Items filtered by date: December 2017 - ResearchWriting.Education

Class Review

            The class this semester has been good through much cooperation from the students. There are many positive aspects, but only two will be highlighted. From the content of the unit learnt this semester, much of was taught can be practically done. It makes class work very realistic to the outside environment. Most of the concepts were well taught, and that’s why understanding them was easy. During the lecture sessions, order was maintained in the essence that students were always eager to listen to what was to be taught. The assignments issued were directly relating to what was already learnt. On the other hand, some areas need to be improved. To start with, time management is vital in any lecture session. It would be advisable to cover the scheduled work in advance to allow time for evaluation and revision. Another issue is by concentrating on being a facilitator but not a knowledge transmitter. It improves learner’s capability to think critically about the topics taught.

Money as a motivator to behavior

            Money does not motivate behavior. I agree to this because the character of any person is made from within but not from their wealth. In fact, money is termed to be the worst thing to use in motivating behavior. According to Marvin Bower, John Whitehead and John Paul Stevens; their motivation came from the work they did and the respect they had due to their accomplishments. Money should be termed as a secondary byproduct for any work done. Money is best used at attracting or retaining people in an organization but not to influence a particular behavior. Human behavior can be motivated easily by raising their status by giving them praise on daily obligations other than waiting for the annual pay rise. Another way is by having autonomy where one carries out tasks freely without so many rules. Whenever fairness is administered in an organization, the behavior of the employees is motivated because they feel that someone is concerned about their affairs. 

Communication process

            Communication is defined as the transmission of messages from one a sender to a receiver in a form that is easily understood. It’s a key aspect in any organization. The steps involved in this process are creation, transmission, reception, translation and feedback. All the steps are interrelated and have to work together. Thus, none of them should be disregarded. However, the critical step involves encoding and decoding of the message. Encoding is the process whereby the sender reflects on what they want to send. It involves translating information to a message using symbols that represent some ideas.  The symbols can be words, gestures or even languages. It ensures that the message sent will be easily understood by the recipient. The other step is on decoding. It also involves interpretation of the message by the receiver. The message has to be understood in a similar way to the intended meaning by the sender.

            For effective communication in an organization, all members have to be responsible. Effective communication involves attentive listening, dialogue and proper delivery of information. Each member in an organization, from leaders to the others, has their roles to play. Thus, to ensure effective communication, it’s important to consider how each contributes to this. The leader has a vital role in enhancing effective communication in the organization through setting the objectives, generating ideas and effectively delegating tasks to members. On the other hand, members should be keen on implementing was been laid out through proper listening and internalizing the information passed.


Gibson, J.W (1990). Business communication: Skills and strategies

Nick Sanchez: Communication process as Retrieved from

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Published in Education

Design for change


A major issue recognized in the institution is regarding dissatisfaction, medication error, and lack of communication from shift to shift, and patient feeling not involved in their care. Because of nurse shift change, there must be a successful transfer of information between the nurses in order to prevent adverse medical errors. This problem needs to be addressed through the implementation of bedside report that will help to improve patient care and satisfaction. With the use of bedside report, it helps in ensuring safe handoff of the care between the nurses. In every shift change, a shift report will happen at the bedside of the patient, and the nurse can even invite the patient and the family to be involved in the report. The management should consider the implementation of this plan in order to change how care is offered in the hospital and to ensure patient satisfaction. This is a reporting process that will improve patient satisfaction and care.

Contribution to future healthcare

According to literature and research, the changes in the social and economic climate demand for reform down in the level of nursing workflow. The health care workers should adapt and be innovative so as to provide patients with relevant care and also improve patient satisfaction (Johnson et al. 2009). The aim of this change plan is to enhance the experience of the patients during the shift change through allowing the family’s patient and the patient to be part of the process. Therefore, the contribution of the change to the future of healthcare is that it will ensure that patients are satisfied with the care they receive.

Research has shown that a form of bedside shift report can improve the perception of the patient of communication and also involvement in care (Johnson et al. 2009). Ensuring satisfaction, communication, and proper medical care are not only the responsibility of nurses, but also the duty of the entire hospital personnel. With this change, the hospital management will be able to offer a conducive environment for patient-centered care. It will also increase time spent in nursing direct care in the bedside during change of shift.

Change plan overview

Rosswurm and Larrabee (1999) proposed a model that can guide nurses through the process for change to the evidence-based practice. This is a process that recognizes the translation of research in practice need a solid grounding in principles of research utilization, change theory, and use of standardized nomenclature. Change in the practice of nursing is essential for increasing the probability of success.

Assess the need for change

This step involves the need to evaluate the internal data and benchmarks against the external data. This is the step where the stakeholders gather together so as to brainstorm and to identify the problem. When considering improving patient care and satisfaction, it is necessary to determine the factors that lead to non-satisfaction. Factors that lead to patient non-satisfaction and lack of quality care are the lack of communication between nurses, patients, and families, uninvolved in care plan, unable to reach the nurse (Baker 2010). When these factors have been identified and addressed, it will be possible to develop the bedside reporting system that offers patient care and satisfaction. The identified problem is that there is a lack of patient care and satisfaction from nurse practices in the institution.

Link problem with intervention and outcome

Lack of patient satisfaction and care may have significant consequence. Ensuring care and satisfaction will help the patient to have confidence in the health care staff and facility. The best intervention to ensure care and satisfaction is with the consideration of bedside report. The consideration of bedside report will be able to improve patient’s care and ensure satisfaction. Engaging the patient and family in bedside reporting is important because it helps in decrease the patient and family anxiety; it decreases the feeling of abandonment during the shift change, and also increases the accountability of nurses. When the hospital considers this change plan, it will help in ensuring that all shift hand-offs include up-to-date information regarding care, treatment, and the anticipated changes in the patient. The consideration of bedside reporting is a safety strategy that is aimed at encouraging the active involvement of the patient in the care. According to Baker (2010) the consideration of bedside reporting results to immediate patient satisfaction because it tends to increase positive patient outcome and decreases the length of stay in the hospital.

Synthesize best evidence

Lack of patient satisfaction and care needs to be addressed very first. Before an intervention is implemented, it is necessary first to identify what factors are causing non-satisfaction. Baker (2010) state that, the reason for the lack of patient satisfaction is because of poor handover. Therefore, in order to ensure that patients feel good with the care being offered, there is a need to implement bedside reporting that will guarantee patient's safety. According to Anderson & Mangino (2006), the outcome of bedside reporting is that it results to increased patient satisfaction as the nurses keep patients informed and also it results to increased staff satisfaction. Anderson & Mangino (2006) recommend the standardizing patient hand-off communication with the aim of providing safe patient care through the use of bedside report process.

Based on the findings of Griffin (2010), he found that during handoffs, there are few miscommunications and omission regarding data; thus, reducing medical errors. Therefore, through standardizing handoffs, the healthcare institution will be able to reduce medication errors reaching patients. According to researchers, when nurses involve patients in nursing handover, it goes a long way in reducing medical errors and also improves outcomes. This is a change plan that will also enhance the experience of the patient.

Design practice change

Nurses and managers need to work together in order to transform how health care is provided. A change to evidence-based practice needs strong staff champions and strong management. Team collaboration is required in order to ensure successful implementation of this intervention. The key players and stakeholders who will be involved in the change design will include nurses, the administration, managers, department heads, and chief nurse. The institution will develop a strategy that the health care staff will use so as to implement the intervention. The management will also develop a post-evaluation tool that will be used in order to assess the effectiveness of the change design.

Implement and evaluate change

The implementation of this intervention will be effective if the management monitors the process and is always available to the staff to answer any questions. This change will take place in all the hospital units where staff will be shown how to take patients reports and how to involve patients in the bedside reporting. It will also be necessary for the management to consider a follow-up of the intervention in order to determine its effectiveness. After the two weeks use of bedside reports, patient and staff survey will be conducted. This data will then be analyzed and displayed in graphs so as to facilitate its interpretation. Interpretation will be done by deciding if there is any difference before and after the use of the bedside reports.

Integrate and maintain change

Change is likely to be accepted when people are allowed to participate in making the change. This intervention requires the participation of stakeholders in every step of the model. Staff meetings will be conducted after two weeks so as to make sure every person is updated about the change. The graphs established after the interpretation of data will be placed on bulletin board in order to inform the staff about the intervention progress. If the intervention is successful, the institution should ensure that they adopt the protocol.

Evaluation plan

When evaluating the proposed plan, the hospital will ensure that nurses have the necessary support for conducting bedside reports. There will be a nurse manager or staff leader observing the shift report and providing feedback to the individual nurses. Periodic observations will be done continuously so as to ensure the implementation is consistent among staff. Feedback will also be collected from patients, family members, and nurses through asking how the report can be improved and what worked well. The feedback will be collected from the patient, staff, and family surveys. With the feedback that will be collected from the survey, the hospital management will refine the tools and process before they can implement them in other units.

Next steps to maintain the change

In order to maintain change, the hospital management should focus attention on educating the nursing staff. Without the collaboration of all stakeholders, this change plan will not result to any positive results. Therefore, maintaining this change can be very difficult. Nurses should be provided with reports indicating how bedside reporting will benefit the hospital and also improve the way care is offered to patients. The hospital should be conducting meeting with health care professionals so as to educate them regarding the important of bedside reporting.

Communication and education regarding bedside reporting should be done. There should be dependable and consistent communication with the care team, patient, and patient family. This is critical in ensuring that patient receive satisfaction, are involved in care, and also reduce medical errors. Health care personnel should know that having handover occurring at the bedside of the patient is good for everyone and mostly the patient. This means that the patient can voice their claims, understand their treatment better, and also be engaged in their care (Johnson et al. 2009). In order to standardize the process, staff training will be done so as to address the concerns of nurses.  


The intervention to ensure patient care and satisfaction is the duty of every health care staff so as to make sure patients get the best care. The implementation of the bedside report system will not only result to patient satisfaction, but it will also increase physician satisfaction. The bedside reporting process is an essential change that is needed in the hospital. This intervention will benefit all parties that are involved. When considering a change, it is essential to know that change is normally hard for everyone; thus, involving all parties in the process is significant in ensuring successful change process.


Anderson, D & Mangino, R (2006). Nurse shift report Nursing administration Quarterly 30 (2), 112-122 

Baker, J (2010). Bedside shift report improves patient safety and nurse accountability Evidence-based practice 36 (4), 355-358

Larrabee, J & Rosswurm, M (1999). A model for change to evidence-based practice Journal of Nursing scholarship 31 (4), 317-322

Griffin, T (2010). Bringing change-of-shift report to the bedside Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 24 (4), 348-353

Fawcett, J & Garity, J. (2009). Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing practice Philadelphia F.A. Davis

McMurray, M Chaboyer, W & Johnson, J (2009). Bedside handover Journal of nursing care quality 24 (2), 136-142

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Published in History

Knowledge management


            Since the period of the industrial revolution, organizations have been improving their effectiveness in service delivery thereby creating a healthy competition. This improvement has been in terms of automation and reduction of unproductive workforce. [1]Currently, the organizations continue to restructure their systems to get rid of needless workforce and jobs. This has resulted to great losses in key knowledge assets because the employees leave with their skills and knowledge pertaining to certain areas of specialization. Due to this, the repercussions are reduced productivity and innovation in the organizations.[2]

            Many organizations have embraced the need to work together because of global connectivity and widespread expertise. The organizations have devised ways of improving their ways of service delivery through collaborations and effective communication. Since the world is becoming a knowledge based economy, everyone is after knowledge management as an efficient method for managing the intellectual assets of the organization.[3] Knowledge management has changed the entire aspect of information systems from the initial processing data and giving information to gathering and capitalizing on the knowledge database of an organization. With the good knowledge management, problems that arise are easily dealt with. The knowledge acquired from different sources on how o solve certain problems is stored for later use. Organizations spend much on knowledge management as a long term investment. There is a key distinction between data, information and knowledge. Data refers to the unprocessed facts, measurements and statistics whereas information is defined as the processed data. Knowledge refers to the information that is relevant and whose action can be taken.[4]

Question one

            Knowledge management is the management of corporate information and intellectual assets in order to improve performance and add value to the enterprise to act in an intelligent manner. [5]It involves proper identification, selection and transferring of information that is helpful in the organization. [6]The information acquired helps in problem solving, strategic planning and informed decision making. The knowledge acquired is distributed to all departments formerly and then it’s kept for later use. Knowledge management deals with sharing of knowledge to make it available to others.


            In order for HP to control knowledge management at the corporate level, some things need consideration. Many theories have been developed to describe knowledge management though not all are applicable in this context. An organization that plans in advance, surveys the market, produces good quality products and gives attention to customers is likely to achieve much according to the objectives. Though not the only factors, they assist in enhancing efficiency in products and service delivery. [7] HP has concentrated on these key aspects alongside having a good knowledge management. Due to competition, an organization distinguishes itself from others through how it effectively manages its knowledge. The factors of the success of knowledge management are well connected to the economic performance value; organizational infrastructure; reliable knowledge structure and an elaborate objective. In connection to this, the culture should be knowledge friendly and there should be many channels for knowledge transfer.[8]

            In order to control and manage knowledge effectively, better strategies on dimensions of the organization like strategy, culture and technology should be considered. Knowledge management in HP revolves around product processes and channels of computer dealers. Product process organization (PPO) deals with advancing product development and introduction. Its functions dwell much on quality, procurement, marketing, safety, environmental and changes that arise. To enhance competition, a product Generation Information System (PGIS) group was formulated to work together with PPO. The key issue was to integrate more information to the PPO. It developed knowledge links from various functions which contained knowledge from reporters and editors. [9]

Question two.

            The projects given are on; competitor information, developing an internet based interface to primary and secondary information and managing international intelligence on marketing. Each of them should be in line with the forms of knowledge management, business goals and the required resources. The projects are developed by the two departments dealing with product marketing and change management together. [10]The objective is not for PGIS to oversee knowledge itself but to assist in the process of structuring and distributing knowledge through the use of Information technology. Both information and knowledge are used by HP to help in good management.

            The first project deals with competitor information for the company’s component group. Understanding what the competitors offer and upon slight modifications of their products, they stand out in the market as unique. There are so many other products that are produced by the competitors similar to those in HP. For the company to get maximum returns from their products, market survey is essential. In the project, the areas of concern should be along those areas. Knowing what others can offer and the quality of products offered can help the HP Company to strategize on alternative ways of remaining reliable. The information required for this project is got from the interviews conducted. It is then edited and stored to be used later.[11] The information acquired can then be passed on to others enhancing knowledge management. The different departments in the organize use the knowledge to improve on their work. [12]

            The second project deals with the creation of a web-based interface to the primary and secondary research information. This will provide a platform for interaction using the internet. The primary information is got from direct interviews with clients and employees on how best the company can improve its market base. The information obtained is then integrated with the one obtained from other secondary sources about improving the company’s services to their customers.[13]

            The third project concentrates on managing the international market by gathering all the information pertaining to increasing the market base. The intelligence team must gather as much information as possible to ensure that they have vast knowledge about the target market. The system should then ensure that the knowledge gathered is utilized effectively for the benefit of the company.[14]

            Understanding the different types of knowledge applied in each of the projects is an important step in knowledge management. It’s important to know that even the knowledge got from a document is supposed to be managed. It has to be stored, retrieved, shared and changed in a format that it suits the company’s needs. The knowledge has to be stored in a way different from the one gathered over the previous years. Though it’s the same knowledge, the mode of usage may be different. [15]Different areas of specialization have focused on different dimensions of knowledge. The two types of knowledge within the dimensions of knowledge management are explicit and tacit types. Explicit knowledge refers to the coded one like that found in reading material whereas tacit knowledge refers to the non-coded one usually obtained from personal knowledge.  Knowledge management dwells much on the interaction and relationship between the two types. In practice, all knowledge in use is a mixture of the two types. Through research, a further distinction can be made by using embedded knowledge. It’s an easy way of differentiating between knowledge obtained from people and that embedded in processes, culture and routines of an organization. In knowledge management, the most important difference is between explicit and tacit knowledge. It’s essential to know the source of each type so that the company can strategize on how to deal with it. In an organization, the embedded knowledge is of much importance compared to the others.

            Explicit knowledge is formal and coded usually found in databases, memos and documents. It’s easy to identify, store and refer to.  It’s very effective at facilitating storage and modification of documents and texts. The greatest challenge is that, it is similar to the information. The management has to ensure that people have access to it to solve their problems. It also has to store the important knowledge, update it when necessary and discard the less important one. Most of the projects are based on technology and tend to focus on this type of knowledge.

            Tacit knowledge is a type of knowledge based on people’s experiences and hence hard to define. It includes cultural beliefs, skills, expertise, values, perceptions and mental orientations about certain issues. It is, therefore, based on the context under discussion where people share about their experiences about the context. Over years of working in a certain area, people acquire knowledge about their areas of specialization and this makes them more efficient in those areas. Sometimes it becomes hard to explain much about it because it can be manifested through actions, involvement and commitment. It’s a very valuable source of information in a company and likely to lead to breakthroughs in the company. For a company to have increased innovation and competitiveness, it has to invest much in this type of knowledge. An IT professional troubleshoots problems based on their experience and practice in an area. It’s challenging for them to convey the knowledge to another person in a coded way like in a document. That’s why experience in a certain field matters a lot to an organization. The successful knowledge management initiatives focus much on the tacit dimension of knowledge because it’s more reliable. It deals directly with people and hence easy to handle though the limitations placed by the computerized systems have to be understood.

             Embedded knowledge is found in processes, culture, routines or structures of an organization. It can also exist in explicit sources though the knowledge is not explicit. It’s a bit challenging to deal with embedded knowledge because cultures and routines are hard to understand and change. The routines that are known to be formal are easy to implement and manage. The role of IT in this type of knowledge is limited but still it has some applications. Many organizations find it hard to manage embedded knowledge; hence those who succeed reap benefits and are above others competitively.

            The knowledge acquired whether explicit, tacit or embedded should focus on the company’s goals. HP has been on the lead in its fields of specialization. [16]This means that, for them to meet their objectives, they have to apply the knowledge they have in delivering only the best to their customers. Knowledge management requires that the departments share the information acquired for the benefit of the company. In order to continue expanding its market and meet its objectives, HP came up with a way of managing knowledge for the computer dealer channels. This involves having a technical support for answering phone calls. This ensures that all the customers concerns were attended to and action taken. Another initiative that was introduced was the use of a dial-up database that responded to the clients’ concerns. All these advancements were to find a way of expanding their market base by managing the knowledge they acquired.

            The company requires a lot of resources for the projects to be carried out successfully. In the year specified, the company spent four billion U.S dollars for innovations of products, solutions and development of new technologies. This shows that the management is fully committed to fund all the projects as long as they will be beneficial to the company. It has also invested much on research in the labs so that they continue improving their products in the market. Funds used in the projects are the accrued profits, hence the need of continued improvement on their services.

Question three

            The main challenges faced by HP in improving its ability to manage organizational knowledge are as described in this section. In HP, the Information technical engineer has been working on a project of developing a system that contains a database of the profiles of experts. They are people who are knowledgeable on certain areas and situated in various places. The challenge in this is to create a manageable list in the database that can be widely used and still reflects on the diversification of knowledge in the Laboratory. The company planned to rely on the experts to present their knowledge profiles and be updating it when necessary. Since it was expected that they would have a challenge in this, the engineer used incentives to entice those who were willing. In connection to this, they feared that the term “expert” might scare away potential participants. The system was tested from the labs and later the network of experts will be expanded to other departments. [17]

            Another challenge in HP was how ISST would change the culture of knowledge sharing within work groups and the business units. They claimed that there is little support in that culture hence a need to review it. The company managers felt that much more could be done other than just having the Knowledge management workshops but they do not know which channels to use. The workshops currently in place are helpful in sensitizing the employees within HP about the need to have a platform of knowledge sharing among various departments.[18] What one department knows might be essential to other departments hence the need of sharing. In knowledge management, the information acquired becomes useful to a company if well utilized other than just being stored. That’s why the company management has intensified on the need of workshops where training is done and also people share ideas on different issues affecting them. The company has diversified on use of IT to enhance expand its market base and penetrate even further. From the workshops, HP educators were then introduced though they had a challenge in sharing knowledge.

            Another challenge experienced in HP is on competition due to those having similar products. The company specializes in computers sales and other equipment alongside offering medical services. Other companies have also specialized in these products and services but their quality brings about the difference. In HP, there is no compromise of producing low quality products. They enjoy a well-established market position because many people who use their products have trust in them. To expand their market base, HP has embarked on a process of carrying out a project whose major purpose is to carry out market survey and manage international market intelligence. This ensures that most of the regions are well informed about their products and hence easy for them to decide on buying them. [19]The team that was given the work of carrying out the market intelligence was gathering information from the clients and responding to their concerns on various issues. To do this, they didn’t need to travel to all the places where HP products are sold, but could use the web-based platforms. The use of technology enhances knowledge management strategies because work that could be done for many days, takes only a short time now. The management is tasked with devising ways of dealing with competition because it’s inevitable. However, measures have been taken on this, but the results are not yet realized because the projects are in the initial stages. In the product processes organization (PPO), there is a mission to advance the process of product development and introduction. This meant that, there would be reviews in the designs of the products produced, and thus they would be more impressive in the market. Another strategy used by HP to penetrate further in the market is by serving everyone without discrimination. This ensures that every player in the market is satisfied with the products obtained from HP. Having that diverse strategy is a big boost to expanding their market and thus reduces competition. Understanding the weaknesses of other companies can also help HP to improve in those areas so that their products will be of a higher quality than their competitors. Through knowledge acquired from research in the Lab, the company manages to invent new products and technologies. This improves the customer’s lives and creates business opportunities. The knowledge acquired through developing the new products is stored well to ensure that it is available to others who require it.

            The HP information system is equipped to withstand these challenges because they work round the clock to ensure that they are solved. They have a well structured infrastructural base that helps in combating these issues.

            In the case of coming up with a database having the profiles of experts, the information system team resolved to entice the participants who showed interest. They were doing it by giving them an incentive for every profile submitted and also in maintaining it. This ensures that many experts participated because they were assured of benefiting. They also provide a platform whereby clients with different issues interact with the experts for their problems to be dealt with. On the case of the term “expert”, the IS team considered using another simpler term but referring to the same thing.

            The challenge of knowledge sharing among the work groups can be dealt with by the initiatives to the corporate sections of  holding workshops severally that will allow easy transfer of knowledge among work mates.  The workshops are used for in networking, establishing a common language and management frameworks for knowledge management. A major shift from the workshops is the “Trainer’s Trading Post” This involved educators who worked within small groups though they had a challenge in sharing knowledge.[20] Also, a “training library” and “training review” were established as knowledge bases. The Training review did not work, hence was merged with Trainer’s trading post. All these initiatives ensured that the Information System team was well equipped.

            In dealing with competition from other companies, the Product Generation Information System (PGIS) was established. It’s a group that deals with facilitation of the tasks carried out by the Product Processes Organization (PPO). The two groups worked together in development of Knowledge Links. It’s a web-based collection of knowledge on product development from the various PPO functions among them, product marketing. If the initiative was well thought of, and proceed to the implementation phase, a lot of knowledge would be available to the customers. The major purpose of initiating these processes was to help in applying the knowledge management skills in reaching out to the corporate market.

Question 4

            The effect of the developments such as the rise of social media, in creation of a strong brand identity and establishing brand loyalty

The social media have been on the rise in recent years because many people have embraced the advancement in technology. Social media refer to the sites that are used by people to share ideas and exchange information. Social media have been in use for a long time but its uses are changing gradually. It depends on mobile and we-based technologies to develop highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, discuss and modify the content which is user-reliant. Social media have brought changes in communication between individuals, organizations, and groups. There are many factors that make people use it in different ways. They include; availability, frequency, immediacy and permanence. These days, there are many benefits of visiting the social media. It has gone past sharing socially to building reputations and providing job opportunities and monetary benefits through advertisements. Social media can take different forms including internet, magazines, weblogs, podcasts, pictures, videos and social blogs. It has grown tremendously and that has made many people prefer using the social media for many purposes. It is used in socializing, marketing, advertising, sensitization programs and also in gathering consumer feedback by companies. Many businesses have joined social cites like facebook, Twitter,Linkedln and other similar platforms that target potential customers. Social networking is the leading activity that people engage in online. For companies to reach a wider market found in the social media, companies are hiring specialists to handle their marketing sites. 

            Social media influence the perception of the customers in that the products are advertised in a very appealing way. Also, the descriptions that are given to the product are easy to understand and this makes the customers arrive at decisions swiftly. Since the social media is used by many people, the advertisements reach a large population within a short period. Customers are left to decide without the influence by the seller. This can also influence the buyers because they find it easy to decide on their options when no one else is involved. There are some facts about online buying which shows that social media can influence potential buyers. It’s known that many people end up in a store because of an online visit that they had. This means, whatever was displayed online created an urge of seeing it physically. Also, a big percentage of consumers do their research online. Many people say that the posts that are made on the social media about various products and services by a company influence their purchases. It’s of importance for companies to use the social media in relaying certain information to their customers.

            Companies have devised other ways of reaching a wide market through digital marketing and use of information desks. Digital marketing reaches a wide area and usually is repeated severally for the prospective customers to show interest. The information desks are placed at strategic locations in towns whereby anyone can pass by and enquire of any product offered by the company. Other technologies in use for marketing and connecting companies to their customers are mobile computing and online communications like use of Skype applications. Mobile computing enables people to use their phones or portable computers to perform tasks online.

            Social media has been in use recently by many organizations and companies as a business potential. It is used for marketing research, communication and for sales promotions. In marketing research, companies can easily know which customers visited their site and also when they visited it. By this, the company also receives feedbacks about their products and services from their clients. The information gathered from the social site is then analyzed and responses are made according to the demands of the customers.

Communication has greatly improved between companies and their clients or from one company to another. Social media has facilitated easy and efficient communication and it ensures that customers are satisfied by the products offered. Sales promotion and discounts encourage people to buy more than planned because of the discounts offered. Mobile social media enable companies to offer promotions to specific people only at specific times. For instance, Mc Donald’s offered five and ten dollars gift cards to a hundred clients who visited their sites. It led to 33% increase in the number of people visiting them. 

Electronic commerce is also done online and by use of social media. It deals with purchasing goods and services online. This service has enabled many companies reap many profits because not many people can visit their stores physically but instead depend on the online deals.

            On the contrary, there are some few threats associated with the use of social media in marketing and research. It is prone to online crimes where criminals purport to be distributors of certain products offered by a particular company. They con loyal clients and they lose trust with the company’s online deals. Others hack the databases of many companies and extract vital information   about the company. This may lead to huge losses especially those whose major deals are done online. Due to overreliance on the online platforms, companies do not identify some opportunities and end up losing to their competitors. This to a large extent affects the companies’ market niche.


            Knowledge management is vital to the progress of any organization. For the case of HP, it has utilized all the available channels of acquiring knowledge so that it can be used in expanding their market and also in improving their products. The purpose of initiating the various projects was to maximize on their knowledge management in order to apply the available Information Technology in their product developments. Though there have been challenges in implementing the projects, their returns are enormous. Many benefits are associated with use of social media in companies and organizations in market research and expansion.


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[3] Barth, S. (2000). “Knowledge as A Function

[4] Knowledge Management for Development (KM4Dev), ISSN: 18716342

[5] Frappaola, C. (1998). “Defining Knowledge Management: Four Basic Functions” Computerworld, Vol. 32, No. 8

[6] Dyer, G. (2000). “Knowledge Management Crosses The Chasm

It can be represented as shown below by use of a diagram

[7] Huang, K.T., Lee, Y.L., & Wang, R.W., (1999). ”Quality Information and Knowledge” “IDC

[8] Gupta, B., Iyer, L.S., & Aronson, J.E. (2000 “Knowledge Management: Practices and Challenges “.

[9] Davenport, T. (1998) Knowledge management at Hewlett-Packard, early 1996 Austin, TX

[10] Knowledge Management Research & Practice (2006) 4, 105.doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.850009

[11] Chou T (2001) An investigation of association between knowledge management activities and management performance

[12] Stenmark, D. (2002). “Information Vs Knowledge: Role of Intranets in Knowledge Management”.

[13] Davenport, T.H & Beers, M.C. (1998). “Successful Knowledge Management Projects”

[14] Studies Finds Knowledge Management Moving Beyond Early Adopter Stage

[15] Clarke, P. (1998). “Implementing A Knowledge Strategy For Your Firm”. Research Technology Management

[16] Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1998) Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press

[17] Holsapple, C. W and A. B.Whinston. (1996). “Decision Support Systems:

[18] Malhotra, Y. (1998). “Knowledge Management, Knowledge Organization and Knowledge of Workers

[19] Davenport, T. (1996) Hewlett Packard promotes knowledge management initiatives

[20] Dyer, G. (2000). “Knowledge Management Crosses The Chasm”

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Published in Education

Accounting decisions and techniques

According to yahoo finance, Home Retail Group plc operates in United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland as a home and general merchandise retailer. Home Retail Group plc has its headquartered in Central Milton Keynes, the United Kingdom and was founded in 1964.It operates through three segments: Homebase, Argos and Financial Services. The company offers furniture under the Schreiber and Hygena brands ,consumer electronics under the Bush and Alba brands; home base products under the name of Habitat, Odina, Qualcast, and Laura Ashley brands  and toys under the Chad Valley brand name. It also provides Android platform-based tablets, video gaming, domestic appliances and seasonal products; and DIY, home, decorating, and garden products, as well as offers installation services for its products. In addition, the firm provides a range of credit and insurance products to its customers. The company operates approximately 1,057 stores, including 734 Argos stores and 336 Homebase stores. As at the end of its financial year on March 2014, it recorded 523000000 pounds in accounts payable, 0 long term and short term debts, and common stock amounting to 81000,000 pounds in value and retained earnings amounting to 2987000000 pounds. (Yahoo finance 2014)

Tesco PLC and its subsidiaries operate as a grocery retailer. It’s mainly involved primarily in offering groceries, food, clothing and general merchandise. Other activities involve financial, retail banking and insurance services. In addition, it is involved in data analysis, sourcing, distribution, online entertainment, telecommunications and property operations. The company operates in the United Kingdom, India, China, Malaysia, and Thailand, South Korea the Czech Republic, the Republic of Ireland, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland and Turkey. It operates 12 markets through approximately 7,300 stores as well as through the Internet. The company is based in Cheshunt United Kingdom and was founded in 1919. Its annual report for the period ending February 2014 recorded accounts payable amounting to 5853,000,000, short term debts of 11213,000,000, long term debt of 9188,000,000, deferred long term liability charges of 885000000, retained earnings of 9728000000 common stock of 5485000000 and treasury stock of 498000000 (Yahoo finance,2014)

The two firms have used a combination of equity, bond and bank debts in meeting their financial needs. The three instruments have several distinguishing factors.

Equity financing

Equity financing involves the process of raising capital through sale of shares in a company. It includes transfer of part of the ownership interest in order to raise finance for the business. Large companies acquire equity funds through initial public offers through listing on the stock exchange. Members of the public subscribe to the shares of the company to become members. Shares are allotted to members of the public who become part owners of the company. The company in return obtains funds to finance its undertakings. Equity financing not only involves offering common equity, but also the sale of other equity and quasi-equity instruments. Quasi-equity instruments include preferred stock and convertible preferred stock. Equity units comprise of common shares and warrants.

A successful company acquires several types of equity capital as it progresses. Since startup, a company can use different types of equity instruments and may attract different types of investors at different stages. Angle investors and venture capitalist are more inclined to favor convertible preferred shares compared to common equity when financing companies. This is because convertible preferred shares have greater potential and involve lesser risks. Large companies after growth may consider selling common equity to retail and institutional investors. If the company needs additional capital, it may consider secondary equity financing like offering share warrants and rights issue.

The process of equity financing is governed by regulations imposed by security authorities such as the London stock exchange. The regulations are useful in protecting the investing public from unscrupulous operators with the intention of raising funds from unsuspecting investors. In order to finance through equity, the companies are required to issue a prospectus and a memorandum. These documents contain enough information that is helpful to investors in making informed decisions concerning the merits of the company. The information includes details of officers and directors, company’s activities and financial statements which are useful in making financial decisions.

There are several reasons why companies prefer equity finance. First, if the funding is committed to intended projects and the business since investors are likely to realize their investments if the company’s performance is good. Projects and other investments of the company are more likely to increase the value of the company in terms of profitability and expansion. Secondly, by using equity financing, the company is not obligated to keep up with the cost of servicing debt finance allowing it to use the obtained capital for business purposes.

Thirdly, the investors expect returns from their investment in the company helping the company to explore and execute various growth ideas. A company can benefit from valuable skills, experience and contacts from venture capitalist and business angles. The investors have a common business interest with the company. Therefore, this serves as an advantage in terms of increase in value, profitability and growth decisions. Equity investors also provide follow-up funding with the growth of the business. There are also several reasons why companies would not prefer equity financing. First, raising equity capital is expensive and time consuming and may draw the attention of the management from the purpose of the company’s existence. Secondly, important information concerning the company, membership and control is open for the potential investors to gauge the riskiness of the business. The potential investors look at past performances and future forecasts and probe the management team whether or not they will later invest in the company. Thirdly, equity capital will lead to the company losing a certain amount of control and decision making due to the influence of the investors. Also, regular information is needed by the investor, and the management is required to provide the information from time to time for the investors to monitor the performance.

Lastly, there are many legal and regulatory formalities the company is required to comply with when raising equity finance. Equity finance investors lack the legal right to charge interest or be on a particular date unlike in debt finance.

Debt Financing

Debt financing involves the raising of a firms capital by borrowing. Debt financing involves the issuance of bonds, debentures and bank loans.. The bond holders and debenture holders are entitled to interest and the redemption of the security after the given period. The debenture and bondholders become creditors to the business. The debt financing can be for a long period or short term. Long-term debts are necessary incase the business needs necessities to keep the business going such as acquiring facilities or major business assets. Short term financing is important to the business to provide day to day necessities such as inventory and payroll.

Bond financing

Bond issuing is a form of the debt security under which the firm issuing owes the holders a debt. Depending on the terms, the firm is obliged to pay the interest and the principal. The bonds may carry a fixed rate or a floating rate. These rates determine the exact amount of interest to be paid to the bond holder. There are also corporate bonds known as the zero coupons which do not carry regular interest payments at all. Investors receive returns since the bonds are at discount and redeemed later at their par value upon maturity. Bond issues specify the date of repayment and the rate of repayment to bondholders. Failure to repay the amount can lead to bankruptcy and subsequent liquidation. When the firm fails to its last period repayments, the bondholders have a right against the firms accumulated and undistributed cash flows. However, firms can roll over the bonds by making the issuance of new bonds in the last repayment period. Bonds may be an attractive alternative compared to getting bank loans because of the less restrictive terms and lower interest rates. They also carry a considerable tax advantage.

Bank debts

A bank loan is specific on the repayment schedule. Defaultsrepaythefirstperiodpromptsthebankmonitorthefirmanddecidewhetherliquidateorifthebankletsthefirmcontinueitappropriatethelastperiodreturns The main difference between bank loan and bonds is that the bank loan more flexible Banks however are also institutions that operate under minimal capital requirements. In order to expand lending, they require raising additional cost besides equity financing. When firms combine different instruments of financing, priority structure of bankruptcy is. The priority structure that exists between bonds and bank loans is significant in limiting firm’s ability to combine bank debts and bonds effectively.


Debenture can be as types of bonds that have no collateral and are considered unsecured. Debentures are by the issuer’s general creditworthiness and reputation. They are commonly issued by reputable corporate and the government to secure capital. A debenture holder is an unsecured creditor and therefore is considered a general creditor in the case of bankruptcy.

Lease financing

A finance lease is a method used by firms to pay for an asset while still applying the idea of rental. The borrower or the finance company selects the assets to purchase. The firm uses the asset during the lease while paying a series of rental charges or installments from the use of the asset. The lessor recovers a large part of the asset and also earns interest from the installments paid by the firm. The firm has the option of acquiring ownership of the asset upon completion of the lease period. The advantage of leasing to the firm is that the assets earn revenue that can be used to service the rental charges. The leases are long term types of financing compared to bonds and bank loans. The lease agreement is not cancellable, therefore, provides the firm with certainty concerning the flow of finances. Asset finance is suitable for the firms that need to their. Lease financing is on the asset being financed hence does not require other forms of collateral. The financing company benefits in a recession when most firms experience low profits. Lastly, firms benefit from the tax advantage that accrues to leases.(Sangshin Pae, 2008)

Trade creditors

Trade credit is external short term finance. Firms prefer to use trade creditors as a source of finance owing to its flexible nature and the amount of credit allowed largely depends on the value of the business with the suppliers. Trade credit is cost effective since creditors don’t charge interests on the outstanding amounts. Trade credit is used largely by these businesses as it matches goods purchased in that stock is for a period with trade credit providing finance rather than cash.

Theories used by the two firms in determining their capital structure: trade-off theory vs. pecking order theory

The capital structure of the firm can be defined as a mixture of finance employed by a firm inform of debt and equity. Firms are with an important decision in determining the type of finance to employ an in what proportions in order to maximize the firms market value and minimize the firms cost of capital.

The trade-off theory explains that the debt is cheaper for a firm because it does not involve risk sharing and can be collateralized compared to equity that has a residual claim. A firm can, therefore, initially lower its weighted average cost of capital through leverage. However, Leveraging increases the firm’s financial risk and must service its debts regularly unlike the case with equity. Firms, therefore, must balance the financial risks and the benefits of using debt financing. Trade-off theory is used by the firms to identify optimal debt to equity ratio and the levels that the two offset.

The pecking theory explains accordingly why firms finance themselves through retained earnings. The company uses debts as the second option and equity as the last resort. According to the theory, different types of securities send different types of messages to the market. Debt is interpreted positively by the investors as confidence by management to service the debts. Use of equity finance sends a signal that management considers the firm to be which eventually would result in a drop in share prices. Pecking order theory relates to the agency theory in the analysis of capital structure. It describes that a firms financing decision are affected by the attempt of management to minimize shareholder's supervisions. Psillaki and Daskalakis find evidence that leverage is with a firm’s size and its tangible assets. Leverage is negatively correlated to the firm’s profitability and risk. It explains that advanced legal systems increase debt capital availability as a result of higher creditor protection that lowers agency cost.

Trade-off theory is useful to firms when determining their debt capacity while pecking order theory helps firms in determining preference between different methods of financing. Pecking order theory is appropriate in explaining larger firms financing behavior. A firm’s size is an intervening variable and determines the extent to which firms access capital markets.

Jean Tirole explains that Past performance determines the level of agreement between the shareholders and the management. A past better performance can influence shareholders to accept a lower payout of dividend in agreement with the management. They accept the lower payout increases cash reserves to a firm translating to a lower leverage ratio. The hypothesis would be used to provide an empirical support as to why Microsoft failed to pay a dividend and did not use debt finance for a long time. Returns to the investors are in increases in share prices that accrue. This is as a result of high levels of agreement between the management and shareholders. (Jean Tirole, 2010)

There are various theories that explain why Tesco plc chooses to use the different type of debt financing.

A firm’s capital structure has an effect on the firm’s value according to miller Modigliani theorem. A firm may decide to use debt financing from a tax perspective. Debt financing can be advantageous for both the firm and the investor. Around the world, individuals and firms are subject to income tax and corporate tax respectively under a majority of tax systems. This results to double taxation of dividends in case the firm is through share equity.

For example, a firm that earns 1000 pounds in profits in the United Kingdom’s would have to pay around 300 pounds in taxes. If the company distributes the net profits as dividends to shareholders, the shareholders are required to pay income tax say 200 of the 700 pounds. The 1000 pounds eventually come down to 500 pound of income to the investor.

If the firm instead finances with debt, then, assuming the company owes 1000 pounds of interest to investors, it would record zero profits. The Investors would now pay taxes based on their interest income say 300 dollars. This implies that for 1000 pounds of profits before taxes, investors retain 700 pounds. On the other hand, the firm stands to gain considerably since interest payments are deductible from the firms taxable income compared to share repurchases and dividends which are not deductible.

Another advantage of using debt as a form of financing is that it ensures discipline among management and forces them to make extra efforts to surface the debts and interests payments. The advantages of debt financing accrue to bank loans and use of bonds.

However, depending on the firm, the costs of debt financing can outweigh the benefits. Debt financing can result to bankruptcy in the event of the firm’s inability to repay debts. Bankruptcy is a costly process as well. Furthermore, more debts increase the future uncertainty of the firms financing needs. The uncertainty concerns the sources of financing its operation in the future as a result of today’s mounting debts.

There are determinant factors that influence the firm’s choice of whether to finance using bonds or bank loans several arguments have been advanced to explain why firms choose to offering public bonds and taking up bank loans. According to Blackwell and kidwell, public debts comprise of high floatation costs such as issuance costs and entail a large fixed cost component. (Blackwell and Kidwell, 1998)

Bhagat and Frost also support the argument that the use of public debt is not economical to the firm and the cost associated with raising the finance may outweigh the projected benefits. Accordingly, issuance smaller amounts of public debts would result to cost inefficiency since firms would prefer to use capital markets when issuing large amounts of debts to benefit from economies of scale.( Bhagat and Frost 1986)

Denis and Mihov, in their empirical studies, show a positive correlation between a firm’s size and use of public debt financing. (Denis and Mihov, 2003)The renegotiation and liquidation hypothesis show that buyers with a higher previous ante probability of financial stress not likely to borrow from the public. This is because it is not difficult to negotiate with a small group of lenders or bank effectively on terms of debt agreements than with public bondholders. (Berlin and Loeys 1988)

Owing to free rider problems and information, buyers in the public market are unable to distinguish liquidating or allowing the continuation of the project. If these situations show in the harsh covenants reflected in the debt covenant, it might result to liquidation of profitable projects prematurely. According to H. Kent Baker and Gerald Martin, there exists a negative relationship between issuance of public debts and proxies for the financial stress of the borrower. (H. Kent Baker and Gerald s. Martin, 2011) the information asymmetric hypothesis shows that the degree of asymmetric information that a company is exposed to influences its choice of a debt market.

Information asymmetry causes moral hazards between debt holders and shareholders including underinvestment and asset substitution. These problems expose firms to higher contracting costs in the public markets. The higher costs are a result of demand for higher returns due to risks associated with information and their inability to monitor firm’s activities.

In conclusion, the two firms have used different capital structures. This can be explained by the pecking order capital structure theory.



  1. Kent Baker and Gerald Martin (2011) Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions Theory, Practice. John Wiley and Sons publishing

Jean Tirole (2010) The Theory of Corporate Finance Princeton University Press,

Denis D and V. Mihov (2003) the choice between bank debts, non-bank private debt and public debts Evidence from new corporate borrowings journal of financial economics 70 page 3-28

Sangshin Pae (2008) Essays on Borrowing, Monitoring, and the Cost of Debt ProQuest publishers

Berlin M and J. Loeys (1988) bond covenant monitoring journal of finance 24.

Bhagat S and P Frost (1986) issuing cost to existing shareholders in a competitive and negotiated underwritten public utility equity offering. Journal of finance and economics

Blackwell David W and David S Kidwell (1998) an investigation of the cost difference between private sale and public placement of debts journal of financial economics 22

Yahoo finance (2014) Home Retail Group PLC (HOME.L) retrieved from

Yahoo finance (2014) Tesco PLC (TSCO.L)-LSE Watch list retrieved from

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting


Published in Accounting

Terrorist strategies and target selection.


Terrorism has no definite definition, but the common definition of terrorism is the act of violence whose main aim is to kill or create fear among the targeted group(s). They use criminal force in an effort to get the attention of the world. Terrorists argue that they fight for people who have been segregated and treated unfairly by political, religious or social injustices. Terrorism does not use the combative method to drive their agenda. In most cases, terrorism is linked with religion or political alienations and uses this tactic to achieve their political agenda by creating fear and gaining publicity.

Today there are different types of terrorism depending on the mode of attack they use on civilians. The most common type is the cyber terrorism. Terrorists use the technology to wage war on unsuspecting people. They also use the existing platforms of social media such as twitter and face book. The most recent case of cyber terrorism is the use of videos by ISIS to cause fear to people. They send images and messages may be beheading their hostages or torture. They are also able to hack into systems and stalling services such as health services. They also use the technology to enhance money laundering thus sustaining their acts. The other common type of terrorism is the ecoterrorism. This is the use of tactics of harming the environment and the ecosystem just to hurt innocent civilians. Recently, they have been using this tactic to affect the economies of countries that depends on tourism to injure their economies (Criado, 2011). They may directly attack the tourists or even kill animals and destroy sites that attract these tourists. The other method these terror groups are using is the use of nuclear weapons. They attack nuclear plants or even buy nuclear weapons that they use to unleash fear.

Most terrorists are drawn into these heinous acts by use of ideologies. These ideologies are preached through religion. The most dangerous terrorism is the one that base their ideologies on religion. These groups justify their terror actions on religion grounds such as Islam. In most cases, the terror groups are indiscriminate on waging their attacks. They cause harm to anyone including young children and women (Eminue, 2011). They justify their acts using these religious ideologies in that they argue that they are fighting for their religion’s rights.

There are several factors that may lead a person or a group to turn into terror acts. The main factor that leads to terrorism is politics. People who face political injustices may turn into terrorism in order to revenge on the government of the day. Other groups may take the same line just because they don’t like the government policies or mode of Governing. A good example of politically instigated terrorism is what is happening in Syria (Asal, 2009). They wage war on civilians and attacking government building to pass their grievances. An individual may be led into terrorism by socio-economic factors. The terrorist's organization take advantage of the social problems that people are going through such as poverty or lack of education to recruit youths into terrorism. They promise them good life and put into the ideologies that the government does not care about them. In simple terms, they play with their psychology to lure them into joining these groups.

Before understanding the strategies used by the terrorists, one has first to have an overview of their goals. Their main aim is to cause terror and fear in people so that they can push them to their demands. Once the civilians live in fear, they are able to control them psychologically. They make people see the government as unable to guard and protect them. The other goal is to destabilize the government and turn people against the governments by preaching ideologies to them (Criado, 2011). Once they have toppled the government, they are able to control the people through intimidation. They also want to create their territories where they have full control as it is the case with ISIS in Syria and Iraq. They want to control resources in these states so as to obtain funding to sustain their activities.

The tactics commonly used by terrorists include the use of intimidation and provocation to their targets. They use several strategies such as bombings. They do these using self-made improvised explosive devices due to the readily available materials to assemble them. The information on the internet also allows them to assemble them anywhere in the world (Eminue, 2011). They implant these devices on vehicles that they detonate on their targets. They also implant them on vests that are worn and the bomber goes to detonate them on their targets. The terrorists also go with the suicide attack strategy. These suicide bombers give up their lives to kill. They implant bombs on their bodies and are ready to die to achieve their goals. Some do this to get monetary rewards for their descendants. Others are to revenge on their family member who has been killed by the government and others are to get rewards in the life after death as their religious ideologies.

Most terror groups are using chemical and nuclear weapons to achieve their agenda. Though to date no nuclear weapon has been used by terrorists, intelligence reports indicate that terror groups are working round the clock to acquire and use them on civilians (Asal, 2009). An interrogation on terror suspect Khalid Mohamed in Guantanamo bay indicated that Al-Qaeda intended to use nuclear weapons in Europe if Osama was killed. Though the attack may have been thwarted, it may cause a major harm on civilian if used. Terrorism has been associated with suicide bombs and explosives. Today, terrorists are using conventional firearms such as guns. This is evidenced by the killings in Mumbai where the group used guns to wage the attack.

The terrorist have taken advantage of the media to popularize their acts and their ideologies. Without media, no one would be wary of their activities or any attack they undertake. The latest incident where the terror groups have used the media to cause fear is the beheading of journalist in Syria and Iraq by ISIS. Once the media cover the activities of these groups, they draw the world to be attentive on them. The terror groups also have revolutionized their mode of communications. They have turned into new forms of communication such as emails and mobile phones (Eminue, 2011). It becomes very easy to organize the recruitments and attacks without being noticed by the authorities. Terror groups have devised so many illegal ways to enhance their funding. They use such ways as drug trafficking, money laundering, sympathizers and asking for ransoms from kidnappings and piracy.

Today, terrorism in no longer local, it has gone international (Berger, 2010). Most terror groups have gone out of their country of origin and were causing mayhem in other areas of jurisdiction. Objectives based on ideologies drive them. Some of the objectives are to get the public attention and sympathizers. They want to get the public eye and spread their grievances that may get support from the civilians. It is from these sympathizers that they get field marshals and funding. Once they stage several attacks on the people and government institutions, their aim is to depict the government as a failure in protecting its people. Through these strategies, they want to send a message to the people that the government has failed them and it is illegitimate. After the attacks, they want the government to react by arresting people thus provoking them into taking revenge. They finally join these groups to wage revenge to the government not knowing that their psychology has been played with. They also want to sabotage the economy of the land thus weakening the government (Asal, 2009). After the economy has collapsed, most youths are unemployed. They lure them into the terror activities by promising them goodies and success. Terrorists want to encourage people into uprising in order to topple the government by posing as the people fighting the rights of the common man.

When it comes to target selection, ideology plays a major role. Ideology is what gives the terrorists the motive and energy to take the actions of hating other people’s actions and thoughts that they aim at harming them. They want people to conform to their way of thought and doing things failure to which they fall victims of terrorism. Ideology makes the terrorists justify their actions with the victims being the ones to blame for these actions. In all cases of terrorism, they don’t take any precautions when attacking as their attacks are indiscriminate. They go to an extent of even harming children. It is the ideology that helps terrorists select targets thus they get it easy to justify their actions by attacking non-reformists who don’t want to conform to their line of thought.

The main factor that leads to terrorists selecting their target is politically influenced. They want to cause psychological fear to people or aim at making the political government of such country or state look like they don’t care for its people. In return, they gain support from these citizens as they depict themselves as fighting for human rights. If the group(s,) fails to attain their agenda in a non-violent manner, they turn to use of force to drive their motive and agenda. The ideology of a certain group influences how it members view the outside world. If they see them as against their way of thinking, they justify he reason to attack them.  It is through these ideologies that they are able to secure legitimate targets. It is through these ideologies that they are able to label their targets as enemies who deserve to be treated harshly (Criado, 2011).  Most terror groups do not view their targets as humans but as figures that do not deserve to be treated as humans. In most cases, they view them as animals such as dogs or even bastards. Some terrorists have confirmed having attacked their victims that they hated them so much to a point that they didn’t think they were humans. As discussed earlier, terrorists always put the blame on the target for the outcome of their actions. For instance, the kidnapping of the Israeli athletes in 1972, the responsible group turned to blame the Olympics committee for not recognizing the Palestinians in the competition. After the death of the nine hostages, they also put the blame on the German forces who had tried to save them. In short, they are trying to show the world that it’s not their faults their faults that the attack happened but the faults of other people. They always want to play with people’s psychology so that they get their support either financially or recruit more members to their actions.

Terrorists have gone ahead to widen their targets in order to achieve their goals. For instance, previously they only targeted government buildings and the military. Lately, they have widened the targets to include the personnel that work for the governments as they see them as traitors. The target of terrorism in most cases depends on the aim of that terrorist group. For instance, National terrorists want to attack government facilities and the military in order to have the control of the state. They employ this method without attacking the civilians so that they get their support. They use this technique so as to convince the civilians of how the government has neglected them and how they can seek their salvation by supporting the terror group. A good example is the ISIS. They have worked their strategy right and they are depicting the governments of Syria, Iraq and currently Turkey as dictatorial. BY doing so, they have go support from locals and have been able to amass large numbers of recruits to help in the fight. They have also got the support of sympathizers who fund them and give them supplies in form of food and weapons. They have been able to control the population in the said areas and thus they can feed them with their ideologies. Since most terror groups are clandestine, they fight a psychological and economical war (De la Calle, 2007). They want to wage attacks and blame the government for not protecting its people. They also aim at crippling the economy of a state so that the government is not able to provide to its citizens thus taking advantage in controlling the psychology of the hopeless civilians. They want to cause frustration and hopelessness and then depict themselves as the real solution for these people. In most cases, they come with goodies to entice people such as large sums of money or supply commodities to hunger-stricken people to change their minds in order to control them. A good example of this strategy is the one used by the Alshabaab of Somali.


The more the resources a terror group can access the more challenging they become to the ruling governments. In most cases, they get material support from sympathizers and illegal trade such as money laundering and smuggling. With enough resources, terror groups become so powerful since they can fund their activities and acquire such services as intelligence and manpower. All terror groups are against competition may it be from the state or individuals. They do anything possible to get rid of these competitions as they hinder their activities. They do this by either changing the tactics and strategies or by eliminating the source of competition.


Asal, V. H., Rethemeyer, R., Anderson, I., Stein, A., Rizzo, J., & Rozea, M. (2009). The Softest of Targets: A Study on Terrorist Target Selection. 4(3), 258-278.

Berger, M. A. (2010). Interdicting Terrorist Financing with Coercion. Defence Studies, 10(3), 387-404

Criado, H. (2011).  Terrorist strategies. Journal Of Peace Research, 48(4), 497-508.

De la Calle, L., & Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2007). Target Selection in Nationalist Terrorist Organizations. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-44.

Eminue, O. E., & Ufomba, H. U. (2011). Modeling Terrorist Target Selection. Defense & Security Analysis, 27(4), 375-382.

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Published in History

Target market for Mercedes-Benz C class

Mercedes- Benz manufacturing company considers reaching a wide market through better advertisements, road shows and redesigning of their products than before. The company targets the young audience of age between 25 to 44 years. It is a group that is professionally successful and will afford to buy the high-class model. Its major purpose is to widen the market base through reaching the young population. This product has a modern luxury and allure of the c- class. The target market is those with high-quality consciousness, independent and ambitious. They are also described as people who set time to do special things in their life. For the new model to sell easily, the company has come up with products that entice the young people. 

It’s designed in such a stylish way that the target market will easily be attracted to buy. It has a distinctive bonnet- mounted standing star for the exclusive type and also with a grille- inset star for the Avant-garde version directed to the young buyers. The other version is for those interested with the sporty cars. All the versions are fitted with safety features having the exterior and interior designs being classy. It’s fitted with a turbocharged four-cylinder engine, and the interior design has an auto-show floor. In the interior design, it has a color that dominates half of the dashboard and below it are stylish circular air holes and an efficient switchgear layout. It’s fitted with stitched leather seats that are soft. This model has pelvis bags for the passenger and the driver with others on the window and side for the back seat passengers. The wheelbase is long for extra backseat passenger room. It has a 360-degree camera together with front and rear parking sensors with safety packages. Other features include climate control system that prevents pollution in congested areas. All these features in the C-class are needed against the close competitors like the BMW 3 Series.

The new model comprises of four petrol engines and five diesels with affordable prices. There is also a diesel hybrid model in this class. These features enable the model to be unique in its kind.  The different varieties are to attract the target market. Their main concern is quality and value for their money. The target group is people interested in speed, and these engines are good for that. In fact, they have a seven- speed automatic transmission which boosts its performance. The transmission is precise having timed shifts and well-spaced ratios. Their wheel base area is wide, and this enhances stability even at high speed.

The target population wants to buy this new model because of its elegance in style. It’s unique in this model and does not compare with others. Since it’s a concern for many buyers, fuel consumption is very efficient. Being a classy vehicle, the developers had in mind perfection, and this makes it more special. Value for money is another concern. Once purchased, maintenance costs are low since it stays long without wearing. For the young people, shape is also a concern. The company has designed it using the best state of the art available.

The young people are targeted because they ambitious and independent. The company has a strategy for connecting with the young audience through providing the fans with a chance to race with the FI driver. This to an extent will entice them to buy the new models easily. When doing the test drive, many features are checked by the potential buyers. These include; braking systems, lighting systems, clicking sounds when negotiating corners and acceleration drag time. To the buyers, decision making is easy after being satisfied with these features.


In order to sell this new model, the company has to have good marketing skills. In most instances, advertisements are used, and they have popular music to attract the young people. Mercedes uses social media to drive their campaign. They have to be appealing to the target population. The company needs to highlight the features that make Mercedes-Benz better than other models using the words like prestigious, convenience, effectiveness and value for money. They also need to fit in the target group’s routine. It is done by evaluating how much effort the potential buyers will use to change their mindset and decide to concentrate on that model. In the marketing process, the benefits of one having that vehicle should be easy to spot. It means that all features of that new model should be easily identified without straining. Moreover, the customers should be given a chance to try out the model and have a practical touch to it. In this way, they will have a direct connection with it and decision making is fast. In connection to this, the company’s website has to be updated with all the elegant features of the new model. They need to have a customer support site that directly responds to the queries of the potential buyers. The company needs to have incentives like discounts for the young people to encourage them to buy.


Baker, R (2011). Mercedes hopes to attract younger fans Retrieved from

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Published in History

An Interview With River Oaks and Grande Villas

The aim of the interview was to gain insight into the contemporary management functions and issues. The interview also served as a reflection of the content learnt in class. A guided interview was conducted with the manager of River Oaks and Grande Villas. River Oaks and Grande Villas is a Myrtle Beach hotel that is located intra-coastal waterway in South Carolina. A list of questions and points to guide the interview was prepared and organized. Responses were summarized in a notebook. The following is a synopsis of the interview questions and responses from the manager.
Summary of the questions and answers
ME: Hello Mr. Peterson, I am jubilant for giving your audience.
Manager: you are much welcome
Me: I am management student and am seeking to understand the general functions of a manager. And issues affecting day to day management function.
Manager: That is okay, now what specifically do you want to know?
Me: How you long have you been the manager at this resort and what academic qualifications to you hold.
Manager: Well, I joined the resort last year after serving in another hotel in LA for two years. In terms of education, I have a master degree in hospitality management.
Me: As the manager of the resort, what are your day to day functions?
Manager: I have a very huge job description, but to cut it short I am the one in charge of the overall activities in the resort. My main function is to ensure everything is work okay by ensuring the supervisor and managers in charge of various departments ensure the departments are working efficiently.
Me: Specifically your daily routine involves……..
Manager: When I report in the office in the morning, I go through my emails, reply and act on other urgent issues. Then I visit the manager in charge of operations or summon him in office to ensure she is in touch of everything else. Our industry is very sensitive; you have to understand processes in almost all the departments, especially the final service delivery. Therefore, I often go to the dining tables once in a while, and I visit the pool and also go to the kitchen to see how foods are being prepared.
Me: it seems like you, usually, have a busy day every day.
Manager: yes, management is not about sitting in the office, signing invoices and delegating jobs. For an efficient running of the business, you have to participate, know people who are working for you and understand them.
Me: according to you, what are the main competencies a manager should have?

Manager: An effective manager is one that does not stop learning; learning from other people, learning from written and electronic materials and most important learning from mistakes.
Me: Are you referring to career development.
Manager: career development is one thing, but knowing what is happening in your industry is another thing. So you must have the two: the right education and the need to know and understand.
Me: any other competence that is critical in your role as a manager?
Manager: Yes, management is about making decisions; making decision that activity to prioritize, the employee to delegate jobs, the area to renovate and how to solve conflicts within the organization.
Me: what are the major challenges you face as a manager?
Managers: challenges are many especially in our industry. For example, you might come here during a winter and think we have closed. The business is, usually, too low. Secondly, maintain employees are a great challenge. If you do not treat them the right way they, usually, walk away. We are competing against the best in the market, so if our services deteriorate in terms of quality then, we lose our customers.
Me: how do you overcome these challenges?
Manager: As I have said, it is about learning. Learning from the best and books and applying the new knowledge into the practice.
Me: Thank a lot for your time and your information has been very educative.
Lesson learn

The interview with Rivers Oak & Grande Villas was very informative. The manager helped understand the daily function of the manager in the hospitality industry. The objectives of the interview were to gain insight into the competencies of a manager, daily functions of a manager and challenges affecting the management function.

According to the information and answers provided by the manager, the key competencies of a manager include the necessary academic qualifications and continuous learning. The manager also outlined the ability to make effective decisions as an integral to the function of a manager. The manager emphasized on the need to keep abreast with information. He noted that through continuous learning, a manager can incorporate evidence-based practices in the business and improve the performance of the business. The manager described the need to be able to make decisions. He explained that a simple decision like hiring the wrong person may adversely affect the business.

The manager stated that, unlike the convention assumption the daily routine of a manager involve sitting in the office and signing document, the manager adapt a participative function. His daily activities involve sitting various departments to ensure processes and functions are proceeding as planned. The manager also relies on delegating job to department managers. A lot of emphases is paid to the operation manager. This can be due to the fact; he is in the service industry.

The manager highlighted business fluctuation as the main challenge. During the winter, the numbers of patrons visiting the villa decreases and the resort have to lay off some employees at this time. Secondly, the manager noted the complexity of maintaining a productive workforce. Employees are sensitive to market and internal factors. Therefore, the manager has to ensure employees are motivated and satisfied. The intense competition to attract and retain employees has increased the mobility of productive workforce.


The interview provided firsthand information on the daily functions of a manager. It enables me to reflect on various concepts I have learnt. In addition, it enabled me create the network with professionals in the field. The positive attitude portrayed by the manager was thrilling and the attention he was paying to employees very critical in the service industry.

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Published in History


Question 1: Definition of piety

The definition that Euthyphro uses in explaining piety is that it is doing what he is doing. This involves prosecuting the wrong doers whether it is murder or even temple robbery. This does not matter whether the wrongdoer is your dad, mother or any other person. According to Euthyphro, failure to prosecute is sinful. In response to this definition, Socrates believes that this definition is not dealt with properly. Socrates rejects the definition by stating that people who prosecute are just an example of a holy act, but not a definition. According to Socrates, he urges euthyphro to provide more definition that may be identified as a claim that other holy deeds may be recognized. Based on the definition that Euthyphro provides regarding the piety, Socrates claims that it is only an example of piety; thus, it is inadequate. Socrates claims that he is not interested in holy actions, but what makes the holy actions holy. Therefore, all holy actions are holy, and unholy actions are not holy proving that the definition is not legitimate.

The second definition that Euthyphro provides about piety is that what gods hold as being dear and impiety is what is not dear to them. In response to this definition, Socrates tends to acknowledge the definition with the possibility that Euthyphro can support the theory. In this definition of piety, Euthyphro claims that what is holy are approved by gods. However, Socrates disagrees with the claim stating that a deed that has been approved by gods is because the gods decided to approve it. This means that through approval, it is the state of that deed that is being approved by the gods. While refuting this definition, Socrates challenges euthyphro by asking him if he believe that gods have a different in opinion regarding good and evil. Socrates asks Euthyphro if there is a correlation between honorable and dishonorable, holy and unholy, and just and unjust and whether it varies depending on the person that is making decision. Socrates believes that even gods tend to disagree and agree with one another occasionally.

Question 3: Teaching of Confucius and Socrates

In the dialogue, Euthyphro was going to prosecute his father because of unintentionally killing Euthyphro slave for killing one of his father’s slaves. When Socrates encounters with euthyphro, he flatters him by telling Euthyphro that he is an expert in religious issues because he is willing to prosecute his father. In his response, Euthyphro says that he knows everything about what is holy. According to Confucius, he states that respect for the elders is the foundation of unselfish life. Confucius states that honesty is observed when a father will screen his son and the son will screen his father. According to him, filial respect tends to out-weight the law. On the other hand, Socrates deals with the relationship of father and son in Euthyphro. When Socrates comes in contact with euthyphro, they discuss piety. They focus on the responsibility of the son to and the respect for his father. The teachings of Socrates deal with self-examination and clear thinking (Smith & Brickhouse 1990). The teachings of Confucius deal with the rectification of names; therefore, both Confucius and Socrates names may react to euthyphro similarly.

Socrates believes that in order for an individual to decide to prosecute his father, the person must have enough courage and also possess knowledge regarding the issue. There is a different between Socrates teaching and Confucius teaching on the issue. According to the two philosophers, filial respect can be extended to refer to the relationship between the rules and the subject. Thus, the relationship is the basis of order in the society. Confucius considers the family as the first-priority and respect for the elderly is integrity, and it outweighs the law. In contrast, Socrates believes that the father-son relationship is equivalent to a person’s relationship with the law. Thus, the law also deserves obedience and filial respect. According to Socrates, his perception about the relationship between the individual and law is what shapes his thoughts (Smith & Brickhouse 1990). Based on the argument, filial respect is the basis of the society; thus, an individual’s obedience to the law is vital in maintaining the stability of the society.

Just like Socrates, Confucius also extends the father-son relationship between the ruler and the subject. In his argument, Confucius believes that the filial piety is one of the greatest virtues because a person should serve his ruler with a devotion. Confucius claims that the father-son relationship is the foundation of a person and the society. Thus, man should have the feeling of himself and also awareness about his desires then extend the feeling to his father. Therefore, the son should ensure that he treats his father the way he would want to be treated. Socrates's and Confucius's teachings differ because Socrates’s moral norms are not built on kinship; however, they are regulated by laws. Then again, Confucius ethical norms are based on human relationship. Socrates has the understanding that filial respect is the foundation of the society and obeying the law is essential in ensuring that the society is stable.


Smith, N & Brickhouse, T (1990). Socrates on trial Oxford University Press

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Published in Philosopy

Diary of Joseph Plum Martin

According to" In My own Words" Joseph plumb martin was born in 1760 in western Massachusetts in 1760. His father who was a pastor often got into trouble or freely speaking his mind. Joseph lived with his affluent grandfather from the age of seven. In 1775, when the war started, he enlisted as a soldier. In June 1776, martin enlisted as a private soldier. He enlisted in 1977 with the Washington continental army and served during the war at a number of major battles. He kept a diary recording his experiences for seven years. He published some of the dangers, suffering and adventure of a revolutionary soldier at the age of 70, from his own observation. (In My Own Words, 2011)

The first difficulty he encountered was the differences between colonists. In his regiment, there were half soldiers from England and the other half from Pennsylvanians. The foreigners could hardly speak English, and they did not like him either.  Secondly, were the dangers of the battle. He narrates his experience on how a fellow sergeant of the artillery was cut into two by a cannon shot. The fire from the opponents was incessant. In order to call for assistance from some of their gallery that lay above them, it was desirable to signal to them by hoisting a signal flag. He was about to offer his services when the sergeant of the artillery offered himself. The sergeant ascended to the round top to pull down the flag to affix the signal flag. The enemies thought that they had surrendered and ceased the fire in jubilation. The flags were then hoisted, and the fire renewed immediately. As the sergeant came down, halfway, fired cannon shot cut him into two. The incident caused him serious reflection, thinking of what would have happened if he had been the one hoisting the flags. He had also witnessed five artillerists cut down by a single shot. He also encountered men who were not stooping low enough “split like fish to be boiled”.

He also narrates of the hardships of being a soldier. It was a difficult surviving in the cold month of September without clothing, provisions, shoes or not even stockings despite being in places within high degrees. He had been sent to reinforce those who were in the fort. He also reencountered on how a house used for accommodation of the soldiers and the barracks were often targets of the enemies. When the enemies’ shells fell on them, they would sink so low that only a tremulous motion of the earth would be felt. At other times, they would burst and throw mud fifty feet in the air.

He recalls of a British sixty-four gunship named Augustain. The ship got on the cheaveau-de-frise that had been sunk in the rivers channels. They discovered it in the morning and set it up in flames. Boats that had been sent to assist the ship were obliged to leave it to its fate owing to shots that proved too intense. The ship blew up with an explosion that left volumes of smoke and seemed to have shaken the earth at its centre.  A twenty gun ship named the Merlin that had gone to assist Augustain suffered the same fate.

He encounters his experience with Fleury an engineer who kept vigilance of the soldiers. They would escape from his vigilance and gather to light some fire. When the engineer found out, he would run down the other side with a stroke in his hand. It was difficult to sleep owing to the mud although shots from the enemies warranted them to lie down. Sometimes, some soldiers overcome by want of sleep and fatigue would slip away to the barracks to catch a nap of sleep but rarely come out alive. It was difficult to sleep not even for a minute.

Until the fourteenth day of November, while still suffering cold and miseries, they discovered six ships in a line below the cheveau-de-frise. They immediately opened their batteries to them, but they took very little notice of them. The enemy began firing at them. The enemy began firing at them. Their cannonade was severe with six sixty four gun ship, a twenty four gun ship, a thirty six gun frigate, a gallery, a sloop of six guns, six batteries of six guns each and a bomb battery of three mortars all directing their shots to the little poor fort. Many men were killed and wounded as a result. He lost a close friend whom he described as having the most intimate association with in the army. In the fort, they left one man who had deserted from the German forces in the British service. He had been trained by the British service but had gone back to them.

The experience of the Continental Army that coincided with his writings

The Augusta and Merlin the Joseph refers to were part of land sea assault on October 22 upon Fort Mercer but not on Fort Mifflin. They were not entangled on the cheveau-de-frise rather had become stranded in the shoals after prior attempts to fall the river. On 23rd Augusta was heavily bombarded. British attempt to refloat the ship were hampered by the Americans naval. A fire was seen at the deck of the ship at around 10.30 am. At noon, the ship blew up and the explosion was heard 18 miles away.

In his writing, martin does not show some understanding on why he was on the army or what he fought for. he joined the army as  teenager on what may seem as peer pressure.

EvensomanyyearsitremainedclearcloserelationshipshehadrecollectionthesoldierseachparticularcircleacquaintancewerefaithfuleachotherandstrictbandbrotherhoodThey enlisted and volunteered in the Continental Army while enduring much together throughout the American Revolution. Martin and other soldiers regarded of themselves as part of a community

Works cited

 "In My Own Words (Book Review) " Book Report 20.1 (2001): 71.

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Published in History

Management Journal

Today I attended my orientation a part of my part-time job at a retail store. The job seems overwhelming, and the job description seemed too demanding. I hope I will manage to achieve the expectation of the supervisor who has put a lot of trust in me by offering a job. Employees in the store were extremely busy, and the supervisor seemed to monitor their performance every minute. Although the manager accorded me the necessary attention and introduced me to my immediate supervisor, the supervisor seemed consumed with work and gave little attention into me. However, I grateful co-workers were generous and friendly, and they helped me navigate the various location I will work. The manager handed me the job description brochure, but I have not gone through it. I expect to learn more tomorrow. I would prefer the supervisor took the time with me and explained to me what I need to do instead of depending on the brochure. My previous experience in a similar position is different, and the supervisor explained all I have to do and took time to direct me. I hope the same will happen tomorrow.

Management lessons

The manager of the store relied heavily on his supervisors to manage the daily operations of the store. The supervisor had a more direct approach while dealing with subordinates and seemed to micro manage activities. Disparities in the management behaviors used by the two managers are a reflection of the different leadership styles explored in the course work.

Entry 2

I am relieved that the supervisor transferred me to the warehouse the section is not as busy as the retail section where every minute you have to be attending to customers or arranging merchandise. The warehouse section seems to be busy only in the mornings and when the trucks are offloading. The pressure to perform in the section is relatively low compared to the retail section, and the supervisors are more cooperative. However, I noted the huge backlog of outgoing merchandise that was unattended to and no plans to transport it. My co-workers seemed unmoved by the backlog, and they cited the reason that there is a delay in communication between the retail section and the warehouse. One of the employees told me that the retail section uses a bureaucratic procedure to send their completed sales. Often, the residence of the client is not clear making it hard to transport the goods

Management lesson

An effective communication structure is essential in the management of an organization. Miscommunication in one section or department can negatively affect others and ultimately the overall productivity of an organization.

Entry 3

The day has been exhausting. I took my ailing grandma to renew her Medicare policy, and it was hectic. When we arrived in the Medicare office, the queue outside was demoralizing. I could not imagine waiting in the queue for hours. My grandma was angry and impatient. He r health condition has made her moody, and she does not tolerate the slightest provocation. Waiting on the queue was a learning experience. The office attendant seemed unmoved by the long queue, and it seemed like a normal day for them. I don’t understand why the queue had to move that slow in the era of information technology. I don’t think the hyped IT transformation of the health care is yielding results there is a need to do more. I sympathize all the un-accompanied old people who had to endure the wrath of the slow activities in the office. I am thankful that we have managed to update her details so that she can enjoy full benefits.

Management lessons

The public office need to improve on its service delivery to the people. The slow queues are causing a lot of dissatisfaction among the clients, and there is a great need to change. Management in the facilities should devise a new strategy of attending to the client and improve their customer relationship. Majority of the client lamented their dissatisfaction and expressed their disappointments in the quality of service. Listening to the client should form a basic practice of all managers

Entry 4

When such a day can to an end successful, it is the delight of everyone. Happy birth my young brother! The confusion and miscommunication created by the delayed delivery of refreshments and eateries almost ruined the much-awaited day. Although the delivery of the supplies was delayed, I am grateful that the organizer of the event managed to keep the visitors entertained. My brother and I had panicked, and there was no way we could have managed to succeed without him. His plan B has worked good visitors were satisfied. The commotion caused by my brother and the delivery people did not affect the evening. Sometimes accepting to lose is the best way to win. I managed to cool him down and explained to him that delays are common in every business or event and what makes the difference is whether you are prepared for the delay.

Management lesson

Having an alternative or contingency plan is critical in every project. Managers should forecast and prepare for the worst. All factors should be considered and plans to mitigate any diversion from the main plan devised.

Entry 5

The refresher training today was very informative. We learnt how to integrate Radio Frequency identification technology (RFID) in the management of the warehouse. It was educative to see how technology can transform the management of the department and improve efficiency. The management complained about the low turnout of employees from other departments during the training. I believe the problem is not about communication, but lack of motivation and moral to attend the training. The management scheduled the training on after-job hours where most employees had already left. They were no incentives for members of other departments to attend.

Management lesson

The organization lacks effective inter-department communication. Activities are disjoined thus affecting the smooth running of the retail store. The management should improve not only the communication structure but also devise ways to motivate employees

Entry 6

I did not think shopping online can be that efficient and time-saving. I am grateful I have received my book on time without having to travel or spend transport expense. The delivery of the book will save me a lot of time that I need to perform my duties after the hectic day at work. I have been a conservative shopper who has to shop physically from malls, and I did not think online shopping would be that convenient. Were it not for my friend, I would not have tried the new experience but after his advice and assurance, I have decided to be a regular online shopper


Being receptive to ideas and new practices is critical in self-improvement and career development. Managers should be receptive to new information from others and search for ways to improve their organization.

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Published in Management
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