survey analysis, the DM1’s who showed trust behaviorally reported the belief that other people are trustworthy and honest. The trustworthy behavior for the DM2s had no relationship to the survey questions.

  1. What are the implications of these findings?

            The results help to understand the role of hormones in the human social interactions involving trust and trustworthiness. The findings obtained align with the hypothesis that oxytocin responds to a social intention of trust and has relation to trustworthiness. From the experimental data, there is a causal relationship between monetary transfer and the level of peripheral oxytocin. There is no relationship between oxytocin and DM1 behavior as evident in the finding from the animal literature. The relationship between oxytocin and trustworthy behavior by the DM2s is non-linear.

            The social interactions away from the laboratory involving intentions of trust would cause oxytocin responses thereby biasing the results. The survey questions analysis reveals that the social aspect of trust drives the study findings rather than personality traits. The results do not conclude that the central nervous system shows oxytocin activity in trusting behaviors. Rather the results are an evidence of the role of oxytocin in the social processes of trust and trustworthiness for humans. There is a need for future research work to focus on assessing hormone levels over interactions. Also important is the assessment of different types of social interactions for a better inference about the relation of hormones and trusting behaviors.

  1. What you thought of the study

            The study is well organized and easy to follow in the search of understanding about the relationship between oxytocin and trustworthiness in humans. I find the study informative and also probing on the issue. The results indicate that oxytocin levels are higher to the participants who have monetary gains that show some trust about the unintentional monetary transfer of similar amounts. I think that there is a likelihood of the perceptions of intention of trust having an impact on the levels of oxytocin in the human body. I would recommend the study to other scholars studying the relationship between oxytocin levels and human trustworthiness.



Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R., & Matzner, W. T. (2005) Oxytocin is associated with human  trustworthiness. Hormones and Behavior, 48(5), 522-527.






Published in Psychology
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