Items filtered by date: March 2017 - ResearchWriting.Education

Superstitions can have a significant impact on the conduct of some people. It is the belief of many people that bad luck can result from such trivial things as walking under the ladder, spilling salt, breaking a mirror, or having a black cat cross your path. A self-help book entitled “The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne has a similar basis on the premise that one’s thinking can be impactful in that the positive thinking brings improvements in one’s life while the negative thoughts can have adverse results in one’s life. Astrology is also based on the tenet that one’s date of birth can have a powerful and a lasting impact on a person’s personal traits, love life, success at work and much more. Also, numbers are believed to be crucial. Some numbers can have their luck or unlucky members depending on how they conceive those numbers or what they have been made to believe about them. One of such numbers is 13 that are almost universally considered as an unlucky number in the European culture. Also, the Friday 13th is considered universally as being inauspicious.

It is hard to imagine the rational foundation of superstition. There are many researchers that have tried to formulate models to help in understands about the persistence of superstition. For instance, Fundenberg and Levine (2006) came up with the game-theoretical model to show how superstition persists even when people are rational, and it discusses the types of superstitious that have a high likelihood of persisting. Two essential conclusions are that people shape their beliefs in the superstitions and that superstitions are possible under rationality. The superstitions develop when the occurrence of the trigger event has an occasional association with the correct outcome, but the payoff to that outcome needs to be sufficiently large.
Whether they are rational or not, superstitions can result in vital consequences. For that reason, some people have been known to consult horoscopes ahead to making important decisions, and a common example among these people is President Reagan that sought for advice from his astrologist concerning many issues such as, how to approach Mikhail Gorbachev in the discussion on how to end the Cold War in 1985. The tenets in unlucky numbers are widespread. In the United Kingdom, it has been reported that around 28 percent of the streets do not have number 13. Some people also refuse to commence new projects or avoid making major purchase decisions on Friday 13th. There is an estimate that puts business losses in the United States at $1 billion. Another recent report also found out that the flights taking place on Friday 13th are cheaper as compared to the flights taking place on other days in France, Sweden, Australia, and the UK. In contrast, Friday the 13th impact on the stock market has nil, or it may be positive even though it is small (Lucey, 2001; Chung, Darrat & Li, 2014).

In this research paper, we undertake a search he evidence that superstitions can have by looking at the stock market index of some countries. More specifically there will be an analysis and a calculation of the percentage change in the stock market index of 62 countries between the years 2008 and 2009 and the results will be useful in concluding if the average percentage is substantial for the Friday the 13th. There is the usage of the panel regression model with the corrected standard errors. The other aspect that will have examination is the turn of the month effect on Fridays. Three crucial results are associated with the Friday the 13th are observed. The first thing is that the depressed Friday the 13th impact is present when there is a negative return on the previous day. Secondly, when there is a positive return on the previous day, there is no depressed Friday the 13th impact. Thirdly, it is found that Friday the 13th effect does not depend on the growth domestic production of a country when the returns on otehr4 Fridays are leveraged as the yardstick.

Data Summary
The background material that needs to be known for this research is the international stock indices’ unequivocal results found out by Lucey (2000) for the period of 2008 to 2009. The model specified in this paper takes into account some points that help in the analysis of the data at validating the results. The first thing is that Friday the '13th only applies to Fridays. Therefore, as adopted in the previous results, the paper focuses on the daily returns on Fridays. The paper does not incorporate the analysis of the non-Friday days in the analysis. Secondly, the presence of the turn of the Friday’s month effect has to be taken into consideration. One of the choices that will be taken into account is the deletion of the returns at the turn of the month, and the other choice is the addition of a dummy variable to those days. However, the latter is adopted because it enables a convenient distinction of the controversial Friday the 13th impact with the turn of the month effect established. The returns of the days that do not fall in Friday the 13th are used as a control for the assessment.

Thirdly, we use the same data from the DataStream to find out the prior day effect by examining the returns on Mondays. Dummy variables are used to be based on the sign of prior day’s returns. The importance of the dummy variable is that it helps to capture the impacts of the one-day serial correlation. Fourth, previous research work into the area of Friday 13th effect examined the results for the individual stock exchange by country-to-country. We make use of the per capita GDP as a variable to explain the between-country variable. The effects are examined using the panel model. The fifth thing is that the data follows on the one for Lucey. That is because the decision constraints the time we are interested in studying.

We obtain the time series of the daily stock index prices for 62 countries from the DataStream. It covers the period between June 1, 2000, And August 31, 2008. The calculation is then done for the daily returns (Ri,t) for the day t of the country I as percentages using the panel regression model below.
Ri,t = ln(Ii,t / Ii,t-1) * 100,
Ii,t-1 is the closing value of the day representing the index on the day t for the country designated i. The theoretical sample, the size used shows that there are 26,722 Fridays whereby there are 431 per country; the bad Thursdays are 11,694; and the turn of the month days are 3,595; while Friday the 13th. These days, of course, may be occasioned by unpredictable events such as holidays, and unexpected closures. Therefore, in case one of the indexes in the equation is missing, it also means that the day t is missing. From the theoretical sample size where Fridays are 26,722, the missing returns on prior Thursdays or Fridays reduce sample size to 25,101 which is a loss of 6 percent. The number of values that are missing on Fridays the 13th and the turn of the Fridays of the month is the same but higher as compared to the number that is missing on the control Fridays. Even though the explanations for the latter results do not offer the concrete grounds for making conclusions, it appears that Fridays the 13th, as well as the turn of the month Fridays, are unlucky days.
The first step in the data analysis is to leverage the conventional approach to finding out the magnitude of the Friday 13th effect. Below is the model that is used:
Ri,t = α0 + α1F13t + β0GDP + β1 (F13t * GDPi)+ δi + Ƹi,t

The model is used to the pooled data of 62 countries with the panel regression approach that as outlined earlier. The purpose of the GDPi expression is to make sure that the estimated coefficient α0 effectively measures the average of the intercepts for the countries if each of the countries is individually applied to the above equation. The same sentiments are also applied to the F13t * GDPi variable and the estimated coefficient designated by α1. The results demonstrate that the presence the depressed Friday the 13th impact (P = 0.009, α1 = -0.103) as compared to the other Fridays. It is shown below that these results are biased towards the determination of a significant effect of Friday the 13th because returns on the used control Fridays have enhancement by the effect of the turn of the month.
According to Chamberlain and his colleagues (1991), adding dummy variable for the turn of the month, TOMt produces the model
Ri,t = α’0 + α’1F13t + α’2TOMt + β’0GDPi + β’1 (F13t * GDPi)+ β’2 (TOMt * GDPi ) + δ’i + Ƹ’i,t

The three variables that contain the GDPi term have addition to the formula due to the reasons explained earlier. The results show that there is a turn of the month effect on the Fridays (α’2 = 0.283, P<0.001) when it if referenced against the other Fridays acting as the control. The findings are consistent with the turn of the month effect contained in some earlier literature such as the one for Kunkel et al., 2003 and McConnel & Xu, 2008. Thus, the addition of the dummy variable to the model reduces the magnitude of the effect of the Friday the 13th (P – 0.10, α’1= -0.064).
The GDP for the unlucky Fridays the 13th, that is, Bt i = 1 and F13t = 1. That shows the average return on the unlucky Fridays the 13th is persistently lower as compared to the average return on the control Fridays across all the 62 countries. The results clearly imply that the depressed effect of Friday the 13th is brought about by the bad day impact. Also, the parallelism shows that the impact is independent of the country as evidenced by their GDP per capita considering the bad control Friday effect.

Conclusion and Remarks
There are three conclusions possible from this study. The first one is that the enhanced good effect of the prior day and the depressed bad effect of the prior day as seen on the control Fridays are part of the GDP function. Those effects are attributed to the variation in the market efficiency. Cognate gross domestic production impacts are exhibited by Fridays the 13th as well as the turn of the Fridays of the month. The differences in the market efficiency also influence the effects. Secondly, it can be observable that there is an enhanced effect of the ‘turn of the month’ on Fridays. If we consider the effect of the prior day control Friday, there is a uniform month effect on Fridays across all the countries examined. The third concussion is that a depressed Friday the 13th effect is also valid. The results, however, shows that a depressed Friday the 13th impact is possible when there is a negative return on the Thursdays the 12th.

It is not easy to satisfactorily explain the reasons for the differences in the results from the findings of Lucey (2000). We can tentatively suggest that earlier findings, such as the one for Agrawal and Tandon (1994) are equivocal. One of the explanations possible might be due the impact of the prior Thursday the 12th. The prior research does not acknowledge the prior effect as they only focus on the returns. The degree that the average returns are negative will depend on the weighted mean of the good and the bad days’ impact. It is paramount that the effects of the Thursday the 12th be put into consideration. It is observed that the returns on good days of Friday the thirteenth are not very different Friday from the returns of the good control Fridays. The bad Fridays the thirteenth are the only days that experience the frightening effect. When the returns from the prior day are positive, the results of Friday the thirteenth are also positive. The reason for that is that on Thursdays the thirteenth, stock markets around the globe persistently assess the Friday the thirteenth as they do to the other Fridays.

Agrawal, A., & Tandon, K. (1994). Anomalies or illusions? Evidence from stock markets in eighteen countries. Journal of international Money and Finance, 13(1), 83-106.
Chamberlain, T. W., Cheung, C. S., & Kwan, C. C. (1991). The Friday the thirteenth effect: Myth or reality?. Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, 111-117.
Lucey, B. M. (2000). Friday the 13th and the philosophical basis of financial economics. Journal of Economics and Finance, 24(3), 294-301.
McConnell, J. J., & Xu, W. (2008). Equity Returns at the Turn of the Month. Financial Analysts Journal, 64(2), 49-64.
Fudenberg, D., & Levine, D. K. (2006). Superstition and rational learning. Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper, (2114).
Chung, R., Darrat, A. F., & Li, B. (2014). Superstitions and stock trading: some new evidence. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 19(4), 527-538.

Published in History

Hate crimes encompass the traditional offenses as murder, vandalism or arson that have an added element of bias. About the issue of collecting data, hate crimes encompass offenses against an individual or property that are motivated in whole or part by the offender's bias against religion, race, disability, ethnicity, gender orientation gender or gender identity. The additional attribute about this topic is the assertion that hate in itself is not a crime as people have to enjoy their freedoms. The victims do not have to belong to the group in that anyone can fall victim to hate crime. The hate incidents appear to as crimes to the individuals suffering them and in most cases escalate to crimes or tension in the concerned society. The law enforcement agencies can only prosecute once the law has been broken but can also work with their partners in trying to prevent the possible escalation seriousness. The selection of the US and Mongolia is for the reason that the two countries have some of the most documented and publicized cases of hate crimes. Additionally, the fact that the two countries are in different parts of the globe was vital in assisting in assessing the situation as a global and not a state problem. Lastly, the U.S and Mongolia are examples of the two most dynamic economies and issues of hate crimes pose a significant threat to the success of these economies due to the negative image they generate.
Hate Crimes in the U.S

In the year 2012, there was approximately 293,000 nonfatal violent as well as property hate crime victimization that had occurred against people aged 12 years and older in the US households. The increase in the number of hate crimes from the previous one in 2011 was not insignificant (Altschiller, 2015). The findings were from the bureau of justice statistics, as well as the national crime victimization survey (NCVS) was had been collecting the data on the crimes that are motivated by hate from the year 2003. The FBI, as well as the NCVS reports on hates crime statistics program which offer the chief sources of annual information on hate crimes in the US, relies on the definition that is presented but the hate crimes statistics act. According to the Act, hate crimes indicate evidence of prejudice that is based on gender, race, religion, gender identity, disability as well as sexual orientation.

Regarding the number of hate crimes in the US, it follows that in the year 2012, the hate crimes were accountable for 1.2% of all the victimization and additionally 4.2% of all the cases of violent victimization. There was no statistically significant change that was observed in the assessment of the overall number of hate crimes as well as the hate crimes that took place between 2004 and 2012. Following the decline of the hate crimes between 2004 and 2005, the rate of property hate crimes victimization was stable from 2005 to 2012 (Altschiller, 2015). About the issue of motivation, it was evident that approximately 58% of the hate crime victims reported more than just one type of motivation in 2012. It is additionally evident that the victims perceived that bias had motivated the offender against the victim’s ethnicity in 51% of all the hate crimes.

The attribute was a statistically significant increment from the 30% of the hate crimes that were motivated by ethnicity bias in the year 2011 and 22% in the year 2004 (Altschiller, 2015). The percentage of the hate crimes that have been motivated by religious bias was nearly three times higher in the year 2012 that it was in 2004, with 28% and 10% respectively although there was statistically significant change from the year 2011 to 2012 (Altschiller, 2015). In the year 2009, the Congress passed a new legislation meant to amend the hate crimes statistics act to encompass the hate crimes that exhibit evidence of bias against a certain gender or gender identity. The bureau of statistics has also been collecting information on the hate crimes that have been motivated by gender bias from the year 2003. The proportion of the hate crimes that have been motivated by gender bias was demonstrated to be more than two times higher that it was in the year 2011 (25%) and 2012 (26%) than it was in 2004 (12%).

The murder of James Byrd along with Matthew Shepard, encompass some of the senseless acts of abhorrence, reminding the Americans that brutality based on racial along with other intolerances still occurs. Additional atrocious examples comprise of the spree of hate-motivated shootings that took place in the 1999 4th weekend in Illinois as well as Indiana. The additional massacre of two gay men in California, along with arson attacks on Sacramento synagogues. In August of 1999, one man with connected to white supremacist organizations is suspected to have opened fire at a Jewish daycare center in Los Angeles murdering a Filipino-American postal worker. Additionally, in the year 2000, J.R. Warren, a 26-year old African American, homosexual man was attacked by two 17-year old boys who brutally beat him and consequently drove back and forth above him until he was dead.

On the issue of religious hate crimes, Jews, as well as Jewish establishments, were some of the biggest objects in America again last year. However, when it comes to hate crimes in general, the solitary biggest incentive by far is not a religion but race a situation that has been in existence for several years. These are two main takeaways the public can garner from the FBI’s lately released yearly review of hate crimes for the period ending in 2014. The additional element that can be said to be good news is the assertion that the hate crimes, on the whole, went down by approximately 8% in comparison to the situation in 2013 apart from for hate crimes that were meted against the Muslims and Muslim communities which increased by 14%. A number of hate crimes that targeted the Jews population in the same period fell to some extent, by roughly 2.5%.

The critics have for a long duration cautioned against taking into consideration the yearly statistical appraisal of hate crimes as released by the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program too accurately. The review as released November 16 entails a database that is accumulated from prejudice in addition to hating crime counts that have been submitted to the FBI by local police organs across the country on a charitable basis. Every local force utilizes their techniques in counting as well as categorizing these cases. Studies that were conducted by the Justice Department’s, amongst others, propose that the FBI statistics are accordingly much inferior to the actual level of hate crimes. The diverse police units in Hawaii, for instance, do not involve themselves these program at all. Still, many parties believe the annual appraisal to be at least a useful pointer of extensive patterns. In a thus year, 86% of the nation’s almost 18,000 law enforcement organs presented hate crime reports to the FBI, making it one of the highest percentages that have been recorded in the recent years.

According to the FBI, rates for hate crimes went down by approximately 8% in the previous year, whereby more than 6,400 hate crimes were reported, in comparison to the almost 7,000 in 2013. According to the available data, 47% of these cases in 2014 hate crimes had been aggravated by racial intolerance. They were preceded by crimes that were motivated by ethnicity at 11.9%, gender identity at 1.8%, disability at 1.5% while gender had the least at gender 0.6%. In the previous years, the Jews were the most regular victims of all the reported hate crimes that targeted members of a certain religious group. Out of all the 1,140 reported sufferers of anti-religious hate crimes, 648, which is almost 57%, were Jewish. In this case out of the 1,014 reported anti-religious hate crime incidents although there are those that had more than one victim, 609 cases which are slightly over 60%, targeted Jews.

In those cases where data information that has been submitted by the local law enforcement organs allow, the FBI report recognizes perpetrators by race along with ethnicity; but not by religion. Out of the anti-Jewish hate crime executors whose ethnicity could be established, 87 of the perpetrators were white while 20 were African American. An additional 231 of the acknowledged offenders were of unknown race (Southers, 2014).The Muslims encompassed the second most regulatory target for the anti-religious crimes. The Muslims were targeted in almost 154, which are approximately 15.2%, of the reported incidents. A considerable number of the anti-Jewish hate crimes which were 451 cases encompassed of destruction as well as some additional category of property damage (Southers, 2014). The figures for more grave offenses against Jews were approximately the same as for more grave offenses which were meted against the Muslims. There were more motivated assaults as well as robberies against Muslims, furthermore more easy assaults, burglaries, thefts, intimidations, thefts as well as arson offenses against Jews.

While FBI reports have been contested over the years for undercounting hate crimes, including by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, some experts argue that the reports are still capable of signaling trends. According to the President of Southern Poverty Law Center, the diminutive FBI hate-crime statistics can be accredited to, amongst other issues, the lack of collaboration from law enforcement organs in reporting the reporting of incidents. Additionally, the fact that a hefty section of victims fail to report such crimes sometimes with the supposition that nothing will be done is accountable for the dismal number of cases reported. The SPLC contemplates that anti-Muslim acts will persist to rise in 2015 (Southers, 2014). The organization addresses the beheadings in addition to other attacks implemented by the Islamic State group as likely to stimulate anti-Muslim outlook. In the house of the attacks on Paris some time back, 25 U.S. governors have surfaced with sentiments against accommodating Syrian refugees into their states.

Every year was starting from 2004 to 2012; the violent crimes were accountable for a superior percentage of the hate crimes that the case was for the no hate crimes. The percentage of the crimes that were related to violence demonstrated an increase from 78% in the year 204 to 90% in both 2011 and 2012 (Perry, 2013). Conversely, there was no statistically significant difference that was observed in the percentage of the hate crimes that encompasses serious violence as well as simple assault in these years. In the year 2012, the serious violent crimes were accountable for a bigger percentage relating to all the crime victimizations (27%) than the non-hate crime victimization that had a percentage of 8%. There was no statically significant difference that was observed in the year 2012 between the percentages of the hate crimes (30%) along with the non-hate crimes that involved serious violence (Perry, 2013).

The evident increase in the hate crimes against the Hispanic population has a correction with the growing debate on the issue of comprehensive immigrant reform as well as the escalation in the degree of the anti-immigrant vitriol in the television on, radio as well as the internet. The common trend is that the anti-immigration fervor has been directed against a certain group and possess the potential to turn violent. The inflammatory remarks that target the immigrants have a direct input on the increase in the number of hate crimes against the Hispanics along with the others perceived to be immigrants (Southers, 2014). These inflammatory remarks additionally increase the sense of fear among the targeted group as well as the other minorities in the communities around the country.
One of the most disturbing developments relates to growth in the number of groups that oppose the immigration reforms as the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) as well as the NumbersUSA. These groups have inflamed the immigration debate via invoking the racist, dehumanizing as well as bigotry of the hate crimes. The inflammatory, anti-immigrant remarks have also successfully infiltrated the mainstream media encompassing the shrill anti-immigration reform commentaries from the high profile media personalities as talk show network’s Michael Savage and CNN’s Dobbs (Newton, 2009).

Numerous interventions have been implemented as the US tries to deal with the issue of hate crimes. Among the interventions is the fact that the local governments are continuing with the establishment of ordinances against the hate activities that are modeled on the prevalent hate crime law that relates to the crime laws in that state. The human rights commission is additionally facilitating as well as coordinating discussions; training, as well as events, mean to enable citizens to discuss their differences, hopes, commonalities as well as dreams (Newton, 2009). These forums focus on the common attributes of the community life as education, cultural as well as recreational opportunities, and community attitudes along with racial and ethnic diversity. The media has been playing a significant role also in the reduction of the hate crimes by ensuring that they report accurate, thorough as well as responsible content that has a high likelihood of promoting stability as well as harmony in the society (Newton, 2009). Strengthening the penalties for the individuals caught committing the crime has additionally produced positive results as the case of tough sentencing has increased the deterrence capabilities of the existing laws.
The interventions have been quite successful in that they managed to reduce the number and violent nature of the crimes as there has been the promotion of coexistence among the people from the different backgrounds in the society. It is additionally clear however that the abhorrent nature of comments by the politicians, however, was negating the gains that have been made by the stakeholders in the area of reducing the hate crimes.

Hate Crimes in Mongolia
Mongolia is among the fastest growing economies in the world as a result of the huge quantities of the untapped mineral wealth, an issue that has promoted the expansion of the foreign mining investment. Although the country is transforming their strategic sector, there are certain social changes as well as political reforms that are taking place. The government has embarked on the adoption of hate crime legislations as they try to integrate sweeping reforms within the country’s legal system. Hate crimes along with discrimination are still the most serious issues, and the vicious attacks against the homosexuals and foreign minorities residing in the country continue tainting the country’s human rights record. In the year 2012, the national human rights commission published a report that argued that the recent years had seen roughly 80% of the Mongolians identifying themselves as LGBT experienced some form of discrimination or abuse (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Additionally, a huge number of the LGBT persons have admitted that they have considered committing suicide as a result of the intolerance exhibited by the society.

Although statistics do not exist, the human rights commission received attention even further back to the year 2011 whereby the nationalist groups brutally attacked Mongolian migrant as well as homosexual minorities (Hall, N., (2013). The reports vary from the three foreign men who were physically assaulted in the capital to the homosexual man who was sexually assaulted. The case of the homosexual man who was sexually assaulted had tee police refuse to investigate the crimes due to the loopholes in the system as the Mongolian domestic laws do not consider the male to male rape cases as a crime. The LGBTI population, as well as the ethnic minority population, has been facing a difficult time due to the increased cased of hate crimes against their population. Thus, the government has been making efforts geared towards protecting them from being subjected to the numerous cases of hate crimes. Homosexuality has been legal in Mongolia from the year 1961, but the homophobic views have been pervasive throughout the society (Hall, 2013). The LGBTI population has been subject to numerous severe violent attacks in the recent past, in the same manner as the ethnic minorities have been since there has been an upswell in the neo-Nazi-inspired nationalist groups in the country.

There is almost a zero acceptance of the LGBTI population in Mongolia, an attribute that is exacerbated by the assertion that there is discrimination in almost all the facets and sectors of life in Mongolia. The discrimination of the LGBTI population in the country is an endemic attribute in the public, private as well as nongovernmental sectors and entails the police along with the judiciary, education, housing sector as well as the healthcare services (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The level of prejudice is so high in the country that it is only a few of the LBTI population that has been able to escape from some extent of the violence/ harassment.

The best illustration is that of the gay man who was sexually tortured by the homophobic nationalists with the police doing nothing like the male on male rape is not one of the elements covered in the criminal code. The man later died although it is not clear whether it was a murder or committed suicide following the order. In the year 2009, three transgender women were kidnapped and consequently taken to a cemetery where they were beaten and humiliated sexually (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The current proposals that are meant to deal with the situation encompass the idea that the law enforcement agencies receive training on how to recognize and consequently report the crimes that are motivated by discrimination as well as prejudice. It is additionally evident that the proposal is going to see sticker penalties being imposed on the crimes that have been motivated by discrimination. It is additionally evident that the interventions will encompass the integration of greater compensation packages for the victims who have suffered such crimes as a model of imposing deterrence.

The Mongolian government has commenced on an assortment of sweeping revisions to the country’s lawful codes, a refurbish to comprise provisions which aspire to avert crimes of hate, prejudice along with discrimination. In the middle of the proposals encompasses the motivated evaluation of the country’s anti- prejudice laws, with the civil rights groups demanding for the insertion of requirements which comprise hated-based incentives as a frustrating factor in criminal sentencing. The government has sat upon the development of an ambitious legal restructuring agenda. The reform places meticulous spotlight upon human rights along with enhanced transparency from the country’s law enforcement organs, in line with the international legal conference (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Nevertheless among some of the draft law’s most passionate supporters have apprehension emerged that the law could yet go too far, serving as an alternative to criminalizing all forms of disapproval, including pernicious, offensive or lawful difference of opinion.

Other people have articulated their apprehension that the inclusions might additionally threaten the freedom of the press, with journalists by now privy to all-encompassing anti- discrimination measures which in certain cases will suffocate legitimate critique. The topic of ‘Hate crimes’ had materialized as a grave issue in Mongolia, increasing to international prominence in the year 2011 when the nationalist groups majority of whom represent neo-Nazi ideology along with paraphernalia were established to be accountable for frequent attacks against the nation’s minority LGBT Furthermore foreign communities (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014).

Presently, no measures have been taken to reprimand perpetrators further for the alleged bias-motivated aggression, nor are law enforcement organs requested to draw round suspected intent. Although it is not yet comprehensible what the outline measures would set out as supplementary punishments for those found culpable of hate-motivated acts, the law would necessitate training of the law enforcement organs to distinguish furthermore report incidences of suspected hate. The preliminary draft, fashioned by a working group encompassing of rights groups along with the Justice Ministry officials, incorporated in its proposals precise provisions for offenses of ‘hate bias’ (Hall, Corb, Giannasi & Grieve, 2014). Requirements which would, in a correspondingly unparalleled move, institute penalties along with compensation which would acknowledge the psychological, and physical, damages that have been caused by such crimes. On the other hand, the Ministry of Justice, accountable for submission of the draft to Parliament, has removed the hate-oriented provisions and replacing them with the universal references to ‘discrimination’.

The subject of hate crimes in Mongolia remains to be the complicated issue to evaluate in just how the number of ‘crimes of hate’ taking place in the country on an annual basis. The circumstances are made worse because there is no statistical scrutiny that is are readily available. Additionally, while the disagreement remains as to what settles on a ‘hate-motivated’ crime, a chore made especially complex given there is no universal-use correspondent term in Mongolian establishing the parameters for either ‘hate speech’ or ‘hate crimes.' Nonetheless, discrimination, which is seen as a probable antecedent to hate crimes, remains outstanding. In the year 2013 Mongolia’s National Human Rights Commission presented their annual rights information which argued that in the year 2011, roughly 65 percent of people surveyed who categorize as LGBT had experienced some form of human rights abuse in the previous five-year period (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Etched in the most recent memory as being one of the nation‘s recent as well as incomprehensible acts of hate-motivated violence is that of the kidnapping of the three transgendered women.

In one of the 2011 documentaries entitled ‘Lies of Liberty’, one of the sufferers gave evidence that the group then drove them to a graveyard on the city’s outer edge where they found nine men were there who were beating them in different ways. The report offers an outline of how the women were viciously beaten and consequently sexually assaulted before they were forced to perform sexual acts upon their perpetrators. According to the women, they were as mainly due to their sexual identity, with the men recounting the brutal assaults as a ‘caution’ to “their kind” (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Latest efforts further make the legal reform agenda in the country complex meant to get rid of the ‘reformist’ Minister for Justice, who has lately come under attack, facing accusations of drug use along with scandalous behavior. In recent days, a local MPs started parliamentary appeals calling for the removal of the minister (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). Certain people, as one of the country’s principal political commentators, describe the moves against the Justice Minister as to be a plot that has been devised by a political- business group with the objective of using the legal means to remove the minister from the position of power.
The current situation can be described as that of Mongolians desiring a legal system where the law is applicable the same to everybody not considering their power, reputation, wealth, along with connection. It is imperative that the legislature is a body that serves instead of acting as an enforcer of political deals.

One of the polarizing figures in the country, Temuujin takes pleasure in broad, from the continued support among the nation’s civil society groups. Majority fears that in the event he is to be removed from the position, the legal reforms are going to be postponed indefinitely. “The minister is a young politician, and one with the desire to transform the law. Mongolia’s parliament is full of long-standing lawyers, who have the impression that the original criminal codes they drafted is the best for the country and thus should not be changed. Consequently, the criminal code of Mongolia has for all time been a law that is tremendously complex to amend. The draft law, however, although to be expected to face considerable amendments all through the route of parliamentary sessions, has a likelihood of being passed. The individuals who possess power in the government are the preponderance Mongolian Democratic Party (MDP) (Chakraborti & Garland, 2015). The party has not been in government in the government for reasonably a long time. Thus, it is foreseeable why MDP is in the hurry to formulate changes. Other people articulate indecision as to whether the legislations on hate crimes needs to give precedence, considering its provisions serve for the defense of minorities.

These efforts by the government have been vital in promoting the deterrence of the possible execution of these crimes. The fact that the risk of detection along with the magnitude of the punishment has become high has resulted in the perpetrators of the crimes fearing the arrests and thus discerning from the commission. It is also evident that the promotion of the tolerance among the different group ideologies as well as nationalities has also had a positive impact on the reduction of the degree, nature as well as the number of the occurrences.

From the assessment of the hate crimes topic in these countries, it is apparent that there are glaring dissimilarities in the commissions and efforts to address the situation. One of these characteristics is the fact that in the US, most of the hate crimes are against the minority members of the society, with the immigrants being the main target. Mongolia, on the other hand, has a situation whereby the LGBTI population is the main target of the hate crime from the nationalist groups while the minority immigrants also face considerable violence and discrimination from the society. The fact that Mongolia does not have legislation that protects the LGBTI population, with significance being in the case of men has made the situation worse for this population, unlike the US where legislations have been in existence. While the nationalists groups are the main perpetrators of the violence against the minorities, the case of the US has seen the politicians become the main funneling elements of the hate crimes. Among the most evident attribute in the two countries, however, the fact is their legislations of the protection of the victims of hate crimes are incomplete and thus is a good thing that both are making constant legislations that offer better and complete protection of these groups.

Altschiller, D., (2015). Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook, 3rd Edition: A Reference Handbook. ABC-
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J., (2015). Responding to Hate Crime: The Case for Connecting Policy and Research. Policy Press.
CLIO. Newton,E., 2009). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO.
Hall, N., (2013). Hate Crime. Routledge.
Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P., & Grieve¸J. (2014). The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. Routledge.
Perry, B., (2013). Hate Crimes, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Southers, E., (2014). Homegrown Violent Extremism. Routledge.

Published in Sociology

Cyber Security (Contemporary Issues in Homeland Security)

Should Department of Homeland Security enhance their focus on Cyber Security?
It is the opinion of the writer that Department of Homeland Security enhances its focus on the contemporary issue concerning cyber security. This article demonstrates the increasing threat of cyber crime targeting the government, institutions, enterprises, and individuals. During my research, I will outline the numerous adverse consequences brought about by cyber crime. I will also provide potential ways in which the DHS can undertake to enhance focus and their efforts in combating cyber crime.

What factors have necessitated for the discussion? Cyber attacks in the United States are a contemporary issue and widespread becoming a critical issue for policymakers. Information systems have resulted in numerous benefits to businesses, organizations, and individuals ranging from enhanced communication and information sharing to research to ease in undertaking business transactions and operations. However, information technology has also led to the rise of a variety of cyber crime that includes hacking, viruses, and worms, identity theft, denial of service, banking financial fraud, Malware, intellectual property violations, production and distribution of child pornography, etc. Increased high-speed Internet connection around the globe and cheaper cost of internet services have led to rapid growth of the number of internet users. With the rise in the use of computer systems, cyber attacks continue to rise by over 20 percent annually with the number of the types of threats doubling (Hassanien, Kim, Kacprzyk & Awad, 2014). A recent significant cyber attack that impacted millions of people is the Ashley Madison data breach in July 2015 that impacted millions of people (Nobles III, 2015). The cyber threat comprised the Avid Life Media (ALM) user databases and personal information of Ashley Madison’s users that include financial records and email system. The site got hacked by a group calling themselves “the Impact Team.” The target of institutions and different organizations such as banks and insurance firms has led to increasing efforts to combat the crime. The paper addresses measures of fighting cyber crime and ensuring cyber safety when connected to the internet.

Synopsis of this argument
The perpetrators of cyber crimes engage in them for various reasons that include personal gain and to obtain confidential information from their targets. Private information may include business operations or financial records obtained by competitors. The Impact Team that attacked the Toronto-based ALM was not interested in selling the information, but rather demanded the shutting down of the site. The Impact Team claimed to have obtained about 9.7 Gigabyte of data comprising of names, phone numbers, addresses, credit card transaction details (such as PayPal data of the firm’s executives) and encrypted passwords. The Impact Team used the information to blackmail the firm to shut down the website permanently or would publish the information. In August 2015, the group publicly released some of the personal information obtained from the site and threatened to release much more until the site got taken down. Although the hacking did not entail any personal gain of the group, the publishing of users’ personal data risked. The case of Ashley Madison hacking represents the fine line between the aspects like general cybercrime and hacktivism. The acquisition of personal data by unauthorized persons is risky for the members and who have caused a lot of suffering if the information got used to commit identity theft crime or make illegal bank transactions of the owners. The hackers sought to use cyber crime to destroy the company with its members as well as the public. The case which is among numerous other cases in America and around the world teaches us numerous lessons that get used by DHS and federal policymakers to protect future cyber attacks.

Adverse Impacts of cyber crimes:
Cyber crime, cyber espionage, transaction fraud and other malicious cyber attacks result in significant economic loss affecting administrations, organizations, and businesses. Piracy and violations of intellectual property lead to financial losses affecting the stakeholders. The stealing of credit card information by cyber criminals can lead to running up of large bills hence leading to losing of individual’s money as well as credit card company losses. According to Hill & Marion (2016), in 2013 cyber threats around the globe led to a financial loss estimated at 113 billion dollars.

Cyber attack that targets a business and leads to a breach of a private organization or customer data leads to losing of customers’ trust and confidence. The organizations usually suffer significant customer loss hence reduced profits or increased losses. Competitors may also use cyber crime attacks to acquire business operations thus a company loses its competitive advantage in the market. Cyber attacks may also lead to potential stock market manipulation by cyber criminals leading to economic losses and reduced shareholder confidence. Phishing often gets used by cyber criminals to acquire financial gain. It is, therefore, crucial that DHS coordinates its efforts with other federal, state and local agencies and also private firms so as to enhance information security and assurance. The integration of proper security measures and techniques such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technologies for encrypting data as well as digital identity verification can assist in preventing unauthorized access to a firm’s information system.

Cyber threats such as denial of service or malware lead to a downtime period of the computer system in an organization; hence leading to economic loss of the company. Cyber crime also entails cyber terrorism in which terrorist groups use the Internet to plan to attacks, recruit and radicalize new members, use it as a means of communication and also for propaganda. Cyber attacks that take place in social media lead to detrimental consequences to the victim. For instance stalking of persons in social media may result in murders or kidnapping in extreme cybercrime dire impacts. Production and distribution of child pornography on the Internet has led to the degradation of morals in the society as well as increased child exploitation (Sirohi, 2015).

What has got done by DHS and private organizations to enhance efforts of combating Cybercrime?
I have illustrated the adverse impacts of cybersecurity; hence, it would be significant to integrate effective protection measures against cyber threats at all levels of the organizations. First, public and private organizations, institutions and enterprises that rely upon information systems should integrate appropriate measures and strategies so as to be secure from cyber attacks. The measures that can get used include the use of access controls in the system such as passwords to prevent unauthorized access to a system. The company can also protect its computer systems through an enabling firewall that blocks connections into the system from suspicious traffic. Use of antivirus and malware software is significant in preventing virus ad worms’ attacks. SSL data protection technique that includes encryption is important to protect sensitive data (such as financial records, tax records, innovation information, and business operations information) from access.

The other significant level of combating cyber threats is DHS. DHS is responsible for strengthening cyber security and resilience of cyberspace in this period of rising and widespread cyber threats. DHS should formulate policies as well as coordinate law enforcement measures concerning cyber security among federal, state and local agencies. DHS should use the high-tech equipment at its disposal as well as train and recruit competent technical experts to undertake high criminal investigations so as to interrupt and defeat perpetrators of cyber crimes. DHS coordinates with several DHS components in its operations of preventing cyber crimes that are US Secret service, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Law Enforcement Cyber Incident Reporting. DHS should design a robust cybersecurity insurance market that could assist in minimizing the successful cyber crimes. DHS should also increase intelligence and adopt effective measures so as to prevent cyber-terrorists operations around the globe. Increased surveillance of critical infrastructures and monitoring their systems prevent the potential of a successful attack on the system.

Through the paper, I have described the forms and adverse consequences of cyber crime in the society. At a glance cybercrime could seem like a complex problem that has spread and would be difficult to manage and predict. However, various preventive measures and techniques incorporated by the organizations and businesses and also by DHS would significantly lead to the rapid decrease of cyber crime incidents. The lack of cyber security awareness increases their vulnerability to cyber attacks. It is my belief that DHS enhance its efforts in counterterrorism so as to safeguard civilian government networks and critical infrastructure.

Hassanien, A. E., Kim, T. H., Kacprzyk, J., & Awad, A. I. (Eds.). (2014): Bio-inspiring Cyber Security and Cloud Services: Trends and Innovations (Vol. 70). Springer.
Hill, J. B., & Marion, N. E. (2016): Introduction to Cybercrime: Computer Crimes, Laws, and Policing in the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO.
Nobles III W. P. (July 20, 2015): “Online Cheaters Exposed after Hackers Access Ashley Madison Hookup Site,” Washington Post Retrieved from
Sirohi, M. N. (2015): Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd.

Published in Information Technology
Major US target
Al-Nusra Front main target are groups allied to the United States. However, it also targets American Citizens. The most well-known attack is that of D30, U.S trained rebel. The group attacked and kidnapped members of the Division 30 after returning from a training session in Syria. Al-Nusra Front believes that the group allied to American troops.  All through 2014, the group was engaged in several high-profile hostage cases. In August 2014, the group released Peter Theo Curtis, an American journalist taken a hostage in 2012. In September 2014, the group kidnapped approximately 45 U.N. peacekeepers operating within the Syrian-Israeli border. The grouped alleged that the peacekeepers aided Assad’s forces. AS the United States involvement in Syria conflict increases, the group has also increased opposition to U.S.-linked rebel groups and U.S. policy. The retaliation to US involvement in Syria is often conducted through targets on groups allied to the US as well as US citizens (Arango et al., 2012).
Why the FTO you selected would find this target valuable
Al-Nusra’s find groups are allied with the United States as valuable targets. The FTO aims to replace the Assad regime with an Islamic government to replace. However, they find groups allied to the United States as significant barriers to meet their goals as the involvement of U.S in the Syrian conflict is often carried out through affiliate groups. The United States has in the past sent troops to restore peace in Syria. On the other hand, Al-Nusra Front group’s goals can only be accomplished if there is a power vacuum in Syria that would stem from the Syrian civil war.  US affiliated groups prevent the establishment of a stronghold by the FTO. Hence, groups allied with the United States are the most valuable targets for Al-Nusra Front group (Cafarella, 2014). 
How the FTO may go about attacking the US target
Al Nusra Front may use formal military raids, assassinations, hostage missions, and suicide bombings.  These methods have been previously employed by the FTO to attack groups allied to the United States.  Al Nusra Front may also use executions of kidnapped victims, sniper and small-arms attack, improvised explosive devices against the targets.  Previously, the group has employed these tactics and claimed responsibility for attacks (Abdul, 2013).  
Countermeasure the US target should use
While the United States countermeasures have focused on ISIS, there is a need to focus more effort on Al Nusra Front due to its growing influence in Syria. The US should continue using missile strikes against the group in Syria. Continued counter attacks are likely to have a significant blow to the terrorist group. US airstrikes have previously killed Al Nusra Front fighters.  The second countermeasure that the United States may employ is implementing sanctions on countries that fund the terrorist group.  Today various countries allow training of extremists on their land. Such countries do not fully disassociate themselves with ties to terrorism. In many cases, they continue to use terror and provide tacit support to FTOs in an effort to accomplish broader objectives (Ganor, 2011). 
Thirdly, the Department of Homeland Security and other foreign partners around the world can implement measures to improve the security enterprise to better defend against dynamic threats. This can be done through sharing of information on the FTO to identify high-risk individuals. For example, to facilitate legitimate travel, Airlines are required to provide Advance Passenger Information. This system has helped the United States identify individuals that pose a threat to the United States. Similarly, the implementation of such a system across various agencies would discourage travel by FTO members (O'Connell, 2001).
Recovery plan
In the event an attack is successful, there are various measures that should be taken to address the incident.  An incident of terrorism may involve bombings, shootings, hijackings and others that present unique challenges to the victims and the community.  The incident requires coordination across Department of Homeland Securities and other agencies and organizations. 
Department of homeland security
•Emergency response protocol
Grant Funding to respond to and recover acts of terrorism and develop a comprehensive victim assistance plan to enhance recovery efforts
• Criminal Justice System: Victim Support Protocol.
Help victims and family members to acquire back their personal effects and access victim impact statements.
•Community Resiliency Protocol
Provide ongoing support and assistance to victims, first responders, family members and community members after the event.
•Volunteer Management Protocol
Address training, supervision and assistance of volunteers during the recovery process.
•Donation Management Protocol
Manage the complex process of donation and disbursement during the recovery process.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a component of the Department of Homelands securities that has a critical role in the event of a disaster. It approves assistance to victims and families following an event. It also assists first responders in the event of a disaster. Its functions range from public safety, communication, transportation, security and logistics management.  Other components of DHS that may be involved in the recovery include U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The two may assist in investigations (Willis, 2007).  
Abdul-Ahad, G. (2013). Syria’s al-Nusra Front--Ruthless, Organized, and Taking Control. The Guardian.
Arango, T., Barnard, A., & Saad, H. (2012). Syrian Rebels Play Key Role in War. New York Times, 1-5.
Cafarella, J. (2014). Jabhat al-Nusra. Institute for the Study of War.
Ganor, B. (2011). The counter-terrorism puzzle: A guide for decision makers. Transaction Publishers.
O'Connell, M. E. (2001). Lawful self-defense to terrorism. U. Pitt. L. Rev., 63, 889.
Willis, H. H. (2007). Guiding resource allocations based on terrorism risk. Risk Analysis, 27(3), 597-606.
Published in History

Action Research Paper on Business Analyst

The article is documentation on a real-time research study project based on database design and development, giving an introduction overview of database features and characteristics. The paper contains an outline of the background of a company that implements real-time large scale database development considering professional and expertise development of the database. It explains research methodology applied in developing and implementing entire research study project. A literature review of developed systems is outlined in the paper explaining technologies and trends applied in designing and developing the database systems. The document contains a proposal for the project defining various strategies and steps used to implement study research project. Iteration stages implemented in developing study research project are discussed in details outlining various cycles applied in ensuring methodology applied is implemented. Planning, action, observation and reflection cycles are explained in iterations. Project development stages are outlined showing the application of step by modular step development of study research project.

Table of Contents
Abstract 2
Introduction 7
Company Introduction 8
Methodology 9
The Action Research Methodology 9
Justification of Action Research Methodology 10
Literature Review on Data Base Management System development 11
Proposal 13
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 15
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 15
Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 15
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 15
Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning 16
The Plan 16
The Action 17
The Observation 18
The Reflection 19
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis 20
Plan 20
Action 21
Observation 22
Reflection 23
Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing 24
Plan 24
Action 25
Observation 26
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from 27
Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010) 28
Reflection 29
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation 30
Plan 30
Action 31
Observation 32
Reflection 33
Learning summary 35
References 36

List of Tables
Table 1: Show one to one relationship 12
Table 2: Show many to many relationship 13

List of Figures
Figure 1: Object Oriented principles 11

The desire for the business to advance and embrace the current technology has contributed to many business enterprise desiring to automate their business functionalities and the operations. The main technological approach embraced by the organizations includes the implementation of the datacenter and database management systems. The data center and the database management systems enhance handling of the data and information of the entire business. The business organizations require the Structured Query Language (SQL) programming language used to design data centers with database management systems. SQL queries facilitate the retrieving, modification, and managing of the database management systems. The purpose of the research study is providing the business enterprises with SQL database that provides the set of commands used for altering, deleting, updating, dropping and adding data and information in the tables. The research study shall implement the SQL database to handle different business operations within the business platform. The SQL programming language shall get incorporated into the JAVA Script language as well as the PHP language to implement the dynamic website. The site shall support the major operations of the business functions including the customer relations operations, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), the Business and Technology Telnet solutions.

The development process shall include the designing of the three tiers and the two-tier database and server placation. The database shall incorporate the front head and the back end database platform. The database shall support the architectural and the structural user interface to facilitate the usability and cognitive features. The database management system will favor the business processes that include the sales and marketing, the finance modules and functions and the computing assistance social platforms. The research study shall involve the preliminary study analysis process. The preliminary study analysis shall involve the data and information collection techniques using the data collection techniques like the questionnaire, the interviews, and the demographic observations.

Company Introduction
The Modern Techno Hub Company is one the major software development firms in Germany. The Modern Techno Hub Company aims at providing efficient and effective computer based solutions like; the IT consultancy services, the website designing, and the system software development. The company got launched in the 2000. The company headquarters get located in the US Canada. The Modern Techno Hub Company specialize in offering different system designing technologies like the Javascript, the SAP, the SQL, the MYSQL, the Oracle database, the BI Tools and the Microsoft database (J.K Felix, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The company has national and international clients distributed across the globe. The Modern Techno Hub Company has high experience in implementing the current trends of the business-oriented development based on technological potential. The company has good proficiency in the development and implementation of technological advancement in the field of the VMware technology, cloud computing and the cellular CMOS chipset technology (Y. M. Purity, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company has department facilitating the development of the decision support system and the artificial intelligence architectural technology.

The Modern Techno Hub Company promotes the development of data warehousing and the data mining technique. Project execution and Infrastructure get supported by E-base team of researchers who has facilitated key element technology achievements. The data warehousing and the data mining techniques help the Modern Techno Hub Company clients. The potential customers enjoy the transaction monitoring and traversing of network platforms in search of related data and information. The approach is significant to the centric industries that include the financial companies like the bank, the insurance companies, the E-commerce support, the communication telecom and the retail industries (P.L Brian, personal communication, 09 January 2016). The Modern Techno Hub Company uses advanced tools to build a comprehensive architecture for customer enterprise data warehousing.

The Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology gets connected to the Kurt Lewin, the philosopher. Kurt Lewin invented the action research methodology in the year 1940. Following the launching of the action research model, the Lewin induced a social change using the research methodology to solve the crisis and the conflicts in the he society. The action research methodology also led to the development and the improvement of the education sector through the development and changes in the school curriculum (Reason, & Bradbury, 2001). According to the Kurt Lewin technology the model get composed of the series of steps that include the repetition of stages in spiral form. The stages involved in the model include the planning stage, the action stage, the evaluation stage and the results assessment stage. The action research methodology gained popularity and became applied in different scientific research approaches. The action research popularity led to the rise of the related action research methodologies.

Fig1: The Stages of Action Research Methodology
Justification of Action Research Methodology
The action research methodology is the approach implementing the social, scientific, educational and the industrial changes. The social application of the action research brings the transformation of the society leading solution that promotes peace, love and harmony among the members of the society. The scientific approach to implementing the action research methodology involves the development of the scientific ideas by researching the theories and phenomenon behind the implementation of the certain thesis (Greenwood, & Levin, 2007). The research methodology supports the educational sector through the provision of the learner’s ability to work effectively and efficiently in educational research, the internship research, and the projects research. The action research also supports the industrial revolution through the introduction of the new technology and the innovation that induce changes in the industrial sector.

The action research methodology promotes the process of achieving the ability to understand the development of the software and the hardware equipment (McNiff, & Whitehead, 2001). The research promotes the use of the collaboration research where the researcher enquiries for information from the experts and the professionals. The exposure enables the researching team to gather knowledge, skills, and experience required in the field of the software engineering, upgrading of the system and the project development approach. The action research enables the students to develop their projects in the step by step approach in series of iterations. The iteration process enables induction of new ideas into the project during the development the implementation process. The action research approach gives the opportunity of developing the evolving technologies and projects through the provision of the detailed research process (Collaborative Action Research Network 1993).

Literature Review on Data Base Management System development
The database refers to the organized collection of related data and information. The data and information stored in the database should be relevant. Database Management System (DBMS) is designed and developed with a purpose of maintaining the structure of data and information. The main objective of having a Database Management System within an organization is ensuring that the data and information stored can get easily retrieved, easily entered and easily manipulated (van, 2003). Database Management System is a computer-based advanced software. Database Management System applies different types of database models to design desired database systems. Database Management System development architectures that exist include hierarchical or structural database management, network Database Management System and Relational Database Management System. The first type of database was hierarchical Database Management System developed by IBM between 1960 and 1970 (Subrahmanyam, 1999). The Hierarchical Database Management System is based on the application of the binary tree. The structure of the database was like a tree. The relationship between data was limited between the parent data and the children data. The benefits of the Hierarchical Database Management System were that the data was less redundant; the data had strong security, highly independent and had high integrity (Lundquist, et al…, 1999).

The network Database Management System emerged between 1970 and 1980 by Charles Bachmann. Network Database Management System applied the Integrated Data Store (IDS) (Djeraba, et al…, 1997). A group called CODASYL invented the Integrated database. The group then advanced their software by developing network Database Management System in COBOL architecture. Network database management system was developed to meet the user needs especially for the business use. Network database management system was developed using CODASYL APPROACH (Malhotra, et al…, 1997). Network database management system promoted a high level of data relationships. The data and information recorded could have multiple parents compared to the hierarchical database management system. The network database management system is made up of a set of relationship whereby each set represents one too many relationships among the different owner and the member. The problem with Network database management system was the system was complex, similarly, it was difficult to design and maintain the database. Network database management system lacked the database independent characteristics.

The relational database management system emerged between 1980 to 1990s. Relational database management system was invented was invented by Edgar Codd (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). He improved the CODASYL APPROACH technology by creating relational database management system. The relational database management system promoted the data and information by allowing the entry of large data banks. The relational database management system had the easier approach of retrieving and manipulating stored data. Relational database management system supports the entering big data and dealing with big data handling. Relational database management system applied the technique of the tables with columns and rows to manage data and information (Liang, at al…, 1998). The tables were then tables were linked to each other using the approaches like the one to one relationship, the one to many relationships, and the many to many relationships. Relational database management system led to the development of the R and Ingres relational database management system at the University of California. In 1885 relational database management system embraced the object oriented programming approach (Saad, & Ibrahim, 2011). The object oriented database management system did not gain popularity due to the high cost of transferring from the old database old database to new database. The object-oriented database was combined with relational database management system. The approach simplified the development process as well as better performance of the newly developed object-oriented relational database management system. Object oriented relational database management system supported text data, multimedia streaming, the internet and the web applications (Nakashima, et al…, 1992).

The research shall deal with the development of the object-oriented relational database management system that integrates business operations. The object-oriented relational database management system will be developed using the SQL database programming language. The SQL technology will be combined with the HTML, PHP and JavaScript technology to implement a dynamic programming language. The purpose shall be to develop database management systems that provide companies with fault tolerance and redundancy free databases. The project shall use the action research approach to develop a user-friendly interface, the back end side and the client side of the database.

Figure 1 Iteration cycle

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis
The session shall involve the training on the various platforms for developing high standard object-oriented relational database management system. The session shall incorporate data collection to determine the user requirements and the systems requirement. The session shall formulate the deliverable documents according to the development process. The iteration shall review the integration of different developments to meet the industrial standards.

Orientation 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
The session shall involve drawing of the database architecture and designs. The architecture drawn shall include the designing of the user interface. The iteration shall involve the drawing of the 3 tier front end and the 3 tier back end architectures. The iteration shall also require the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system prototype and model to indicate the operation of the database.

Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
The last iteration shall involve the process of transferring the Modern Techno Hub Company from the existing database to the new object-oriented relational database management system. The transferring process shall take place in series of steps until all departments have the object-oriented relational database management system installed. The Users shall acquire the training and awareness creations to facilitate understanding on how to operate the database. The session shall incorporate teaching on various schemes of writing queries, generating reports and using the dashboard of the object-oriented relational database management system.

Iteration 1 Orientation and Planning
The session shall incorporate the introduction meeting in Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting shall include discussing with the experts and the professionals in database designing and development. The session shall formulate the entire object-oriented relational database development process. The project team of the Modern Techno Hub Company shall allocate resources to the project team. The team shall set the milestones and the projects goals, objectives and the mission about the company plans

The Plan
The session for the planning and orientation was planned to take two weeks. During the first week was a meeting in the Modern Techno Hub Company. The meeting involved having the main agenda for the meeting was to discuss the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. The subtasks of the session involved the designing of the user interface. The second subtask shall involve the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. The third task was the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. The session required the researcher to participate in learning different interfacing techniques as well as new ideas in designing. The expectations of the session were to implement a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation. The second week involved the Project team developers implementing the plan project stage. The session shall the objectives of the project. The session shall also define the goals of the object-oriented relational database (N. B. Rehab, personal communication, January 20, 2016). The session shall also define the mission of the proposed project. The first task in the session shall involve the project managers allocating the resources to the project. The second task shall include defining of the scope of the project. The third task in the session shall involve the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. The development team shall take part in analyzing the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The expectations of the session include researcher calculating the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated (J. P. Rachael, personal communication, January 24, 2016). The researcher shall also calculate the Net of Project Value (NPV). The session shall take one week.

The Action
I participated in the meeting involving the main agenda about the design and the implementation of the object-oriented relational database. I took part in the session involving the designing of the user interface. Mr. David, the expert in the object-oriented relational database designing and implementation, assisted me in the designing of the three tier front end interface for the client operation interface. I implemented three tier front end interface design of the object-oriented relational database using the ASP Dot Net framework. I participated in the development of the designing of the two-tier backend side of the object-oriented relational database. I designed the interface using the Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), the HTML and the Java. Mr. David demonstrated the linking of the front end and the backend of the object-oriented relational database model. I completely implemented the expectations of the session of implementing a complete model of a database design with the assistance of David, the expert in object-oriented relational database designing and implementation.

I participated in the second week involving the project team of developers implementing the plan project stage. Modern Techno Hub Company shareholders selected a team of the object-oriented relational database developers made of the programmers, database experts, and the professionals. I participated in the session where the team of developers defined objectives of the project. The team defined the functional and the nonfunctional objectives to guide the project developers. We discussed the goals of the object-oriented relational database. The director and the stakeholders of Modern Techno Hub Company defined the mission of the proposed project. We allocated resources to the project by dividing the entire project into modules each module was allocated to individual team to develop different parts of the project. I took part in defining of the scope of the project, but the decision on which extent to cover was not clearly defined. I took part in the session involving the implementation of the project milestones for the effective testing of the progress of the entire project. We conducted the project feasibility study to clarify if the proposed project is viable for the Modern Techno Hub Company to make an investment in it. The results proved the object-oriented relational database project is economically feasible, technically feasible, and operational feasible (B. T. Tom, personal communication, January 29, 2016). I calculated the Return on Investment (ROI) as well as the Modern Techno Hub Company checking with the defined principles stated. I also calculated the Net of Project Value (NPV).

The Observation
I observed that the entire process of the orientation and planning involved the expert approach of the planning for a project. The experts first implemented a design model to ensure that the project team developers and programmers have a clear picture of the entire project within their mind. The designing of the prototype equipped me with knowledge, experience, and the skills in designing the various types of the interface. I observed that different development techniques are applied in developing the various interfaces. The diversity of the programming environments provides the developer with more elastic and flexible freedom of selecting the language of his expertise (K. M. David, personal communication, February 05, 2016). I realized that the selection of various techniques and technologies in the designing and the implementation of the design interfaces equipped me with knowledge, skills, and experience in using different interfaces in the development process. I observed that the database development using the object-oriented approach involved the proper allocation of resources to facilitate effective running of the project. I observed that the human resources for were allocated according to modular implementation to facilitate effective and efficient implementation of the functions and the activities of the modules. I observed that the process involving the object-oriented relational database development the objectives defined included the functional and the nonfunctional objectives. The objectives were to guide the developers in focusing on the main parts of the major focus of the project development. I observed that the Modern Techno Hub Company relies on different measures and determinants of the evaluation of the project to determine the project viability.

The Reflection
During the orientation and planning approach the experts, professionals together with the intervention of Mr. David, imparted me with the knowledge, skills and the experience required in the development of object-oriented relational databases. The session dealing with the development of the object-oriented relational database model has led to the observation of the steps and the procedures that make the background foundation of the object-oriented relational database development process. The developing team has implemented the modular based approach to designing and developing the proposed database. The approach has equipped me with the understanding about the best procedures for developing the object-oriented relational database systems. The development of the object-oriented relational database model was a direction towards achieving the best way of allocating the resources to the existing proposed project (H. C. Faith, personal communication, February 07, 2016). The approach formed the best approach and the practice for the developers to emulate. The session of the orientation and planning failed to define the scope of the object-oriented relational database design due to the diversified views concerning the future implementation focus. The object-oriented relational database approach can implement different forms of applications due high flexibility and mobility of development technologies applied. The embedding of different modules and programs within the developed and proposed projects made the definition of the scope difficult (K. V. Mark, personal communication, February 10, 2016). The future iterations shall focus on ensuring the effectively allocated resources shall be implemented in the most appropriate methodology.
Iteration 2 Object Oriented Relational Database Management System Analysis

The iteration had the primary focus on the defining and determined the requirements of the Object oriented relational database management system. The actions were outlined in several phases. The initial stage of the iteration was doing through training about the different platforms of developing a database management system. The training session took a period of three consecutive days. The training sessions were conducted in the Information Technology Department board room. The training phase also involved the studying of the object oriented relational databases whereby we outlined the components of the database model alongside the reasons as to why organizations are moving towards adopting the system.
The second tire of the iteration followed the begging of defining and determining the end user requirements and the system requirements. I began by assembling the data collecting materials. This process included the preparation of the questionnaire questions and presenting requests of meeting the stakeholders of the organization and selected other executives of the business. The second subsection of the second tier involved the undertaking of data collection. The process of data collection took the duration of four days consecutively. I concentrated very much on making sure that all the stakeholders are involved in the course of the requirements definition.

The following step was the recording of the collected data which took a period of one day. This process was the preparation for undertaking the data analysis and it defined the data cleaning process. The third subsection was the analysis of the data collected data from which I identified the end user related. I finalized the tier by validating the defined requirements. I also defined the system requirements by consulting the database experts who outlined the technical requirements of the relational database management system.

By the time, I began my training I had understood the location of the company, and I stood to move the institution easily without hardships. I attended the training prepared by the project manager with the aim of understanding the different platforms of developing database applications and the overall understanding of the object-oriented relational database management system components. I organized myself with a pre-training exercise that got me through undertaking several activities. I visited the company archive where I studied the previous platforms applied by the company in developing the disposed database management systems. This was just a preparation to ensure that the content is well captured. I got into the training. The training was conducted by the senior database managers and administrators who defined and described the different platforms of developing databases. The training was made effective with the undertaking of some practical relating to how to use some software integrated development environments (IDEs).

After the training, I immediately prepared the data collecting materials whereby I designed the questionnaire questions which were administered to the end users of the organization. I also designed the meeting invitations to the stakeholders. I began immediately to collect the data from eth end users as I administered the questionnaire where I let the end users to stay with it for one day upon which I collected. I conducted one to one meeting with the stakeholders to make sure they adequately provide the required information. I recorded the data collected and analyzed the data from which I determine the requirements. I validated the outlined requirements to make sure they get the meeting of the company objectives as well as their relevance to the business. I lastly described the technical requirements of the system.

System analysis is an essential phase of developing any application as it aids the system developers in this case the database developers to outline the end user requirements and the system technical requirements. In this iteration, I began with the training about the database development platform. The training was to provide the understanding of the methodology that can get applied in the designing and develop the database. I observed that the company had an identified platform of using the SQL statements in developing the database. Despite the Oracle defined architecture of designing and developing the database, the trainers instead that the SQL was much applicable because of its flexibility. Subsequently, we had a focus on some critical components of developing a database, and the major focus was normalization and determination of the database components. Normalization is a very critical activity that if wrongly done will get a database with the highest level of redundancy (Sponaugle, 2014).

The data collection process was an essential process, and I made it very successful by collected as much information as I could especially the stakeholders. I had designed the questionnaire that captured the most critical information that is supposed to be considered while designing the database. The requirements were categorized into two, the end user requirements that defined what the database will get to do. The technical system requirements defined the applications that ought to facilitate the development of the application.
The analysis process was defined of quality since I applied the Tableau software in the data visualization. The application fastened the process and also reduced the human related errors during the undertaking of the data analysis. Another observation was that validation was required as this enabled the definition of the requirements that suits the development of the system that supports the meeting of the company objectives.

The iteration activities were conducted professionally. I can say that the training session made me enthusiastic about undertaking other activities as I eagerly waited to see how a database can get developed from scratch. The training session enabled me to have a good understanding that elimination of redundancy is only done during the normalization process. Therefore, I acquired the skills and knowledge on how critically a person can make normalization easy. The training was attended with the personnel that I did imagine they can attend such a session. This opened my understanding of how beneficial a database is to an organization and how determinant it’s to the meeting of the business objectives. The attendance got me with the wishes that the CEO could have also attended.
The definition of the object-oriented relational database management system requirements is the primary objective of undertaking system analysis. The data collection process was made successful with the chronological undertaking activities alongside the use of applicable and standardized software to facilitate the process. I had to use technology to make sure the most required ends user requirements are captured. I did consult the database administrators deliberately with the aim of defining the technical requirements.
According to the phases of software development lifecycle, system analysis documentation is well applied to the undertaking the activity of designing, developing, testing and implementing the application. The output was the beginning of pushing me to provide the actual database management system. Therefore, I moved ahead with the designing, developing, testing and implementing the database management system.

Iteration 3 Design, Implementation, and Testing
The third iteration is defined to have the development of the technical architecture of the object-oriented relational database management system alongside the actual development of the system and to test the system for the verification of meeting the defined requirements. I began the implementation of the iteration with the defining the roles that I will get involved as part of the database development team. This was a short step to getting the processes done according to the confidence and readily acquired skills. The initial activity was the designing of the database architecture and designs. The applications displayed how the database will get to deliver its services to the organization. The implementation of the designs depended on the defined requirements and the third final normalization. Therefore, it means that the architecture and design accomplishment will get accomplished with the undertaking of the data normalization. The role assigning will take half a day while the normalization process will take a period of 2 days.
The second tier of the process will be the developing of the database into an actual appearance by the use of the defined and appropriate integrated development environment (IDE). The process will involve the coding of the database using the SQL programming language.
The third part of the iteration will be the testing of the application. The testing process will be undertaken in several steps of first defining inputs and the outputs of the database. The definition of the materials outlines the different formats that company save its information and other related formats that can cause faults to the database. This aims at providing some capabilities that can get implemented to ensure that the database meets the defined requirements and that the security is well enhanced. The testing process will take two days while the coding of the database will take five days (Microsoft, n.d).

The iteration defined the application of the skills of normalizing the objects that are supposed to be stored within the database. It also defines the designing of the database and the testing of the object-oriented relational database management system. I began with having the good understanding of the role that I was to undertake. The role definition is very important as it enables the creation and undertaking the required tasks as assigned. This was just a preparation for understanding the follow-up activities.
The designing of the database began with the determination of the database purpose. In the case, I had to review the requirements outlined in the early phase so that I get to have a good understanding of the facts that should get prioritized to get saved in the database. This marked my initial step of designing the database. Once I had determined the information, I developed the tables that will store the information. The creation of the tables meant the separation of the information int specific separate subject to answer that the purpose is focused. I organized the requirements into the tables such that the related information is grouped and defined within a single table for example employees table. A table contains attributes, and I had to outline the fields of the table (Microsoft, n.d).
I followed with determining the table fields. In this case, I identified the information that I wanted to store in the respective tables. The field will describe the kind of information stored in the table, for example, the employee table may have the fields of First_name, Last_name, Employee_No and Hire_date. Each table contained its respective fields in this case there are specifications and links between the tables.

I moved to the subsequent step of defining and introducing relationships amongst the tables. The process outlined the determination of the data field of one table is related to the field data of another table. This defined the normalization of the data. I finalized the design by analyzing the Object oriented relational management system design. This involves the checking of the output about the desired results. The analysis described the testing of the database as it displayed the meeting of the business objectives as according to the defined requirements for the system analysis.
The designing of the object-oriented relational database management system applied the object oriented principles which are greatly beneficial to any system. The appreciated principles of the object-oriented applications include polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation and inheritance (Wallen, 2005). The principles take to get a company with a flexible application that suits the requirements of the business. The database management system was developed, and it focused on the aspects which got the designing of the application to the required standards and expected the level of technology.

Figure 1: Object Oriented principles Retrieved from
Database designing can be regarded as art because of the many decisions the database developer gets to make to make sure that the application will suit a desirable application. It means that there is no way two databases will look alike because they ought to describe specific applications. The designing of a relational database is outlined in a process of several steps. The first step is the defining the actual purpose of the database being designed. In this case, the requirements analysis is the activity to be undertaken. This will describe the objectives and expectations of the database. The second step of the design process is the gathering of eth relevant company information followed by the definition of the database tables with the specification of eth primary key. The phase explains the definition of the location where the data will get stored (tables). A relational model is uniquely identified with the ensuring that the table does not contain a duplicate of rows (fields) as data stored cannot be duplicated and thus the choosing of a column that will uniquely identify the table rows (primary key) (Anonymous, 2010).
The tables are linked to having the introduction of the relationship so that information can be located at any location in the database. The relationship is defined either as one to many relationships, many of many relationships or one to one relationship.

Table 1: Show one to one relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
Normalization is applied to ensure that the database is structurally correct and according to the defined objectives. Normalization is undertaken into four phases of First Normal Form (1NF), Second Normal Form (2NF), Third Normal Form (3NF) and the Higher Normal Form. The analysis of the design acts as the testing of the database in confirmation of meeting the requirements defined and objectives.

Table 2: Show many to many relationship according to Anonymous, (2010)
The designing of the database in a proper way will guarantee the development team of elimination of redundancy. Redundancy is a challenge that will render the database insufficient, inefficient and ineffective. Redundancy elimination will get to have the storage of a single piece of data in one place but not more than one location within the same database. Also well designing of the database does guarantee data integrity and accuracy.
In my opinion, the process of designing the database was full of decision making, and this was challenging. The making of wrong decision resulted in the designing of a wrong application which forced me to have a retreat in re-accomplishing the application once more. The process was undertaken in a repetitive manner. I opt to have been a regular visitor the company database administrators who could have provided me the right direction on how to undertake activities. Another challenge felt was the difficult in outlining some of the critical facts that should get included in the design of the database application. The process was challenging. However, the good about the designing of the database was that the application was in the position of getting done repetitively without affecting the initial steps done correctly.

The approved certified object-oriented relational database management system was to get deployed for usage. The proper use of the system requires that the end users get to have a good understanding of the procedures followed in using the system. Therefore, it outlines the necessity of having the database installed which will get the end users through training. The deployment of the application does follow after then.
Iteration 4 Installation, training and implementation
The iteration operations outline the deployment of the designed object-oriented relational database management system in replacement of the existing database. The process began with the determination of the appropriate operation of converting the system. I began with defining the available system conversion operations that are the plunged operation, phased operation, parallel operation and the pilot operation. After the analysis, I was able to outline the most appropriate operation that will get me deploy the object-oriented relational database management system designed. The deployment of the system should not affect in any way the operations of the system, therefore, It was essential to adopt a mechanism that is relatively friendly.
The iteration of installation training and the overall implementation was critical and the subsequent activity defining the conversion operation was the definition and installation of the appropriate software, communication facilities that will facilitate the functioning of the designed object-oriented relational database management system. This action involved the mechanism of making sure that the physical security is well planned and arranged for the database location. This will have the restriction of easy access to the database servers.
The third tier of the iteration will be the actual installation of the database within the company. The installation will be the overall configuration of the database so that it can get for use by the employees and the entire fraternity of company. Before the operational phase of the database management system begins there was training to the employees and respective users of the object-oriented relational database management system. Therefore, the fourth division of the iteration was the training. The training was immediately followed by the operation of the system. In support to ensure sufficiency, technical support was provided by taking to track and monitor the operations of the database management system.

Once the designing of the object-oriented relational database management system I had to install the application. I defined the application converting operations suitable for the deployment of the system. I outlined the procedures involved in each software conversion model and related to its impact when applied to the deployment of the database. Another consideration undertaken was the issue to do with the cost of installation and the security of the existing information on the company. However, all operations could have been applied because the management did not consider the cost but the efficiency of the operation. I followed with the involvement of the database administrators n the definition of the telecommunication devices and other relative applications required for the installation of the object-oriented relational database management system.

After I had identified the applications and devices, I got them installed and prepared myself for installing the database management system. I identified the prioritized data that was considered confidential to the company so that I provide the required confidentiality from the start of configuration up the usage of the system. However, at the early level, I defined and established the physical security mechanism to the database servers as well. The system was set into the operational phase. At that time, I conducted training to the end users of the system. The training was undertaken in four typical steps. I began by the preparation of the training. The preparation involved the summarizing of the procedures of using the application and the documentation of the system, defining the training objectives and securing the training room as well. I moved to a presentation the documentation summary and describing the procedures of how to use the object-oriented relational database management system. The actions defined the presentation step.
I moved ahead to the performance step where I measured the level of understanding of the trainees. This involved the group assignment discussions and presenting before the trainers. I finalized with the follow through which defined mastering of the concepts. I then moved to allowing the database to operate within the system. The followed activity was the monitoring the operation capability of the system to so that errors can get rectified and the overall provision of technical support.
Installation of the database is not such critical. It all bases on the principles and procedures of configuring the system within the company. I had to get the iteration actions undertaken in a sequential manner by making sure that appropriate steps are followed well. During the definition of the conversion system operation, I observed that the plunged operation was a faster mode of change over. It enables one to abandon the old system directly and start using the new system. I noted that the model was insecure in the case of the failure of the new system. It means that all information will get lost and thus getting the company to lose important information. Otherwise, if things go well, it was the appropriate model. The parallel operation was the most expensive as it was to get me to running the current database system and the new object-oriented relational database system. This guaranteed security, but it is much involving. The pilot operation, on the other hand, was to take time and was also relatively expensive. The phased operation was the most regarded as the best operational change over the model. It enables the changing to a new system in phases by installing module by module. I, therefore, settled to use the phased operation.
The installation process was undertaken well as I had defined the configuration procedures well. It got me the best as the implementation model applied was friendly for the entire process. Indeed, the idea of conducting training and making it as a separate activity was very important. The process enabled the end users of the system to acquire the relative knowledge required for using the system. The process was undertaken in steps, and this got the good impacting of understanding the end users. In any case, training is regarded as another important, crucial aspect when it comes to introducing new system within a company. This reduced the possible mistakes that the users could make.

Software engineering field was at one time under a crisis when the development of the projects did not meet the defined requirements. As a result, they defined a model for facilitating the designing and development of the application. As a follow of the international standards for developing applications, I had to get the iteration activities undertaken in that procedural manner. The activities were successfully done. I was able to define the appropriate software change over a model that is the phased operation which cost less and was efficient and effective. The installation process was also made successful as I had defined well procedures of getting the new object-oriented relational database management system configured. The training was conducted well, and it got the end users with the power to use the application well, and this reduced the human related errors as far as software application is concerned.
In my opinion, the process was successful only a few challenges of making a decision. I appreciate the fact of the company professional who provided me the guidance on how to undertake the entire process of installing and implementing the new database management system. However, I wished to have the attendance of the senior management executives in the training also to appreciate efforts done and provide some recommendation, but they did not turn up. I had to define mechanisms of getting to them to provide some recommendation regarding the activities I had undertaken.

Learning summary
Projects are the determinants of organization growth. An organization can opt to expand its operations and often improve the services and products by coming up with as many productive projects as it can to its capacity. The power of getting to develop an application requires the good understanding of the operations, procedures, and principles that govern an organization. It is necessary to have the understanding of the activities that gets the company to operate before embarking on developing the application.
The success of a project depends on the definition of the problem and the objectives of the project. It, therefore, means that system analysis process provides the good understanding of what is expected to be undertaken by the project team. At the same time, it facilitates the definition of the requirements that provide a guideline on how activities are supposed to be undertaken. Designing is well achieved by having a prototype that will define the functionality of the system. Upon producing the actual final product, the prototype will get the developer to have the understanding of the modules to get included in the process.
The designing of the database is also challenging when it comes to management and the use of the application. It requires that the development team come consults for guidance from the senior designers. Training is a necessity in any project development. It enables the eradication of the ignorance that costs organization at later stages. At the same time, training is a good contributor to quality of operations and quality of products. The training does provide awareness to some of the underlying technical challenges that can be handled by any end user of the application.

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Published in Information Technology

Social Media Analytic

Social media networks have allowed businesses to engage with key audience across all social media accounts. While it is imperative to engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content. User-generated content can help boost the effectiveness of the branded content. It is possible to display social galleries on microsites, and also show them on any device or to add an interactive element to live events. However, how does the business measure the effectiveness of its online initiatives? Does business activities carried out online even matter? How many target users does the business reach? What links do audience like best? Measuring and analyzing the effectiveness of social media outreach, activities and initiatives are as important as engaging in the efforts. Luckily, the rise of social media has been accompanied by the development of tools to that have the capabilities of analyzing the impact of most of most social media activities. Social media analytics involves making use of social media websites to gather and analyze data important in making business decisions. This paper discusses the benefits of social media analytics and what it means to business.

Social media provides virtually instantaneous sentiments. Essentially, utilizing data generated from social media interactions enables immediate access to actionable insights. The failure by a business to take advantage of the emerging capabilities may affect its competitiveness. Data from social media is a potential goldmine of information on prospects, customers, products, and competitors. Before social media analytics, brands only participated in social media without utilizing available data. Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Businesses no longer ignore the resulting data. Today, more businesses are capitalizing on the capabilities of social media analytics. Essentially, utilizing data generated through different social media interactions enables businesses to tap into a treasure that results from products, customers, and competitors (Lawrence et al., 2010).

For marketing professionals, social media analytics tools are the important building business online presence or improving its online reach online. Some analytic tools have numerous functions that are integrated into one tool. Manifold tabs provide a general look at popular posts, a display of the photos on feed, and a range of statistics including post history, engagement rate, and post-distribution. Social media analytics can help markets determine to what extent social media audiences are sharing its content as well as what content they are sharing. Creating content that is interesting and relevant to target audience helps the business spread its message and increase marketing reach. Paying close attention different types of content helps the businesses develop messages that audiences are more likely to connect with and share. Additionally, individual tend, to be honest on social media. By monitoring for mentions, the business can learn can learn what customers really say about the business (Zeng, et al., 2010)..

A business gains more insight into how people feel about its products and services and learn where improvements may be made. Thus, social media analytics makes it possible for a business to effectively engage with its audience. It also helps the business know who its audiences are and what they like. Businesses can learn what type of content and social networks businesses prefer. For instance, a business can determine if it prefers to share videos, images or infographics. On different sites, a business can uncover their preferences through their use keywords or hashtags in their posts. For example, the photo-based social network has taken the social media platform by storm with millions of users and photos uploaded on a daily basis. Just as with other social media networks, businesses can use these platforms to make a great impact on social media presence (Phillips, 2013)

Businesses also get access to real-time data. Feedback from social media platform is virtually immediate compared to other commonly used data sources such as surveys, customer telephone, point-of-sale and transaction reports that are time delayed. Businesses can take advantage of the real-time data provided by social media platforms to determine the success of services, products, and launches. Its immediacy provides feedback into existing business initiatives that help adapt and fine-tune current offerings, or to the planning process. There are different social media tools that can be used to form in-depth analytics. They are authentic and flexible tools for social media users that have statistics and contest suggestions. They help users get information on their comment rate and like rate as well as the engagement. This way, it becomes easier to follow and monitor the impact of influencers. Analytic tools may also provide suggestions on how to improve the reach. Other analytic tools may provide a scheduler that can be used through the mobile app or on any browser. These apps may allow the user to post directly as well as enable the user to manage the frequency of their posting. The benefits of using different social media analytic tools are that they provide more outstanding capabilities that provide a concise view of not only the user's social media account but also other user’s accounts (Leskovec, 2011).

The use of social media analytics helps businesses the capability to have highly targeted messages as well as data accuracy. In combination with the real time nature of responses, the accuracy, and relevancy of the data is likely to be high. Adopting the right social media strategy can help the business improve traffic and ultimately influence the buying decisions of others. And, while it’s true that businesses struggle to fit social media users into a demographic, adopting the right media strategy and tactics can help the business attain a competitive edge (Phillips, 2013).
What it means to business
Social media analytics tools provide diverse types of features for the business. These features are valuable to the business in various ways.
Competitive benchmarking
First, the business can competitively benchmark. Various parties in the business have the ability to view profile and content information for competitors’ accounts. This makes it easier to view what competitors are posting, their fan base, engagement with the different audience, when they’re posting, and response to their content.
Centralized Analytics
Social media provides businesses with a single place to see and compare metrics and statistics. Media analytics tools typically provide a range of metrics to help return on investment and track performance.

Influencer identification
Businesses can easily identify influencers who share their content by monitoring a list of accounts or individuals that engage with business content online. This way, a business can form establish relationships and generate brand awareness. A business may acquire significant influence as it has a considerable number of followers. Without any established following or audience, there is a lot of work to do to get the brand where it needs to be. Influencers and amplifiers are the individuals and the companies that carry weight, and they should be a priority in online business initiatives. Connecting with target audience comes down establishing strategic and beneficial relationships with the amplifiers.

Social media analytics allow businesses to track related customer interactions. Such may allow businesses to have metrics and data in areas that allow businesses to track and optimize their social activities. Businesses could use the social media analytics to establish how to target customers, influencers and amplifiers within a particular industry. Amplifiers are significant in keeping the conversation flowing and enhancing interactions with conventional online mainstream media and corporate media. Businesses gain the capacity to go outside the regular confines of looking at their target audience. Every market has a demographic of customer that a brand desires to reach.

Social media analytics have custom or pre-made dashboards that can easily keep tabs on the different social media accounts, metrics that matter and competitors.
Social media provide exportable reports and data along with email delivery and scheduling that allow businesses to keep partners, managers and businesses up to date and plugged-in and on social media performance and activities (Stieglitz et al., 2014).
Social media has moved from a general communication tool to a valuable tool with a considerable impact on the competitiveness of the business. Through social media analytics, businesses can actively engage all audiences consistently and quickly and create custom, targeted streams to see relevant conversations as they unfold, social media platforms can also help in building a client’s brand with compelling user-generated content

Lawrence, R., Melville, P., Perlich, C., Sindhwani, V., Meliksetian, S., Hsueh, P. Y., & Liu, Y. (2010). Social media analytics. Marketing & Social Media.
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Phillips, J.(2013) Social Media AnalyticsWin with Advanced Business Analytics: Creating Business Value from Your Data, 247-269.
Stieglitz, S., Dang-Xuan, L., Bruns, A., & Neuberger, C. (2014). Social media analytics. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 6(2), 89-96.
Zeng, D., Chen, H., Lusch, R., & Li, S. H. (2010). Social media analytics and intelligence. Intelligent Systems, IEEE, 25(6), 13-16.

Published in Social Sciences

New Internet Protocol Paper

Most of the students, educators, and other computer professionals have found out that they need familiarity with networking protocols. The technical details are more sophisticated than most professionals, educators, and students need. Therefore, there is a need for an understanding of the basic uses, terminology, configurations, and features for the technical decision maker. The Internet’s dominance has made the computer professionals to become familiar with its basic functionality. At the moment, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the used standard for Internet communications. However, the Internet is expanding tremendously, and IPv4 is becoming losing the ability to handle the increasing demand. Therefore, there is a desperate necessity for a new standard which will allow the Internet to continue growing as well as function.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
Internet Protocol version 6 or simply IPv6 is the current standard for the Internet communications. Both IPv4 and IPv6 have a similar basic function, but IPv6 has some drastic differences. The differences come in the form of addressing, security, and configurations. At the moment, several established organizations such as Microsoft and Cisco are in the process of developing and testing the IPv6 protocol. Beta is software that enable construction of IIPv6 networks and which has been released to the public. Additionally, IPv6 provides significant advancements while IPv4 has a shortage of addresses. Therefore, many organizations have gone on implementing the new IPv6 (Minoli, 2013).
The conceiving behind IPv6 was replacing the previous IPv4 standard which had been adopted twenty years ago. The IPv4 was thought to be the robust standard which could be implemented easily. IPv4 has been used successfully while supporting the communication systems in the information society. It has also been updated therefore extending its life in IPsec protocol, and NAT mechanism. However, its capabilities have been found wanting in some areas such as exhaustion of its address, auto-configuration, Internet growth and routing table maintenance, security, quality of service, and mobility. Therefore, IPv6 was developed to help in overcoming the above problems. There are areas which IPv6 has greatly improved such as simplification of the header format. The basic header of a basic IPv6 is 40 bytes long despite the increased allocation of addresses.
IPv6 has also expanded its capacity for both addressing and routing. The previous addressing and routing capacity for IPv4 were 32 bits. The IPv6 has expanded this capacity from the 32 bits to 128 bits. This has enabled a huge increase in the number of address combinations, address auto-configurations, and levels of hierarchical address organization. This has also increased the number of address the current communication protocol can host 232 addresses to 2128 addresses which will not be exhausted easily.
The addressing scheme of IPv6 will also lead to the elimination of the need for network address translation (NAT). NAT causes several problems associated with networking like hiding several hosts behind the IP addresses pool in the end-to-end nature of communications through the Internet. The implementation of IPv6 also brings about a quality of service that several new computer applications such as IP telephony, interactive games, e-commerce, and video and audio require. IPv6 can be said to have been a best effort Internet communications service. However, IPv6 ensure that quality of service is achieved which is a set of requirements needed to help in delivering performance guarantee in the process of transportation of traffic over the network.
IPv6 also has the feature of Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). This unique feature of the communication protocol ensures that transport layer connection survives as well as allows the host computer to be reached easily regardless of where it is located on the IPv6 network. This ensures that the transport layer connection survives. Although the mobile nodes within the network change locations and addresses, the Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) ensures that the existing connections through which mobile node communications happen are maintained. This has been accomplished by making connections to mobile nodes to have particular addresses that are assigned to the mobile node. These are the addresses the mobile node can easily be reached. The feature is well documented in the RFC 3775 (Lee et al., 2009).
IPv6 Deployment Status
The first step towards deployment of IPv6 is making them coexist with IPv4 across the globe. The IPv6 deployment forum was created in 1999, and its primary mission is educating the Internet users globally the benefits of IPv6 standard as well as promoting and implementing the global deployment of the protocol. The forum has an impressive membership which comprises of telecommunication manufacturers, telecom operators, Internet service providers (ISPs), and Internet solutions vendors. Others are consulting companies and research and development organizations among others. The current rate of adoption and deployment of IPv6 in different parts of the world is strongly encouraging, and it gives the idea of how the Internet will look like in the future (Lee et al., 2009).

Figure 1: IPv6 Deployment Status
The government of the United States issued a mandate as early as 2008 that all civilians, vendors, and defense to make a switch to the IPv6 by the end of summer that year. This move and requirement by the United States government boosted the deployment of IPv6. A firm in Canada dealing with research and development in advanced computer networking technologies has developed a tunnel server. The tunnel server allows the connection of IPv4 node to the 6Bone. This has led to the achievement of the International connectivity of IPv6 in the United States and other countries as well.
Security Benefits of IPv6
It is critical of some supporters of IPv6 who sell IPv6 regarding an increase in the number of IP address and performance benefits instead of considering the security benefits as well. Such security benefits include the previously discussed Internet Protocol security (IPsec) which was a development of IPv6 but it was back-engineered for application with IPv4. IPsec is an optional security component in IPv4 but it is mandatory and a critical component of IPv6. It makes man-in-the-middle attacks hard for attackers (Courtney, 2008).
Encryption has also been made mandatory with IPv6. Encryption ensures more data protection than with IPv4. The two protocols are different in that IPv6 was developed from the ground thus incorporating end-to-end data encryption. This encryption and checking of integrity in the VPNs has become a standard component of IPv6 which is also available for all connections as well as being supported by most of the compatible devices and systems (Courtney, 2008).
IPv6 also has strong measures for mobile devices. Each of the devices is allocated a consistent IP address thus enabling the businesses to have a definition for security policy for each mobile device that applies at the time the device is being used. Additionally, the abundance of IP addresses enables the allocation of businesses addresses their blocks of IP addresses. This helps in delivering another security benefit. Having such blocks of IP addresses under the control of businesses, they can apply several security policies to their corporate IP addresses which make the process to be managed easily (Courtney, 2008).
The IPv4 has remained with the old and familiar unicast, broadcast, and broadcast addresses. However, with IPv6, there is unicast, multicast, and anycast. The users no longer use the IPv6 broadcast addresses anymore. The broadcast addresses have been replaced with the multicast addressing. The unicast in IPv6 and IPv4 are similar in that they have a single address which identifies a single interface. The old IPv4 broadcast has been replaced with multicast in IPv6 where a packet which is sent to multicast addresses is delivered to each of the interfaces in the group.

This paper has discussed Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in details. Its benefits are immeasurable, and its impact on the organization upon implementation goes as far as ensuring the organization remains secure. It has impacted the organization more regarding availing them with more addresses which have gone on to improve the security of the network. This has made the implementation of IPv6 worth every resource and time at the organization and national levels. There is more information about IPv6 and its implementation that has not been discussed in this paper due to the levels of comprehension. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and professional users to embark on unearthing such information to benefit the users.

Courtney, M. (December 01, 2008). IPv6 crosses the line. Engineering and Technology,3, 21,
Lee, J.-H., Han, Y.-H., Gundavelli, S., & Chung, T.-M. (August 01, 2009). A comparative
performance analysis on Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 and Proxy Mobile
IPv6.Telecommunication Systems : Modelling, Analysis, Design and Management, 41, 4,
Minoli, D. (2013). Building the Internet of Things with IPv6 and MIPv6: The Evolving World of
M2M Communications. Wiley.

Published in Information Technology

Texting and vehicle accidents

From the arrival of the mobile phone cellular devices have consequently become a necessity in almost all the spheres of life. With the elementary school going children, senior citizens as well as all the people about owning mobile phones and the recent cultural shift that has taken place making people overly dependent on mobile phones. The consequent emergence of new technologies encompassing the smaller as well, the more mobile gadgets and phones that are capable of accessing the email has led to an explosion in the use of cell phones.
The omnipresence nature of the smartphones, as well as the issue of text messaging, offers an assortment of the ways in which a driver is distracted as along with the inattentiveness with numerous studies carrying out numerous efforts to address the issue. The fact that the human being is social creatures and implies that they normally survive on the interactions they have with those around then (Abouk & Adams, 2013). This yearning be connected to other people tends to be disruptive and some situations that do not accommodate the distractions. There is numerous occasion that the mobile users abuse the needed to be connected to others and push what can be the socially acceptable behavior and resultantly cause destruction as well disrespect to those around their physical setting.
The relationships that are developed as well as maintained through the mobile and smartphone tend to be the priority although the attributes that are ignored and sacrificed as we try to maintain these relationships lead to very costly situations. The issue of driving, just the mobile telephony permits the human being to maintain the connection with other people, objects, places as well as events. Automobiles allow people to travel for long distances and also allowing them the freedom to get way from the monotony that is brought to life. The underlying issue, however, is the fact that the manufacturers of the automobiles never planned that there will be a mobile phone screen with the driver (Hosking, Young & Regan, 2006). While a peaceful drive makes it possible for a driver to take in the beautiful surroundings while also being in control of the car, a mobile phone overcomes the rationale of driving. The mobile phone, it sucks the driver’s mind into the phone, vanishing for moments at a time, and then sporadically returning to the road. The variations inattentiveness have the extremely high potentials of removing the driver from the car. Apparently, the penalty for this behavior can lead to devastating outcomes, for both the driver as well as anyone in his or her path.
The assertion that drivers are likely to get into accidents while texting on their phones strikes most people as an obvious fact in that it is one of the those issues one should see coming. The unremitting influx of information, irrespective of how significant or inconsequential, has the ability to overwhelm the brain to the summit that information is not effectively processed. Even one negligible distraction can be enough to interfere with the driver while on the road (University of Utah, 2013). Studies carried out by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute presents the suggestion that text messaging specifically was connected with the highest threat of all cell phone-related accidents. Specifically, the research by VTTI’s demonstrated that a driver texting while driving resulted in a crash and other cases near crash experience 23 times more likely than the situation when one is driving without a phone (Blanke, 2010). Additionally, the research established that text messaging tend to make drivers take their eyes off the road for an average duration of 4.6 seconds over a 6-second gap, which was identified to be the longest interval of time for any cell phone-related accident.

The study is an attempt to assess the relationship that exists between the subject of texting and whether it has a direct relationship with the accidents that are caused by the driving on the wheel.
The research question is thus going to be:
• Does texting while driving contribute to the involvement of a driver in road accidents?
• The research hypothesis is going to be that texting while driving contributes to road accidents.
• The null hypothesis, on the other hand, is going to be text while driving does not cause road accidents.
Present mobile phones have become the attraction through which people are managing their communication networks. Additionally, users are able to access diverse functionalities like e-mail, audio solutions, photography, games, along with other applications that have endless. The continued popularity of mobile phones along with the recent, smartphones, contribute to the promotion of, people’s dependence on the devices as a mode of constant communication moreover connection continues to augment, as well. In the recent time, the users have been able to place furthermore take calls and send or receive text messages (Affleck, 2002). The innovatory technology has stunned the roots of our being, and in recent times, has transitioned from shifted from a luxury gadget to an absolute necessity. It is not practicable to choose out of possessing a mobile phone. The Cell phones have encroached on a huge section of the world’s population with the purpose of linking more people, ensuring that their lives are considerably easier, consequently permitting for additional tasks to be accomplished, irrespective of whether they are for personal or professional grounds. An investigation by the Pew Research Center concluded that roughly 90% of all American adults own a cell phone while over 58% possess a smartphone (Bellin, 2013).

Figure 1: Mobile ownership in America between the year 2004 and 2013.
The use of the automobile along with its numerous positive impacts has additionally introduced a supplementary and somewhat ill-fated route to death. The freedom that comes with driving comes at reasonably a heavy cost. The additional attribute is that it does not only come down to the negligent drivers only as the individuals who pay the cost for their negligence. Innocent passengers, motorists, bystanders as well as pedestrians, are all becoming vulnerable furthermore constitute part of the critical equation (AAMI, 2010). The 2012 Fatality Assessment Reporting System that was released by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration indicated that there was an increase in highway deaths to 33,561 in the year 2012. It was an increase of 1,082 fatalities from the number recorded in the year 2011. The U.S. Transportation Secretary commented on these statistics arguing that the Highway deaths are claiming more than 30,000 lives every year, and although substantial progress has been realized over the past 50 years, it is imperative that there are more interventions to be put in place (Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving, 2012).
Any individual who tries to use a mobile phone while driving is at amplified risk of being involved in a serious crash. It is additionally evident that the young drivers are predominantly at risk since the population has superior incidences of driving while using a mobile phone. The 2010 survey by AAMI specified that 61% of drivers who are aged between 18 and 24 years confessed that they had either sent or received a text while they were driving in comparison to 32% of drivers who are aged over 25 years (Nemme & White, 2010). Additionally, evidence reveals that undertaking other tasks while driving, for instance using a mobile phone, leads to greater tribulations for the inexperienced drivers who possess a higher crash risk. Research further indicate that older drivers find it complicated to perform two tasks concurrently and with the main issue being that there is the impairment to their response times.
It is thus evident that, texting while driving appears to be convincingly common and extensively dangerous. The additional issue of lack of the uniform ban in the US is disturbing. Current statistics’ indicate that it is only thirty states; counting Tennessee, that have developed legislations prohibiting texting while driving. Most of the studies, inclusive of the above mentioned one by the VTTI, have clearly confirmed that the use of cell phone compromises was driving performance via escalating the driver’s insensitivity, thus extensively escalating the risk of motor vehicle crashes (VicRoads, 2011).
The statistics that attempt to illustrate the dangers related to the issue of cell phone use while driving are absolutely astonishing. Statistics indicate that at any given time during the day, around 660,000 drivers try using their phones while behind the wheel of an automobile. Explicitly within the US, whereby virtually all those who drive a vehicle additionally own and consequently operate a mobile phone, there are an unparalleled number of automobile accidents that occur on an annual basis involving the cellular devices. Through the use of the study by California Department of Motor Vehicles, it follows that driving performance is significantly compromised and that the intensity of disruption increases when the drivers are heavily engaged in the cell phone. Additionally, the use of hands-free devices fails to lower the distraction levels of the driver (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006). In this case, the percentage of vehicle crashes along with near-crashes as a result of texting is just as matching to the percentage that is credited to talking.
The list enumerated below offers presents some of the most conspicuous figures that were indicating how widespread furthermore deadly texting while driving is:
• In the year 2011, least 23% of automobile collisions were directly linked to the use of cell phones, which approximately translates to 1.3 million crashes
• The least amount of time that a driver's attention is taken away from the road while one is texting while driving is just 5 seconds
• That the attribute of texting led to a crash being 23 times more likely to occur
• The dialing attribute, on the other hand, increases the risk of crash by more than 2.8X
• Listening or talking additionally increases the likelihood of a crash by 1.3X
• Trying to reaching for the mobile device raises the likelihood of a crash by 1.4X
• In the case of the teenage population available data indicate that they have the greatest temptations in that:
• The driving population that is between 18 and 20 years have a 13% greater likelihood of being involved in car wrecks, that admitted to talking or texting on their mobile devices at the time the crash occurred
• Additionally, the statistics reveal that over 82% of Americans age population that is aged between 16 and 17 confirm that they own cell phones
• 34% of this population affirm that they have texted while driving
• 52%, on the other hand, say that they have talked on a cell phone while driving
The study adopts correlation in assessing whether a relationship exists between texting while driving and causation of motor vehicle accidents. In the use of correlation, the rationale will additionally encompass the assessment of the strength of the relationship that is prevalent between texting and the motor vehicle accidents.
The null hypothesis in our study encompasses the assertion the assertion that texting does not have a relationship with the occurrence of accidents and that any relationship that exists is purely by change.
The research hypothesis for our study, on the other hand, is that the texting does have an impact on the occurrence of the accidents in that it promotes the occurrence and that the influence is of the nonrandom cause. In using correlation to answer whether we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis encompasses the assessment of the correlation coefficient. If the correlation coefficient is not zero, we shall reject the null hypothesis and consequently accept the research hypothesis.
The independent variable in the study is texting while independent variable is vehicle accidents. In this assessment, a correlation coefficient or +1 or -1 indicates that our variables have a relationship positively or negatively respectively while a correlation coefficient of 0 will indicate that the variables do not have a relationship.
One of the most fundamental issues addressed in this study is the fact that mobile phones play a huge role in the life of a human being. In order to address the expansive nature o the issue of people texting while driving, it is imperative that all the stakeholders join hands in developing solutions to be implemented and promptly. The issue comes down to mobile phone users, drivers, automobile manufacturers, government, mobile phone engineers, as well as everyone else addressing the matter as a serious issue and actively working to eradicate texting from the driving scene. It is not possible to realize social change unless a counter-cultural progress inherits sufficient following to commence progress (Klauer, Dingus, Neale, Sudweeks, & Ramsey, 2006).
What we need to realize is the fact that our mentality has to change now. Texting while driving may not be avoided at all costs but it is imperative that we make a choice on stopping to engage in the vice whenever we are on the road. It is necessary that we realize a healthy balance or else our plastic brains will keep on being distracted and consequently causing more serious accidents. On a general note, people need to take responsibility and make intensive efforts towards ensuring that we abstain from texting while driving (Baumann, Rosler, & Krems, 2007). Additionally, it is imperative that Law enforcement needs to continue patrolling our roads as well as highway platforms to aid in deterring furthermore prevent drivers from partaking of the vice. The Mobile phone designers along with the Car manufacturers are game changers, as they hold the tools appropriate to the organization of a large-scale technological revolution that will ensure the fatalities as a result of the vice reduce.
It is normally wise to carry a mobile phone in the event one is involved in an emergency. The best recommendation regarding engaging in texting while driving is in delay making and sending text messages until one has stopped driving. If it is imperative that one has to text other while driving, it is imperative that you pull over safely and consequently park your car, and then send and reply all your texts. One should also make use of the voicemail service and return all calls when one reaches their destination. It is additionally necessary that one plans breaks in your trip to contact friends and family and additionally advise them not to call or text when you know you will be driving. It is imperative that one never reads or sends text messages while still driving (White, Walsh, Hyde, & Watson, 2010). Although it is legal to make as well as receive mobile phone calls via the use of the hands-free kit, it is appropriate to remember that it places the driver along with passengers at risk. The use of a hands-free kit compromises the level of physical as well as visual interruption to the driver, with the attribute of cognitive distraction remaining very high, with the consequent likelihood of causing accidents.

AAMI (2010). AAMI young driver's annual road safety index: AAMI, Melbourne. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from default/files/fm/news/2010- AAMI-Young-Drivers-Index.pdf
Abouk, R. & Adams, S. (2013). Texting Bans and Fatal Accidents on Roadways: Do They Work? Or Do Drivers Just React to Announcements of Bans? American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. Retrieved from
Affleck, C. (2002) The Rewired Generation: Stepping into the Gap that is the Digital Divide. YOUTHFOCUS. Retrieved from cus.pdf
Atchley, P. & Warden, A.C. (2012). The need of young adults to text now: Using delay discounting to assess informational choice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(4), 229-234. Retrieved from
Baumann, M.R.K., Rosler, D., & Krems, J.F. (2007). Situation Awareness and Secondary Task Performance While Driving. HCI. Retrieved from mann,%20Roesler%20&%20Krems,%202007.PDF
Bellin, J. (2013, August 29). Be Carefu Who You Text (or Call): Early Dispathes from a New World of Text Messaging Evidence. Retrieved from
Blanke, D. (2010). The Rise of the Automobile. National History Education Clearinghouse. Retrieved from
Blueprint For Ending Distracted Driving. (2012). NHTSA. Retrieved from 060712-v5-Opt1-Web-tag.pdf
Hosking, S. G., Young, K. L., & Regan, M. A. (2006). The effects of text messaging on young novice driver performance. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report No. 246. Retrieved 27 September 2012, from muarc/reports/muarc246.pdf
Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L., Sudweeks, J.D., & Ramsey, D.J. (2006). The impact of driver inattention on near crash/crash risk: An analysis using the 100-car Naturalistic Driving Study data. (Report No. DOT HS 810 594). Washington DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Nemme, H. & White, K.M. (2010). Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(4), 1257-1265.
Texting and Distracted Driving Infographic. (2012). Don’t Text and Drive. Retrieved from
University of Utah. (2013). Hands-free talking and texting are unsafe for drivers, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from
VicRoads. (2011). Driving and mobile phones: A dangerous mix. Fact sheet. Melbourne: State Government of Victoria.
White, K.M., Walsh, S.P., Hyde, M.K., & Watson, B.C (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: An investigation of the beliefs influencing drivers’ hands-free and hand-held mobile phone use. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13, 9-20.

Published in Social Sciences

DBA SQL tuning

Question 1: If a database application is experiencing performance problems due to poorly designed SQL, what are the performance tuning steps that can be done to improve the SQL execution/performance?
1. Identify high-impact SQL
The first step to towards the improvement of SQL execution is to rank the SQL statements according to the number of executions that will also form the tuning order. The "dba hist sql summary" table may be used to locate the SQL statements that are most used (Yagoub et al., 2008). Those SQL statements that are most executed should be tuned first.
2. Determine the execution plan
The second step towards the tuning of SQL is to the execution plans of the SQL statements identified in the previous step. Many hist third party tools for displaying the execution plans do exist in the market. One of the most useful utilities used to determine the SQL statements plan is the Oracle explains plan utility. The explain utility is used to request Oracle to parse the SQL statement and then display the classpath without executing the statement (Yagoub et al., 2008).
3. Tune the SQL statement
For the SQL statements that have a sub-optimal execution plan, there are two methods for tuning SQL statements. They include incorporating the SQL hints to the execution plan so as to modify it, rewriting the SQL statements with the global temporary tables, and then rewriting the SQL statement in the form of PL/SQL (Tow, 2009). A hint, in this case, is a directive that is included in the SQL statement to change the access path for an SQL query. There are cases where this can result in a performance improvement of up to 20 times the current performance. A call to a PL/SQL package can be used to replace SQL, and that PL/SQL package consists of stored procedures that are used to perform the query.
Question 2: What is an online backup?
An online backup involves the backing up of data on a remote data storage device having an Internet connection so that the backup can be accessed using a browser (Schmied & Thomas, 2004). Many of the online backup services offer Web-based administration console to help in accessing the data as well as monitoring then the health of the backups. The backed up data is encrypted and stored on the external devices of the data centers of the provider.
What steps are required for an online backup?
• The first step towards setting up an online backup is to install the online backup software and to carry out the necessary configurations on the software.
• The backup files are installed on the server before they can be transferred to the online backup software.
• The files to be backed up are selected and then the backup takes place
• Select how you would like to run the backup.
• Perform the testing of the backups to make sure that they can be restored when required and to confirm that there is a consistency between the original database and the backup.
Explain all reasons for using an online backup
Online backups offer organizations an excellent way for protecting their data. The online backups are safe, and they ensure that the organizational data is not compromised and that it is always available whenever it is in requirement (Toka, Amico & Michiardi, 2010). The online backup solutions help to reduce costs by eliminating the need for buying the costly backup hardware and software. Also, with an online backup, there is no need to purchase and maintain costly external tape drives of hard drives.
What is an offline backup?
An offline backup is a way of storing data away from the network so that it can be accessed even in the absence of a network connection. It is used as a safety precaution as it is available for update and it remains intact at the time it is copied to the offline media (Bhattacharya, 2002).
What steps are required for an offline backup?
1. Understand the backup environment:
Before creating an offline backup, a thorough assessment should be done and the inventory of the current environment such as then backup servers, storage and networking components, automated libraries and the backup media. The backup is entailed at determining if the available infrastructure is suitable for the backup, the criticality of the data, and the legal requirements concerning data backups among other essential factors.
2. Perform capacity planning
After the assessments accomplished, and the backup infrastructure is understood, the next step is to carry out capacity planning. It is aimed at identifying the storage requirements regarding space so as to determine the differences between the current storage infrastructure and the expected requirements.
3. Analyze the governing policies and procedures
The success of offline backup cannot be ensured unless there is a documentation of the policies as well as the operation procedures. The third step is where the internal, as well as the external customer requirements, are reviewed so as to make sure that backup and recovery will meet their needs.
4. Determine the resource constraints
In an ideal world, an organization has limited resources for accomplishing its business objectives. The step of determining the resources constraints will take into account the business constraints that an organization is facing including the physical infrastructure constraints, financial constraints, and personal constraints. That will determine which resources will be used and which ones will need to be acquired or reused.
5. Implement the Plan
Once the offline backup plan is completed and approved, it should then be implemented. A phased approach should be used to implement the plan. First and foremost the staffs will need to be hired, and those available will need to be trained or else an outsourcing vendor will be selected. The next thing will be to implement and test the new backup software tools.
Explain all reasons for using an offline backup
An offline backup is used to help in ensuring a fast backup and restore. “Even with a fast Internet connection, when there is a large volume of data backed up online, the restore will not be that fast. The offline backup will ensure a fast recovery of the data whenever required” (Schmied & Thomas, 2004). Another reason for using offline backup is to ensure accessibility of the backup. The local offline backups are within reach at your office, and one just needs to plug the backup media and start backing up or restore the data. The other reason that attracts companies to offline backups is that they want to have a backup that is safer from the cyber security breaches and other attacks that leverage the Internet connections (Bhattacharya, 2002). The final reason for doing an offline backup is a desire for mobility. The organizations want a backup that they can move around and archive them in other locations or to carry them for safety purposes.

Bhattacharya, S., Mohan, C., Brannon, K. W., Narang, I., Hsiao, H. I., & Subramanian, M. (2002, June). Coordinating backup/recovery and data consistency between database and file systems. In Proceedings of the 2002 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data (pp. 500-511). ACM.
Schmied, W., & Thomas, O. (2004). Implementing and managing exchange server 2003. Indianapolis, Indiana: Que Certification.
Toka, L., Amico, M. D., & Michiardi, P. (2010, August). Online data backup: A peer-assisted approach. In Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2010 IEEE Tenth International Conference on (pp. 1-10). IEEE.
Tow, D. (2009). SQL Tuning. Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Yagoub, K., Belknap, P., Dageville, B., Dias, K., Joshi, S., & Yu, H. (2008). Oracle's SQL Performance Analyzer. IEEE Data Eng. Bull., 31(1), 51-58.

Published in Computer Science
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, master navigator, a spirited sailor, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa, who got born in 1451 in Valladolid, Spain. Columbus undertook four transatlantic voyages in 1492–93, 1493–96, 1498–1500, and 1502–04 that opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the North and South America. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in America introduced Europe to the New World and also brought a lot of wealth and power to European powers especially Spain. It got referred to the “New World” since the Europeans considered America a land that brought new opportunity (Morganelli, 2005). However, to the native communities that lived in America such as Taino and the Carib, the arrival of Columbus together with the Europeans brought new hardships. Columbus,  who survived during his first voyage in the Atlantic Ocean in 1476, had a dream to sail west across the Atlantic to Asia so as to identify an easy trading route for spices, gold, and silk. Before Columbus accidentally stumbled upon America that he believed was Asia, the map of the world existed without the Americas. 
Early Life
Christopher Columbus got born in 1451 in Genoa, a port town to a Christian household. He was the eldest son of Domenico Colombo, a Genoese wool worker as well as merchant, and Susanna Fontanarossa, a wool weaver’s daughter who was Colombo’s wife. As a child, he had little schooling hence did not know how to read or write until later when he traveled to Portugal. Columbus began his career as a seaman in the Portuguese merchant marine after quitting the wool trade. In his first voyage at 25 years of age in 1476, Columbus survived a shipwreck off Cape Saint Vincent at the southwestern point of Portugal. The ship called Bechalla got attacked and burned by ships that wanted to steal their cargo. After the event, his brother, Bartholomew and he got based in Lisbon were they got employed as chart makers. In 1477, Columbus sailed to Ireland and Iceland with the merchant marine. In 1478, Columbus acting as an agent for the Genoese firm of Centurioni was buying sugar in Madeira. In 1479, Columbus got married to Felipa Perestrello e Moniz, who was from an impoverished noble Portuguese family. Columbus was trading along the Guinea and Gold coasts of tropical West Africa between 1482 and 1485. He also made at least one voyage to the Portuguese fortress of Sao Jorge da Mina from which he acquired knowledge of the Portuguese navigation and the Atlantic wind systems.  
Columbus Proposal
Columbus believed that the route around Africa to Asia was long and challenging, and a way across the Atlantic would be shorter (Randall, 2009). In 1484, Columbus proposed his idea for a three-ship voyage of discovery across Atlantic to King John II of Portugal; however the king denied him the sponsorship. Columbus also presented his idea in Genoa and Venice, where it also got rejected. In 1486, Columbus then sailed to the nation of Spain to appeal the Spanish monarchy of Queen Isabella of Castille and King Ferdinand of Aragon. The two kingdoms that wanted to acquire other territories to expand their kingdoms got involved in a fierce war to drive the Moors from Spain. In 1492, they drove Moor out of Spain and in the same year accepted to sponsor Columbus’ voyage. Ferdinand and Isabella promised Columbus that he would be the ruler of any lands he discovered on the route and would get allowed to keep ten percent of the wealth in the lands. 
First Voyage (1492–93) 
In August 1492, Columbus left Spain on the first voyage across the Atlantic in the Santa Maria, together with the Pinta and Nina. 36 days later, Columbus and the Voayge arrived at an Island today the Bahamas, which they claimed for Spain. The natives in that land were friendly and traded with the sailors exchanging goods such as glass beads, cotton balls, spears, and parrots. Columbus and the sailors continued with the journey and later visited the Cuba and La Isla Hispaniola islands. The natives La Isla Hispaniola wore jewelry made of gold that they told the sailors using sign language it was from Cibao, a region of the island. Sanat Maria and the Nina left the harbor for Cibao. However, Santa Maria hit a reef and sank. The sailors built a fort in the area and named it “Villa de la Navida” meaning a “Christmas town.” Columbus left 39 men at the fort and sailed back to Spain where he presented gold molded into masks and ornaments, parrots, pineapple, spices and slaves to the King and Queen who were very pleased and named him the “Admiral of the sea”. 
Second Voyage (1493–96) 
In 1493, Columbus went back on the second voyage in the company of 1200 men in a fleet of 17 ships. The ships carried colonists who included soldiers and farmers as well as supplies to make new colonies in the lands discovered. When they arrived at Hispaniola, the sailors discovered that the fort in ruins. It had got destroyed, and all the 39 men massacred. Columbus established forced labor policy over the Taino natives who were required to reconstruct Navidad settlement and also explore for gold. When Columbus was on his way back to Spain, he left his brothers Bartholomew and Diego to rule over the settlement. 
Third Voyage (1498–1500) 
In 1498, Columbus left for the third voyage in six ships. It was during this voyage that Columbus and the sailors explored the Orinoco River that is the present-day Venezuela. On returning to Hispaniola, Columbus found that most of the colonists and settlers had begun to rebel him for misleading them by his claims for riches in the New World as well as mismanagement of his brothers’ leadership. Columbus got arrested by Spanish Crown, stripped of his authority as the governor of the Indies and taken back to Spain to face the royal court. 
Fourth Voyage (1502–04)
The charges against Columbus later got dropped, and in 1502, he convinced the King that one more voyage would bring the promised riches and got allowed to go on the fourth voyage. Columbus was searching the Strait of Malacca in the Indian Ocean. In June, the sailors landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique. Columbus and his crew got denied shelter at Hispaniola by the new governor. Columbus learned from Panama of the Ngobe of gold and a strait to another ocean. He also established a garrison at the mouth of the Belen River. The sailors got stranded on the island of Cuba after a storm wrecked their ship. 
Later Life and Death
Columbus struggled to regain his lost ties and in May 1505 regained some of the riches but did not get his titles. Columbus died May 20, 1506. 
Morganelli, A. (2005): Christopher Columbus: Sailing to a New World: Crabtree Publishing Company
Randall, J. (2009): Christopher Columbus: Navigated by God: Xulon Press
Published in History
2014 Items filtered by date: March 2017 - ResearchWriting.Education .
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