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Waterfall Methodology Research Paper


Waterfall model refers to System Development Life Cycle Model (SDLC) that used in software engineering through sequential flow. It is m also called linear sequential lifecycle model. It is characterized by proceeding from on phase to next in systematic manner. It requires developers to implement and complete the requirement of one phase before initializing next phase. In the waterfall model, results of one phase act as inputs to the next phase. It is usually divided into six steps. During software development using waterfall model no iteration of phases, developers are required to complete a phase perfectly well before proceeding to next phase. The stages have no overlapping or going back to previous stages.
Sequential Phases of Waterfall Model
Waterfall model has six steps, which includes requirements analysis, system design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance. The software engineering process follows the named processes to facilitate standard development of the software system. Software developed proceeds in the following steps (Prasad, 2008).

Figure 1: Sequential Stages of Waterfall Model Retrieved from
Requirement Analysis Stage
Requirement analysis stage involves the collection of business requirements. Data and information are collected from users to facilitate easier understanding of user needs and specifications. The session implements the basic software and hardware requirements through conducting systems analysis. Deliverables in phase include requirement specification (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Systems Design
Systems design phase involves reviewing requirements gathered in the previous phase. System design architecture is then prepared according to the collected needs and specifications. Inputs, outputs as well as the hardware and software tools are collected and designed to indicate the location of each component in system architecture (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Implementation stage performs the process of converting the design into a working program. The phase divides the program into smaller manageable modules. The modules are developed separately focusing on implementing the final project. After each module is completed, it undergoes the process of testing to verify and validate the developed system (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Deployment Stage
Deployment stage performs combining of the modules developed in the previous stage. It extends further testing to by conducting functional and nonfunctional testing. The prepartyi0ons for installing developed system takes place in the session. Backup practices, upgrading procedures are implemented in the session. The final product is then installed in company department using one of the deployment methodologies. Approval for marketing developed software takes place by releasing software for sale on the market (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Maintenance session involves making system manuals, and user guide. The session incorporates the activities like training the end user on how to use developed software. Maintenance session makes and compiles mall deliverables into a single documentation. The stage implements the upcoming issues with the system like improving the developed system performance, improving compatibility with the system and solving the issues arising as a result of errors and bugs. The customer solutions that include technical supports are involved in maintenance sessions (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
The defined stages follow each other during system development process, and a new stage is started after achieving certain goals and objectives are met. The stage is signed off, and next phase is entered hence the model is defined as waterfall model (Levi, & Sladana, 2012).
Applications of Water Fall Model
Waterfall model is applied in projects where requirements are well defined and are known in advance. The projects supported by waterfall model must be deterministic in nature. Waterfall models support projects with well and predetermined milestone.
Waterfall Model Pros and Cons
Waterfall model allows high level of managing and controlling projects through ensuring that projects will get full completion after the certain session. The stage acts as a follow-up or assessment session to determine the progress o f the software system under development (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
Waterfall model guarantees high-quality system product due to strict principles enforced by the model. The stages of the methodology must be accomplished as well as the respective goals, and objectives of that stage for the system to proceed to next step. The defined quality measured ensure particular results must be achieved before next step is started which promotes quality (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
Waterfall models put more emphasis on production of deliverables in each stage. The documents allow the high level flexibility that ensures that when a developer leaves the company new developer can use available deliverable to continue with the development process. Deliverable documents act as the evidence that can be kept for future references (Behrouz, & Firouz, 2013).
It is can be impossible to determine what is required in each phase. The developments required in particular phase may require clarifications from following phases. The fully satisfying results may require a reaction from actions of the next phase to facilitate easier and fully satisfying results (Stephen, 2003).
Changes encountered within the business enterprise may suffer from difficulties in implementation. When has been exited the user of the system may not have a chance to bring a new need for business and be considered. Most vital changes may be ignored when the phase requiring implementing change is among completed stages (Stephen, 2003).
Waterfall model may compromise the quality of software .delivered due to strong emphasis, on deadlines. The developers may work in haste to complete required tasks. However, completed work may fail to match user specifications. Developers may complete software with minor flaws which may contribute to extensive maintenance as well as wastage of time in reviewing documentations and deliverables (Stephen, 2003).
The problem with waterfall model is that n it does not provide a chance for iterating activities. The development process is expected to be continuous until the end. Such operation is a drawback which causes operation of the developing software using many systems developers reject waterfall model. The addition of new ideas and innovative operations is never supported by waterfall model thus making the innovation and invention difficult. However, with the application of iterations within waterfall model can attract many developers using the model.

Behrouz A., & Firouz M. (2013). Foundations of Computer Science, USA: FredsPress
Levi M.,& Sladana B. (2012). Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium SymOrg 2012:
innovative management and business performance, Serbia: Zlatibor
Prasad K. V. K. K. (2008). Istqb Certification Study Guide: Iseb, Istqb/ Itb, Qai Certification,
New Delhi. Dreamlech Press 19 – 30
Stephen H. (2003). Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering, USA: Pearson
Education Inc. 13 – 14

Published in Computer Science

Agile methodology

Agile methodology is a defined software development model that gets applications/ systems developed in rapid iterations. The application development model implements the process with ignoring some phases in the traditional software development model such as the designing phase and the application/ system development phase. The process gets an application developed from different angles irrespective of the defined process and thus it’s not process oriented rather interaction oriented. The technologies of the methodology include the Scrum method, Lean method, crystal methodology, Dynamic Systems development Method (DSDM), and Featured Driven Development (FDD) (Shore & Warden, 2008).
Role in system development
The agile methodology plays a good essential role in the assessment of the project development process. The method provides an understanding of the direction that development process does follow. This is achieved through the process of getting the application developed in phases called iterations. As a result of subdivision of the application development process, the method gets referred to as an iterative development software development model. Therefore, the methodology is applicable in the assessing the project development process.
Another intention of the Agile methodology is to reduce tremendously the application development cost as well as the delivery duration of the software. In the accomplishment of the process, the agile methodology applies the inspect-and-adapt approach of development to have the reductions. In supplement to the process, the methodology takes the development of the application without defining the requirements first instead they interact with the end users to determine the requirements as they develop the application (Anonymous, 2008).
Subsequently, the agile methodology is intended for providing a product that is quality and meets the requirements of the end users and the stakeholders to any given firm or business. The model ensures that the end users and the stakeholders take part in the entire development process of the application. At the point, the ensuring that the application being developed meets the requirements, the software is assessed after every one and a half weeks to two weeks duration. The assessment is the measuring of the objective achievements of the project according to by then development.
In project development, communication has been defined to be important as it provides the basis for a good understanding of the procedures and the requirements of the end users and stakeholders. The agile methodology does play a crucial role in ensuring that the communication is enhanced by the project development process. The intend gets accomplished by involving the end users of the application and the stakeholders from the start of the project prior the end of a project. This provides a basis for good interaction between the application developers and the end users as well as the stakeholders (McLaughlin, n.d).
Pros and cons of Agile methodology principles
Previously the software development crisis was outlined to have resulted from the problem of defining the requirements which resulted in the development of applications that never tendered to the define requirements. The agile methodology principles are quite applicable in ensuring that the end user requirements are addressed. The principles provide an elaborate mechanism of involving the end user of the application into the entire development process of the software. This aids in making sure that the development matches the defined requirements of the application.
The best about the agile methodology principles is that the application of the system enables and facilitates communication throughout the entire process of application development. The clients/ end users, the stakeholders and other relative parties are defined to participate actively in the development process which provides a good ink of communication between the software development team and the end users as well as the stakeholders. This provides the satisfactory of the customers in any project as well as the stakeholders because they have been fully involved in the development process (Dawson, January 22, 2015).
There is transparency in the application of the agile methodology principles. The method focuses on the different participants of system development and their interactions than the process of undertaking activities. To accomplish the interaction, there are one to one conversations with the end users, stakeholders and application developers. The transparency comes in with the openness of undertaking tasks and at this point the management of the entire process is done easy as consultations, and group work is attributed to delivering of quality works (Dawson, January 22, 2015).
The agile methodology of software development denies the development team the freedom of working independently. The involvement of the end users can take to control the process of developing the application. For example, the undertaking of the coding and developing phase of software development will get the application development team interrupted. The end users who have less understanding and knowledge in the field of programming may demand to know what is being done, and this may act as a distracter to the activities being undertaken. In supplement to that, the senior programmers get regarded to have a say in eth final coding process of the application which denies the freedom of the junior programmers. This brings about the imbalance amongst the parties.
The methodology can no longer render the process cost effective as the end users; stakeholders may require going through training before they can take part in the development process. The training expenses can get the project cost more than the normal cost. However, the actions have to be undertaken as the poor participation of the end users will get the delivery of a poor quality application. The model is not applicable for complex tasks that require special training (Sami, March 15, 2012).
Once more the software development life cycle traditional steps are regarded as the core building blocks of the current software development models. The agile methodology of system development has less emphasis on some critical stages of software development. It does not take into some consideration the system designing phase and the system documentation. We have to reveal that documentation must be provided as it carries some weight in the entire operation life and maintenance phase of the application. Thus, the methodology is defeated with ensuring that the developed application is reliable with providing the guideline on the application usage. At the same time, the marketing and selling of the agile methodology developed application become challenged as the documentation required and technical designs required mare not quite reliable to convince the investors. Thus, difficulty in application maintaining and scaling
Agile methodology is being adversely applied in many organization based on the fact of its ensuring that there is sound communication between the stakeholders, end users and the contracted application developers. The methodology can be used in different types of projects by ensuring that trust remains as the principle and the product delivered according to the stakeholders and the end users. Every road has bent and pothole. The agile model is good in delivering of applications only that some rectification should get undertaken on the governing principles and procedures. The process can be adverse by improving on the technical designs of applications and documentation as they are essential. Otherwise, the methodology is regarded as the latest, and it is currently being used throughout in the technological world.

Anonymous (2008). Agile Methodology. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
Dawson, C. (January22, 2015). The Pro and Cons of Utilizing an Agile Methodology. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
McLaughlin, M. (n.d). Agile Methodologies. Retrieved on March 29, 2016 from
Sami, M. (March 15, 2012). Software Development Life Cycle Models and Methodologies. Retrieved from
Shore, J., & Warden, S. (2008). The art of agile development. Beijing: O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Published in Information Technology

Student Name
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Date Submitted

Network engineering refers to the practice whereby there is a connection between computer networks with other networks using the gateways. Through gateways, there is a common method of routing data and information from one network to another network. The consequential system resulting from the interconnected networks are referred to as internetwork. A network engineer can be said to be technology professional having the required skills of planning, implementing, and supporting the computer networks which consequently support the in-house data, video, voice, and wireless network services (Anttalainen, 2003). Network engineer and network administrator have similar roles in an organization. However, the network engineer is more executively responsible than a network administrator. The responsibilities of a network engineer are more of planning, designing, and technical specifications in a company. Additionally, the network engineer also deals with the administration side of things which is the daily maintenance of a company’s network infrastructure, management, and troubleshooting responsibilities.
The main responsibility of network engineering is supervising the whole network of an organization or a company in which they work. Additionally, it is the responsibility of network engineer to ensure the network systems are functioning according to the intention of the organization. While working, the network engineer must ensure all computers are linked to the central computer as well as ensuring that all computer programs and files are availed to each computer whenever they are needed. Additionally, it is the responsibility of the network engineer to link the computers in the organizations to various machines such as printers, telephones, and fax machines among many others. The management of the communication devices like the maintenance of the mobile phones also falls under the description of the job of the network engineer. As much as network engineers are engaged in such activities as above, it is also their responsibility to develop, install, update, and maintain everything about the network such as software and hardware upgrading as well as the incorporation of new devices (Wasserman, 1993).
The researcher would like to train as a network engineer after which he will look for employment in the same capacity. As a network engineer, the researcher will have various duties central to the job. It will be the responsibility of the researcher as a network engineer to manage all user accounts of the place of work he will have secured his employment among which includes management of virus protection and user accounts. Additionally, having become a network engineer, the researcher will be responsible for the troubleshooting the company requires including issues with the company servers as well as the individual computers. However, the researcher will be needed to keep a documented list of the network issues as well as subsequent resolutions (Feamster, Winick, & Rexford, 2004).
Becoming an accomplished network engineer after which the researcher will look for employment is not an easy task. However, the researcher will take upon himself to ensure that he has learned and comprehensively understood the skills and qualities he requires to succeed as a network engineer in a company of his choice. The researcher will employ all methods which will ensure that he has succeeded in becoming the person he wants and an employable professional in the field of network engineering. Among the things he needs to do to succeed is ensuring that he has all resources he requires to learn and become network engineer (Wasserman, 1993).
Action research refers to a kind of study conducted to improve the conditions of the society or organization in which the research is being conducted. Action research is applicably and widely conducted by researchers using systematic inquiries with their intention being improving ways in which they carry out their activities. Therefore, the main reason why action research is preferred to other forms of research is that it helps researchers to improve ways in which they carry their research. Additionally, action research brings about the changes and improvements of the conditions in the organizations or communities in which they conduct the action research. Additionally, action research brings about the essence by the researchers of evaluating their actions through communication and observation. Through contemporary research, a researcher cannot observe and communicate while conducting their researcher.
History of Action Research
According to the current literature, action research originated from the United States. Kurt Lewin, a psychologist working the United States communities, is credited with the invention of action research in 1946. Kurt Lewin used action research as a method of inquiry, but it has since undergone several evolutions thus becoming the way in which it is today. As much as action research has undergone evolution, it has been born from the scientific methods of inquiries previously used by Kurt Lewin. While applying action research in his study, Kurt Lewin implemented actions capable of solving problems in a collaborative context using analysis and evaluation driven by data. It was through this that he was able to comprehensively understand the underlying causes of actions thus enabling him to predict the future about his personal and organizational changes (Greenwood, Whyte, & Harkavy, 1993).
Many years have passed since action research was first used. During this time of the development of research, there have been evolutions of many methods which adjust the balance of focus more towards the actions the researchers take or more on the research which comes from the reflective understanding of the actions. Through action research, Kurt Lewin was able to challenge traditional social science to move reflective knowledge developed by the outside experts to an active moment-to-moment theorizing, data collection, and inquiry that occurs in the midst of emergent structure. Kurt always knew that one would not gain knowledge without action and for action. Starting from this point, questioning the validity of social knowledge and not ways in which one can conduct action science requires the performance of action research which is similar to performing an experiment which makes action research an empirical process.
Action Research Steps
At some point, researchers will come across a problem or a challenge that they would like to address in their society or organization. While some researchers are going to rely on the traditional ways of solving these problems, others are going to seek the advice of the experts and colleagues in trying to address these challenges and problems (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood, & Maguire, 2003). Exemplary good researchers are going to carry out their investigations thus identifying and solving problems while conducting a comprehensive analysis of the information about their society or organization using the steps below:

Figure 1: The 4-step representation of the basic action research. Source:
i. Planning – This refers to the collaborative actions initiated by the researcher and the client. The main elements of planning step include preliminary diagnosis, gathering of data, and results in feedback.
ii. Action – The step includes transforming the plan into some actions about the learning process. It also includes the execution of the behavioral changes in the society or the organization.
iii. Observation – This is the step where the researcher changes the behavior of the action. Observation refers to the results of an output step of the action research. It also involves data gathering.
iv. Reflection – The researcher reflects on what went wrong and what might have gone against the plan. Additionally, necessary changes are made according to the outcomes of the reflection step.
Suitability of Action Research
The main purpose of action research is solving problems and bringing positive changes in the organization or society. Therefore, action research will suitably fit the researcher’s structured job search as a network engineer. Through action research, the researcher will gain knowledge and understanding of the requirement of a network engineer. Through action research, the research will allocate him some specific task through which he will be able to understand more about network engineering and network engineers comprehensively. Action research will enable the researcher to follow a systematic approach of planning, action, observation, and reflection in ensuring that he has what it takes to succeed as a network engineer (Holter & Schwartz-Barcott, 1993).

Anttalainen, T. (2003). Introduction to telecommunications network engineering. Artech House.
Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D., & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research. Action Research, 1 (1), 9-28.
Feamster, N., Winick, J., & Rexford, J. (2004). A model of BGP routing for network engineering. In ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review 32(1), 331-342.
Greenwood, D., Whyte, W. F., & Harkavy, I. (1993). Participatory action research as a process and as goal. Human Relations, 46 (2), 175-192.
Holter, I.M., & Schwartz-Barcott, D. (1993). Action research: What is it? How has it been used and how can it be used in nursing? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18, 298 - 304.
Kemmis, S. (1985). Action Research and the Politics of Reflection. In D. Boud, R. Keogh & D. Walker. (Eds). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning.(pp. 139 -163). London: Kogan Page.
Kemmis, S., & McTaggert, R. (1990). The action research planner. Geelong: Deakin University Press.
Wasserman, P. D. (1993). Advanced methods in neural computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Published in Information Technology

Life Insurance
Name: Amber Johnson
College: Baton Rough Community College
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Address: 201 Community College Drive
Baton Rouge, LA 70806
Ph: 1-866-217-982
Date: April 4, 2017

There are many reasons why people choose to change their life policies to new ones. Whether the change is due to financial reasons, change in your circumstances or simply an end to the current policy, the decision should be carefully considered before making any move. There are various questions that should be answered before taking the next step.

How the new policy compares the existing one
Comparing the two plans is helpful. For example, there is a significant difference between whole life insurance policies and term life insurance. While term life insurance is often cheaper than whole life insurance, it may not guarantee a benefit payment after expiry (Baker, 2012).
Charges of switching to a new life insurance policy

Some insurance companies require their policyholders to pay charges should they want to cancel their policy. This considerably decreases the benefit of changing plans. When planning to switch, talking to the insurance company about any fees payable is important (Fier and Andre, 2013).
Whether the existing life insurance plan be modified
Some insurance plans are modifiable should the holder’s financial needs change. It may be possible to add a new rider or reduce your life insurance coverage to better meet the policy holder’s needs (Bodie, 2013). It is important to speak to the insurance company to fully understand available options for those willing to change policies.

There are any reasons why people consider changing their life policies. For example, the needs or financial situation may change. In this case, it is reasonable to change the policy. Owing to the long-term nature of many life insurance policies, there is a probability that circumstances will change over the term of the policy. While it may be costly to alter a life plan, in some cases, it makes sense.

Works cited
Baker, Tom eds. Embracing risk: The changing culture of insurance and responsibility. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Bodie, Zvi. Investments. McGraw-Hill, 2013.
Fier, Stephen G., and Andre P. Liebenberg. "Life insurance lapse behavior." North American Actuarial Journal 17.2 (2013): 153-167.

Published in Business Studies
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