Sociology (348)

The interview was conducted by three categorized individuals based on the ages that defined the generations. The age difference was at 82 years, 45 years and 22 years respectively. The definition of marriage was slightly different by the mentioning of what the factors are considered for the establishment of the marriage and what the marriage association does mean. The old age generation defined marriage as an agreement that is done by two parties of different and opposite sex who are not related. The agreement is about staying together in hardship and happiness to stand and aid each other in raising up a responsible family of its dignity and respect. The definition focused on the virtues that a God fearing and a respected person ought to possess. The middle generation definition recourses on the earlier one by mentioning of the agreement of uniting of people to stay together for the good and raise a family depending on the agreement. The definition did not focus much on the virtues. The young generation sees marriage as a contractual deal between two persons for specified period to live and be companions based on the interest of either of the parties. The young generation introduces the divorce act as normal and does not consider.

The family definition sounds the same to both the old and middle and slightly differences to the young age. The old defines family is determined by unity, understanding, and morals. The young generation takes the family with a perception of simply staying and enjoying life. The aspect of focus is the family aspect of establishment and existence. This is why the definition lies about the well-being of a family.


The now famous Northeast blackout of 2003 was a power outage which happened in some parts of the Northeastern and Midwestern of the United States and the province of Ontario in Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003, after 1610 hours. Although power was restored by 2300 hours on that day, most of the areas did not get their power back until after two days. Additionally, in some more remote areas of the Northeastern, Midwestern, and the province of Ontario, it took almost a week to restore the power. The blackout of 2003 was ranked among the worst widespread blackout to have hit the earth. According to the estimations, more than 10 million people in the province of Ontario and more than 45 million people in eight states in the United States were affected by the blackout.

The primary cause of the occurrence of the blackout was a surge of electricity which touched off a series of failures of electricity power thus enforcing blackout in the named regions. However, the blackout was primarily caused by a software error in the alarm system inside the control room in Ohio in FirstEnergy Corporation. There were no alarms and therefore, the operators were left unaware of the need to have the power redistributed when the overloaded power transmission lines hit unpruned foliage. This occurrence triggered a race hit condition of the software used to control power transmission. At first, the blackout would have been managed smoothly. However, it cascaded into massive and widespread distress on the United States and Canada electricity grid (Barron, 2003). 

The different teams in the state governments joined hands and collaborated as never before. There was commendable coordination response which was led by Michigan State Police (MSP), several agencies, and the private sector among many other agencies, corporations, and individuals. Additionally, the United States new ICT team grew up fast during the blackout of 2003 emergency. The officials worked throughout the night in a bid to restore the electricity power transmission and bring back the grid into operation. The New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg reported that power was restored in some parts of Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx by 2300 hours. However, Manhattan remained without power.

The most seriously affected places were the airports which included the major airports in New York metropolitan region although they did not close down. There were delays of flights and cancellations all the way to San Francisco. However, the airports in the affected areas switched to emergency power according to the officials of Federal Emergency Administration. Although the airlines in the air were not devastatingly affected, they had to be rerouted to the unaffected terminals. Thousands of passengers in the subways in the affected regions were evacuated from the subway tunnels while commuter trains stopped their operations. More than 600 trains remained stranded throughout the blackout. There were varied reasons for the cause of the blackout. The Canadian prime minister initial reported lightning in New York as the cause but retracted the statement. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission cited automatic shutting down of seven nuclear power plants in New Jersey and New York and another two in the Midwest region when failure was noted (Poulsen, 2004).


Barron, J. (2003, August 15). THE BLACKOUT OF 2003: The Overview; POWER         SURGE BLACKS OUT NORTHEAST, HITTING CITIES IN 8 STATES AND      CANADA; MIDDAY SHUTDOWNS DISRUPT MILLIONS. Retrieved July 12,         2016, from The New York Times:         surge-blacks-northeast-hitting-cities-8-states.html?pagewanted=all

Poulsen, K. (2004, April 7). Tracking the blackout bug. Retrieved July 12, 2016, from       Security Focus:



Wednesday, 21 February 2018 11:57

customer satisfaction

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1.1    Chapter Introduction

Satisfying the customers tend to be a core business challenges that attracts considerable research attention. Harris (2003) claims that to be successful in business today; it needs a commitment to excellence in the customer service. Banks normally play a significant role in the economic system of the country. An essential factor that matters a lot in today’s successful banking business is the quality of service. The service industries tend to be customer driven, and their survival in the competitive environment depends on the quality of the services offered by them. In the UK banking industry, the quality of services furnished is essential, and their profitability closely connects to the quality of services they offer. In this paper, it provides an introduction to the study on how service quality impacts the customer satisfaction in the UK banking industry while focusing on the Barclays bank. The chapter will present a description of concepts used in the study.

1.2    Background of the research

Customer service is an integral part of any aspect of the industry, and it is essential that industries should engineer their systems and products so as to improve the service quality. Those businesses that seek to improve profitability should ensure they monitor and make some improvements to their service quality on an ongoing process. The service quality in the banking sector tends to be an essential method and asset for evaluating and also satisfying clients. According to Hong & Goo (2004), in the different service industries, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and the service attributes are difficult to identify due to the nature of service being intangible. Oliver (2009) claims that service quality and customer satisfaction are two distinct and also related constructs; therefore, customer satisfaction needs to be a key principle for all the service firms as an indicator of the performance of the firm. Service industries need to understand that contains improvement in the service quality affect the satisfaction level of customer, and they should ensure that they allocate resources for attaining quality standards so as to meet the expectations of their clients. In this research, it mainly focuses on how service quality tends to impact the customer satisfaction through conducting a study on the UK banking industry and mainly the Barclays Bank.

1.3    Statement of the problem

In the current era of competition, banks are focusing on maintaining a satisfied customer based on the idea that organizations that are customer centric tend to gain more returns than those, which are not service oriented and increase customer loyalty and satisfaction through the improved service quality. Because of the rapid technological change and the market competition, service quality is becoming an increasingly significant issue (Mont &Plepys 2003). Hence, understanding issues with regards to service quality are essential in satisfying the customer. It is essential that banks provide customers with high-quality services so as to survive in the highly competitive banking industry business.

1.4    Rationale of the research

The rationale of the research recognizes the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction in the banking industry (Barclays bank). Service quality tends to play a vital role in the performance of the business and is essential in developing a competitive advantage. From the findings of this study, it will contribute towards the improvement of service quality offered to the client, identify any existing problems, and ensure customer satisfaction.

1.5    Significance of the Study

According to researchers, they claim that customer satisfaction is fundamental tom development and strategy for the business that wants to grow and be a contender in the economy. The customer tends to be the cornerstone of the banking industry and for any bank that is efficient and competitive in an economy such as the UK that has institutions providing financial services constantly growing (Boshoff& Gray 2004). In conducting this research, it will be possible for the management to use the findings to help improve its customer policy towards satisfaction and also look at aspects that help in reducing customer complaints. The management may also help in ensuring ease of access to services offered so that the client’s expectations are always met. With the findings from the study, it will help result in better relations with clients and boost the bank performance. Since the study is a case study on Barclays bank, researchers can use the findings of the study to find out the effect that service quality can have on the customer satisfaction in other organizations.

1.6    Research Questions

The study will address the following questions;

  1. Does the service quality have any impact on customer satisfaction?
  2. How does service quality impact on customer satisfaction in the UK banking industry?

1.7    Research aims and objectives

There are many factors that generate customer satisfaction. One of the factors includes service quality (Boshoff& Gray 2004). There tend to be a gap of literature on studies done where service quality is considered as an independent variable and customer satisfaction as a dependent variable in the banking industry.  When considering the gap, the main objective of conducting this study is to look at how service quality impacts customer satisfaction in the banking industry. In conducting the study, the research will analyze the effect of service quality on customer satisfaction through discussing the relationship between the two. The study will mainly focus on the banking industry.

The study will also examine customer satisfaction in the banks and also study the service quality level. The objective of the study is to evaluate the level of service quality at Barclays bank and determine how it affects customer satisfaction.

1.8    Scope of the study

The research study will look at service quality and customer satisfaction. So as to conduct the study, it will be necessary to use Barclays bank in the UK so as to be able to gather sufficient information on this study.

1.9    Structure of the study

The research will consider of several chapters. The first chapter of the paper includes the background of the study, statement of the problem, research questions, research objectives and aims, significance of the study, and scope of the study. In chapter two, it examines the relevant literature on the understanding of service quality and customer satisfaction in the banking industry. Chapter three is about the research methodology describing the data collection, sampling method, data collection method, and the technique for analyzing data. Chapter four is about data analysis, and chapter five is the conclusion.


Boshoff, C. & Gray, B. (2004). The relationships between the service quality, customer satisfaction and the buying intentions in the private hospital industry. South African Journal of Business Management, 35(4)

Harris, K. (2003). Customer service: A practical approach. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall

Hong, C. & Goo, J. (2004). A causal model of customer loyalty to professional service firms: An empirical study, International Journal of Management, 21(4), 531-41

Mont, O., &Plepys, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction: Review of literature and application of the product-service systems. The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, 27-48

Oliver, L. (2009) Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer. ME Sharpe Inc



Wednesday, 21 February 2018 11:55

cognitive development

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The Piaget's theory of cognitive development is defined with four distinctive stages of sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operation. The initial stage of sensorimotor takes at the age of up to 2 years where the child development begins. The child will start with making the use of thoughts, memory and more so imitation. It will also stand to recognize different objects the mother being the creature of recognition. From then it will move to goal-directed action from a reflex action. At the preoperational stage, the child will start developing the usage of language and starts developing the ability to see different in the other persons’ point of view. This takes at the age between 2 to 7 years. The third stage of concrete operations that is between the age of 7 to 11 years gets the child through the ability to solve concrete challenges, the power of understanding conversational laws and reversibility. The child at the point can make a sound decision as well. Finally, the fourth stage of formal operation regards the teenage age of 11 to 15 years. During this stage, the child can solve the abstract problems and well developed logical fashion. The thoughts of the child become scientifically structured and start to create concerns about identity and common social issues. The developed can be observed with specific growth and maturity that a child will exhibit at these different stages as defined in the Piaget's theory of cognitive development (Nagel, 2010).

Piaget's theory of cognitive development is identified with several segments that articulate to the support of the child establishment and development. The theory cuts across to focus on the qualitative development that has a great influence on education. Educational programs have taken the approach by applying the theory principles with the belief that children can be well developed with the fact that they get taught on a different level as outlined by the Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

The establishment of instructional strategies to handle a given situation has adopted the principles of Piaget's theory of cognitive development. The strategies may include the provision of the supportive environment, the utilization of social interactions, normal teaching and aiding children in developing in the inconsistencies that do exist in their thinking. Otherwise, Piaget's theory of cognitive development has been supportive in the general establishment of step like programs and projects alongside ensuring the children develop according to their physical development.

Piaget's theory of cognitive development is also associated with some limitations that can identify primarily as the theory having issues with research methods of establishing the understanding and facilitating the development. The research method focuses on the children established from a well-educated background and thus fails to incorporate all and large population.

The Piaget's theory of cognitive development has the argument that there is the automatic growth and move from one level to another by all children. This is totally misleading because there are some other factors such as environmental factors that greatly play a big role in the development of the expected operations that will facilitate the movement of the children (Cherry, 2016).

Piaget does not have the realization that children does possess a great number of abilities at earlier ages and thus the Piaget's theory of cognitive development gets to fail to provide a well understanding about the children ability existence.



Cherry, K. (2016). Support and Criticism of Piaget's Stage Theory. Retrieved from

Nagel, N.  G. (2010). Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development.  Retrieved from


Wednesday, 21 February 2018 11:43

Family Profile

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Rules are authoritative statements that describe what should be done and what should not be done in a given specific situation. Such statements are issued by the authoritative appropriate persons or bodies defined with the duty of establishing such statements. In most cases, the rules are defined with the objective of clarifying, demarcating and interpreting a stated law or policy within a given environment. Rules stand at establishing principles that provide direction and guideline on how one should get to conduct itself. Rules are defined in four categories of folklore, guidelines, mandates and policies.


A boundary defines something that is set to indicate a limit that should not get extended. Boundaries are applied in different situations, and the inner meaning is drawn based on the area of application. The boundary in family profile extends to define the limiting the extension the family members can go in conducting and undertaking things within the family. Therefore, boundaries are the special rules defined with the aim of governing the interactions that exist between the subsystems in the well-established family. It should be a noted family is a system on its own. They are always clear, rigid and diffuse.

Rules and boundaries do differ in a way that boundaries are set within a simple environment with the people existing, unlike the rules which can only get set with the stated appropriate persons. Rules depend on the family members’ fear of the negative consequences, and they are defined as the parents to the children and amongst the family heads. The boundaries will no longer depend on the fear, or the power of the family heads rather the family heads power should allow the positive consequences at the point when the child does his/ her role. The basis defined the difference on the ground of how rules and boundaries are established.

Rules in most cases take to focus on the negative despite the fact that both boundaries and rules can provide direction and prevent misbehavior. On the other hand, boundaries try to take the positive line with the positive outcome coming by desired behavior from not occurring. Boundaries are defined at reducing stress and conflicts that may exist in a well-established relationship. Arguments are no longer experienced as long as boundaries are well established and defined.

Covert and Overt rules

Covert defines something that is not openly appreciated or disguised. A covert rule is a rule that is not well established or stated within the family, and it is likely to get known on the ground of being broken. These rules are always misinterpreted by the fact that they are often assumed that the family members have a good understanding and the go by of the underlying rules.

Overt rule on the other side defines the rule that is well established and known within the family for the adherence. An overt defines the form of rules that any member of the family will easily list any time the member is asked to identify the rules appropriate to the family.

Covert rules are defined with the advantages of allowing persons to access the social groups. They are defined on the basis that they play the function of raising the ethical concerns. In an example, a covert rule may go by restricting the misconduct before visitors. Every person is expected to present before the visitors and strangers with respect, and it should net get defined as such a rule rather regarded as the sensible practice.

Overt rules are defined to avoid biases that may exist between the family members. In this case, the rule is set to provide the right direction of living according to the family establishment principles. By example, a rule may restrict the children from watching the TV during the study time and the programs that are not applicable to children. The rule will stand to provide direction to the children to watch the TV during their programs and ensure that they get to study and not get involved in the adult and parental affairs (Goldenberg, & Goldenberg, 2008).

Unclear boundaries

Unclear boundaries can be defined as the situation where a person is stuck in a condition of failing to make a proper decision due to the lack of appropriate guidelines towards the required decision. The definition of proper direction within any context will give the necessary direction on what should be done. Unclear boundaries fail to provide the way out on how to develop and undertake work.

Physical boundaries define the establishing of respect that should exist to eth access to the area that you reside. This can be working office. The boundary will provide the measures that restrict persons from getting informed about you, keeping the work area clean and keeping the shared areas as well clean. A physical boundary can be stated as; People should avoid eavesdropping personal conversations that involve the nearby office mates.

Friends’ boundaries are the boundaries that are established on the friendship basis. A gal may provide the boundary to the boyfriend to the extent they can go in conversations and indirect contact such that hugging should not extend to touching some other parts of the body. The co-worker boundary is the boundary created at the working point, and this should get stated to provide the conducive environment for working. Such situations can be handled by establishing an agreement on what should get done and should be done such that upon extending the defined boundary then the relationship should weaken. At working places, the sharing of places should get changed and even shift to other sections upon extending beyond the underlined boundary (McQuerrey, n.d).

Eco map

Eco map is a pictorial representation that shows the personal and social relationship that exist for a persons’ residing environment. The ecomap is often adopted by nurses or social workers in providing counseling services to persons. Eco map can be applied as a family assessment tool in describing the family relationship within the environment of existence. The family may easily study and understand the environment and adjust to the suite and improve on the living stands. It describes the family members each after the other and easily provides a better understanding of the same. The family will stand to have the better understanding of the underlying strengths and the resources within the particular environment.


Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Australia: Thompson Brooks/Cole.

McQuerrey, L. (n.d). How to Set Boundaries With Coworkers.  Retrieved from

Wednesday, 21 February 2018 11:37

Miracle Question

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 The miracle question is a solution-focused family counseling technique that results in hypothetical solutions. In family counseling, it assists people set goals by coaching them to imagine the way their life would be like if the problem they had disappeared. It is a useful tool for moving beyond problem talk to solutions. The response given by the client to the question is usually the starting place for assisting them as well as the therapist create a better sense of the client’s aim and also reveals the clues of achieving it. Therefore, the counselor must acquire a clear, concrete and behaviorally accurate description of what would be different from the answer given. The technique was described by de Shazer in which clients get asked the following question:

“Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, a miracle takes place. And the miracle is that this problem was solved, but you are sound asleep and didn’t know it happened. How would you know? What are the things that you would notice that would be different? (Tan, 2011)”

In a family therapy, all family members are asked to answer the miracle question and hence speculate how different things would be and how each family member’s behavior would change. The miracle question commonly gets raised at a certain point during the first counseling session, and the answers to the question should prove helpful in creating small, behavior-oriented goals. The therapist proposes a “miracle scenario” then a question so as to assist the client in determining changes that need to take place so that the difficult situation ends. The miracle question provokes the client to notice different events in the world when the problem disappears from their lives. According to Sparrer & Onn (2007), the miracle question leads a client and a counselor to an experience in which they become certain that a solution is possible.

The application of the miracle question by therapists in family counseling sessions assists in finding solutions to different difficult situations in families. The use of miracle question assists clients to articulate a better or desired future in which challenges facing the family members would no longer exist. One way in which the miracle question can get used in family counseling is to assist families to break out of old, problem-saturated ways of looking at their families’ problems and to choose new goals and identify potential solutions to their difficulties that are more creative, novel and constructive. It aids parents set new goals for themselves and enhance their ability to communicate within changing family conditions. Another way of using the miracle question intervention in family situations is where therapists assist couples in redefining their love images and shifts their view from a problem-focused one to a solution-focused one. These couples tend to seek assistance in which they complain about their partners and wonder whether they are still in love with their partners. The miracle question intervention is a solution-focused therapy technique that empowers the clients to reach into untapped resources and identify actions that will assist them to move toward solutions and preferred outcomes (Stauffer & Capuzzi, 2015). Also, the miracle question allows family members to experience goal accomplishment. The follow-up questions demand that the family finds with great precision the way their interactions would get altered by the magical event. The participation of family members in this magical simulation introduces them to the particular interactions they must develop to accomplish their objectives.


Tan, S. Y. (2011): Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Christian perspective. Baker Academic.

Sparrer, I., & Onn, S. (2007): Miracle, solution, and system: Solution-focused systemic structural constellations for therapy and organizational change. Solutions Books.

Stauffer, M. D., & Capuzzi, D. (2015): 10 Strategic and Milan Systemic Theories: Approaches and Applications. Foundations of Couples, Marriage, and Family Counseling, 239.


Wednesday, 21 February 2018 09:59

City of Phoenix Demographics

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There are several issues of concern in the demographics data obtained from Phoenix City. First regards the total population of the region that appears to increase steadily over the last two decades. The rate of increase is not significantly high, but the region has been experiencing a progressive increase that predicts of high populations in the future. Another surprise in the data is the comparison of the racial breakdown. The White population appears to be on a decline as the other minority groups increase in numbers. There is a likelihood of the minority groups outnumbering the whites in the coming years (Parker & Barreto, 2014). For instance, the Whites are only 45.1 % of the total population having the natives comprising of barely 1.89 %.

As identified, the children born to the minorities are higher in numbers than the whites which should be a concern to them. I was also amazed by the realization that the population of males is not significantly different to that of females despite the common trend of females being higher than males. I find it interesting to realize that the region has the same number of males and females despite being racially diverse. I expected racial diversity to have a significant influence to the ratios. The average income for the males and females is not a surprise since it’s the common trend. The City of Phoenix appears to be a true reflection of the American demographics since it has representation from all the racial groups. Thus, the data acquired is essential when analyzing the changing American demographics.       

How does demographics affect the role of community politics?

Politics play a significant role in the decisions made by the different groups operating in the community. The changing demographics have an effect of shifting the political landscape in the future. As evident from the demographics analysis, the white establishment is now the minority. The white Americans are not the minority yet, but the demographics shifts to that direction are thereby affecting the electorate. The minorities account for a significant portion of the voters that could easily influence the political landscape (Frey, 2008).

The role of community politics is affected by demographics in certain ways. The involvement of the various groups in the community like the courts and the police has to be recognizant of the demographics of the region. Community politics is the re-engagement of the people with the political action on a local level. The change in the demographics affects the role of the community politics by influencing the decision-making strategies and the mode of performing certain political tasks (Adidjaja, 2012). The election activities start at the community level and later move on to the regional and national level. Thus, any changes in the community politics are influential to the regional and national politics. For instance, the shift of population from the majority-based to the minority based means that the minority vote is becoming important in the political process. Thus, there is a likelihood of the community political leaders appealing to the minorities for their support. The community leaders cannot ascend to power without considering the shifting demographics in the community.    

How does demographics affect the role and barriers of police in the community?

The Phoenix police department has been under scrutiny due to several issues. The County Sheriff’s officials have also been involved in various issues affecting the community. Politics and demographics have been the major issues of discussion. The changes in the demographics require the police department and other public agencies to adopt new ways of performing their roles, learn about other cultures and languages, as well as respond to the increasing needs of the regions.

The growth of different regions and the change of demographics come with challenges to the role of police in the community. Communication becomes a challenge to the police who encounter a language barrier in their line of duty with the citizens. Thus, they cannot be effective in offering the required services. Racial disparities due to changes in the demographics affect the role of the police in the community. It is necessary to reduce racial disparity in the Criminal justice system where the police serve. America is a racially diverse democratic nation, but the gains are not shared universally in all the regions. There is a racial and ethnic disparity in the justice system that raises concerns. As the community becomes diverse in various issues, the challenges to law enforcement rise that include identity theft, drug distribution, and forgery.

With increased changes in the community demographics, the police are accused of brutality and discrimination against the minorities and the marginalized. Other issues that arise include the failure of taking action upon reporting an issue and extended periods for investigations on crime cases. The family income level changes also affect the role of the police in the community since more stable families are challenging to control in comparison to the less stable households.  

 Work Cited

Parker, C. S., & Barreto, M. A. “The change they can't believe in the Tea Party and            reactionary politics in America.”(2014), Princeton University Press

Frey, W. H. “Race, immigration and America's changing electorate.”(2008), Brookings     Institution

Adidjaja, E. “The Demographics of the Largest 25 U.S. Cities in Relation to Their Online             Sustainability Reporting and Sustainability Performance”: International Journal of            Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2012; 6(8), 191-200.       




Water is a critical resource in the society that is significant for basic human consumption, survival as well as economic well-being. However, this valuable resource faces numerous problems ranging from contamination of ground water to extended drought in some regions. Therefore, this vital resource must be well protected, conserved, tested, monitored and managed by the relevant authorities and bodies. There is a great connection between water quality and public health; therefore water testing and monitoring play a significant role in ensuring well-being and health of humans. There are various reasons for water testing and monitoring. They include regular testing to identify the specific water quality challenges, assists in ensuring that drinking water is safe for human consumption, assists in ensuring that agricultural water is suitable for use and also assists in determining the effectiveness of water treatment system (Carrow & Duncan, 2011). The testing frequency of water sources varies with the specific reason for sampling the water. There are three testing frequencies namely; regular basis, occasional basis and increased frequency following the degradation of source water quality (World Health Organization, 2004). The regular basis depends on the size of the community supplied by the water source and the reliability of the quality. The occasional basis entails random visits and increased following degradation of source water quality maybe as a result of predictable incidents or emergencies.


The objectives of week 2 Water Lab tests are;

  1. Experiment 1 aims at studying the effects of the common pollutant on groundwater and the ability of soil to remove oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent from the environment before it reaches groundwater.
  2. Experiment 2 aims at testing the effectiveness of one filtering technique on the ability to purify contaminated water.
  • Experiment 3 aims at testing the quality of two separate bottled water samples and tap water sample by measuring different chemical components of the samples.


Oil, vinegar, and laundry detergents may contaminate groundwater if put mixed with water. A filter formed by layers of sand, activated charcoal, and gravel will purify contaminated water mixed with alum if passed through it. A tap water sample contains most samples when tested and compared with samples of Dasani bottled water and Fiji bottled water.

Materials and Methods

The first experiment got conducted to study the effects of groundwater contamination. The materials used in the test are eight-250 ml - Beakers, permanent marker, 100 mL graduated cylinder, 10 mL vegetable oil, 10 mL vinegar, 10 mL, 10 mL liquid laundry detergent, 100 mL beaker, 240 mL soil, funnel, scissors, cheesecloth, and water. The eight (250mL) beakers got labeled 1-8 using the permanent marker. Beakers 1-4 were filled with 100mL of water using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. Using a safe wafting technique to smell the samples, the observations of the water in Beaker 1 were recorded on the Week 2 Lab Reporting Form. 10 mL of vegetable oil was added to Beaker 2 and the solution mixed thoroughly with a wooden stir stick, and then observations recorded in a table. 10 mL vinegar was added to beaker 3 and the solution mixed thoroughly with a wooden stir stick and the observations recorded. 10 mL of liquid laundry detergent was added to beaker 4 and the solution mixed thoroughly, and then the observations recorded. The piece of cheesecloth was cut into five different pieces. One piece gets reserved for the next experiment, and the other pieces folded to have a piece 4 layers thick and big enough to line the funnel. One of the pieces then got placed inside the funnel. 60 mL of soil gets measured using the 100 mL inside the cheesecloth-lined funnel. The funnel was then placed in beaker 5. The solution in beaker 1 was then poured through the funnel so that it filters into beaker 5 for one minute. Observations were made of the filtered water in the beaker 5 and recorded. The test got repeated using the other pieces of cheesecloth, in beakers 6, 7 and 8 in which solutions 2, 3 and 4 were poured respectively, with observations mate to each of the filtrates.

Experiment 2 is a test of the effects of one method of water treatment. The materials used are; 100 mL potting soil, two (250 mL) beakers, two (100 mL) beakers, 100 mL graduated cylinder, 40 mL sand, 20 mL activated charcoal, alum, funnel, cheesecloth, bleach, stopwatch, water, 60 mL gravel and a wooden stir stick. 100 mL of soil was added to the 250 mL beaker and filled with water to the 200 mL mark. The soil solution is poured back and forth between the two 250 mL beakers for a total of 15 times so as to allow thorough mixing. 10 mL of the contaminated water solution was then poured into a clean 100 mL beaker, and that would serve as the sample for comparison with the treated water at the end of the filtration process. 10 grams of alum got added to the 250 mL beaker containing the contaminated water and slowly stirred for 1-2 minutes using a wooden stick and the solution left to sit for 15 minutes. The funnel gets placed into the empty 250 mL beaker. The piece of cheesecloth gets folded to have a piece 4 layers thick that is big enough to line the funnel and then placed inside the funnel. So as to layer the funnel, 40 mL sand was poured into the cheesecloth-lined funnel, then 20 mL activated charcoal, and then 40 mL gravel. Clean water was then slowly poured through the filter until the funnel is full so as to solidify the filter. The rinse water was then discarded from the beaker, and the process repeated four times. ¾ of the contaminated water was then poured into the funnel ensuring that the current sediment in the contaminated water jar did not mix. The solution was then allowed to filter through the beaker for 5 minutes and the filtrate compared with the 10 mL sample collected earlier. The filter was then removed, and a few drops of bleach solution added to the filtered water in the beaker. The water and the bleach were slowly stirred for a minute.

Experiment three was a test on drinking water quality. The materials used were; Dasani and Fiji bottled water, tap water, Ammonia test strips, Chloride test strips, 4 in 1 test strips, phosphate test strips, iron test strips, permanent marker, stopwatch, three (250) mL beakers, pipettes, and three foil packets of reducing powder. Tap water, Dasani bottled water, and Fiji bottled water was filled in the three beakers and labeled appropriately. Ammonia test strip test was conducted on the three samples in which the test strip got placed in the samples and vigorously moving it up and down in the sample for 30 seconds ensuring that the pads get submerged. The color of the pads got compared to the color of the color chart. Chloride test strip got conducted on the samples in which they were immersed into the sample for a second and color compared to the color chart. 4 in 1 test strip test was conducted in which the strips were dipped in the samples for 5 seconds and the color compared. The phosphate test strip test was carried out by dipping the phosphate test strips in the samples for 5 seconds and the color compared to the color chart. The iron test strip was then conducted. One foil packet was opened, and the powder contents added to the beaker; covered the beaker with a piece of Parafilm and shook the beaker vigorously for 15 seconds. The iron test strip is then dipped in the samples, moving back and forth for 5 seconds and compared the color to the color chart.


Table 1: Water Observations (Smell, Color, Etc.)




Clearwater and has a hint of chlorine10 scent


Clearwater with a layer of yellowish oil sitting on the top of water surface with several oil pockets clumped together which are quickly merging to create large oil pockets. No scent


Water is clear, vinegar dissolved immediately into water, smells strongly of vinegar.


Water is cloudy but still clear, with soap bubbles at the surface of water and smells like detergent.


60 ml of water is dark brown, with soil in water, and water does not smell like chloride and smells like soil.


72 ml of water is dark brown, with soil in water, and smell like soil.


 88 ml of water is dark brown, with soil in water, and still, smells like vinegar.


70ml of water is dark brown, with soil in water, and smells like detergent.


Table 2: Ammonia Test Results

Water Sample

Test Results

Tap Water


Dasani® Bottled Water


Fiji® Bottled Water



Table 3: Chloride Test Results

Water Sample

Test Results

Tap Water


Dasani® Bottled Water


Fiji® Bottled Water



Table 4: 4 in 1 Test Results

Water Sample


Total Alkalinity

Total Chlorine

Total Hardness

Tap Water





Dasani® Bottled Water





Fiji® Bottled Water






Table 5: Phosphate Test Results

Water Sample

Test Results

Tap Water


Dasani® Bottled Water


Fiji® Bottled Water



Table 6: Iron Test Results

Water Sample

Test Results

Tap Water


Dasani® Bottled Water


Fiji® Bottled Water



In experiment 2, the contaminated water smells of soil and is dark brown in color, whereas, the treated water has a hint of bleach scent, clear but slightly murky with an ivory tint, and has very little soil sediment at the bottom of the beaker. In experiment 3, the major differences contained in the tests of the tap water sample, Dasani water sample, and Fiji water sample are hardness, alkalinity, phosphate and chlorine levels.


I accept the hypothesis for experiment 1 because oil, vinegar, and laundry detergent pollute water. I would accept my hypothesis in experiment 2 as the water is visibly cleaner than the contaminated water. I would accept my hypothesis in experiment 3 since the overall tap water does show the most contaminates.

Drinking contaminated water could result in serious health problems such as cancer and hepatitis (World Health Organization, 2004). The symptoms associated with detergent poisoning are changed in blood PH balance that can damage all the body organs. Tap water can get improved to fit health and water quality standards. Many people around the world are turning to bottled water since it always indicates its source, mineral content and often complies with health and safety standards (Balch, 2006).

The findings of this experiment may have got affected by outside factors such as temperature, contaminants, and time of day.


Water is a valuable resource for the society due to its wide range of uses. Water testing is a critical process that should get conducted on water sources regularly to assess its quality as well as ensure its fit for human consumption so as to prevent health complications.


Balch, P. A. (2006): Prescription for nutritional healing. Penguin.

Carrow, R. N., & Duncan, R. R. (2011): Best management practices for saline and sodic turfgrass soils: assessment and reclamation. CRC Press.

World Health Organization. (2004): Guidelines for drinking-water quality: recommendations (Vol. 1). World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2006): Protecting Ground Water for Health-Managing the Quality of Drinking-water Sources. World Health Organization.

Wednesday, 21 February 2018 09:47

Genesis to Revelation Paper about Tablets

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The tablet computers are slowly diminishing the market for the networks apart from transforming the traditional personal computers (PC). In that sense, Apple’s iPad is the one that receives most credit for the transformation, although Steve Jobs was not the one that came up with the idea of the tablet computer. The idea of tablet computers began some decades before the launching of the iPad; however, it is from the year 2010 that the tablet PC gained the momentum, due to its mass production dominated by Apple’s iPad followed by Microsoft, Samsung, Toshiba, and Motorola among others. The tablet computers are used for various functions, and they can be connected to the PCs via universal serial board (USB) ports. There are many built-in applications in the tablet computers, and these computers can allow for voice, photo recognition, handwriting, that offers more flexibility to their users.


As earlier stated, tablet computers were not the original work of Steve Jobs of Apple Company, but they have rather been around for several years, the only thing is that they did not receive the desired popularity by then as it is today. The person that came up with the novel idea of the tablet computers was Elisha Gary has he invented some interface that was capable of detecting the handwriting (McLellan, 2014). That device was known as Teleautograph and patents were given in the year 1915 and 1942 for the invention of the touch screen that was useful in inputting the handwriting. That is the device that laid the foundation for the development of the tablet computer that is popular today.

In 1963 there was the development of the RAND tablet that was partly designed to develop progressively complex modes that were helpful in interacting with the device using a graphical language (Information Resources Management Association, 2016).  Although the capabilities of this device did not perfectly meet the ones that had been envisioned by the designers, it used a flat input mechanism that formed a writing surface. Beneath the writing, the surface was some grid of wires that served the purpose of transmitting the handwriting as well as the freehand drawings from the stylus to the attached display. The concept of the RAND tablet inspired Alan Kay, who came up with a Dynabook I the year 1972 (Lux, 2014). After that several tablet-like devices began showing up win movies and fiction- television shows including those from Gene Roden Berry series.  Those tablets had much resemblance to the ones that were late conceived in the year 2000 during the PC of the Year contest.

Those early devices had many limitations and the features contained therein were not as many as they are today. Furthermore, the size of the devices was relatively bigger as compared to today’s tablet computers.   The security features, for instance, were not incorporated into these computers and one could not even transfer files from one computer to another as the idea of the compact disk was not incorporated into them.  Because of their size, it was not possible to carry them around since they were heavy. Their screen resolutions were very low as compared to today’s tablet computers.  The University of Illinois, who were the winners of the 2000 contest, came up with a 20-plus page report that contained the prescient statements that were reminiscent to today’s tablet PCs and their applications (Information Resources Management Association, 2016).


The UIUC team from Illinois made the description of the original; tablet computer, iPad that was later released in the year 2010.   They proposed a relatively smaller computer that was the size of a notebook having no buttons to play with, icons on the screen, and a host of applications among other features and applications.  Instead of having a separate display screen as the earlier tablet computers, they proposed a touchscreen display be also used as an input mechanism, and that concept mirrored the one for Apple Company for simplified elegance.  “That tablet would be portable thereby enabling one to carry it to a meeting, a library and anywhere. That is what resulted in the addition of an “i” to the word “pad,” hence the word iPad as used today for the Apple tablet PC” (Sharples & Beale, 2003).

Apart from the reduction of the size of the tablets, there were also included many other applications and features that widely make it possible to meet the needs of consumers, both the home users and the business users.  The today’s tablet computers have included on-target applications such as Facebook, email, Bluetooth, Webcam among others.  The social media applications are one of the killer apps that are widely used today around the world, enabling people to share and exchange information across the world (Lux, 2014).  They allow their owners to broadcast what they want to broadcast include face, name, interests and other personal details. Today’s tablet computers can also be set to a “get acquainted mode” that helps in displaying the location of the machines in the vicinity and identifying their owners.  These functionalities were not possible in the previous tablet computers.

The tablet computers can also now be used to capture videos, snap photos and be used to view movies.  The video shareware application that was envisioned by the UIUC team and other distribution channels has also come in the name of the YouTube (Lux, 2014). In the past, the public broadcast of home videos could only be possible with the network TV shows, but nowadays it is possible to capture and distribute videos files via the Internet and YouTube using the tablet computers.  Also, the threat of tablet theft has been eliminated since one call up the computer and utilizes the GPS receiver to gain the knowledge of where exactly the stolen computer is.  Such applications like “Find My iPhone” has greatly diminished the headache of losing the device, although it has not been eliminated.  The GPS can locate devices with pinpoint accuracy when the feature is enabled.

With today’s tablet computers also, there is high screen resolutions as well as the cellular link capabilities that enable mobile video conferencing to take place.  The contemporary tablet PCs are used for communication suing video calls as the common mode of communication.  The Apple’s FaceTime platform availed din the second version of the iPads consists of a high-resolution video aspect that touted as a useful platform for entertainment (Gill, 2007). The removable storage media usage is also another evolution for the tablet computers. The cable providers have also developed Apps, and these enable the users to watch televisions on their tablets.

Therefore, the tablets have come a long way and they still have a long way to go whereby in the future they will be helpful in solving many consumer needs.



Gill, T. G. (2007). Using the tablet PC for instruction. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 5(1), 183-190.

Information Resources Management Association (2016). Human-computer interaction: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications.

Lux, A. (2014). Yesterday’s tomorrows: The origins of the tablet. Retrieved from

McLellan, C. (2014). The history of tablet computers: a timeline. Retrieved from

Sharples, M., & Beale, R. (2003). A technical review of mobile computational devices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), 392-395.


Wednesday, 21 February 2018 09:43

Iterations Oracle

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Iteration 3: Defining Oracle Database Requirements


The session involved collection of data and information to define a user to define user defined needs and requirements as well as performing systems analysis to gather information concerning user requirements. Iteration took two weeks it was facilitated by Mr. Rex Systems and processes requirements analyst. Session required conducting a preliminary study using data and information collection techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, and observation (D. R. Rex, personal communication, May 28, 2016). The first half of week involved use of demographic observation on end users while performing daily business transactions at Mark Infotech Inc. The main purpose of observation was to identify problems encountered by end users while using Oracle database. The second half of week involved administering questionnaires end users, and clients to collect details concerning the type of system that they require. Another activity in the session included performing interview to stakeholders, directors, and managers to gather information concerning the type of system that they want.

During first half of second-week interns were supposed to work closely with Oracle databases while performing systems analysis. Various operations involved included defining systems used in current database systems at Mark Infotech Inc. Second half of week involved conducting benchmark studies to other companies using similar systems of Oracle databases. Through the systems analysis processes interns shall be required to collect new systems, tools, and technologies applied in benchmarked Oracle database systems. Interns shall also write a deliverable report based on changes that can be implemented to solve problems identified in the first week. Possible improvements made in that week, as well as hardware and software requirements of the database, shall be recorded (D. R. Rex, personal communication, May 28, 2016).


A session involving determining Oracle database requirements involved interacting with end users to understand their needs and requirements. Problems identified during field study included.

  1. Problems associated with database redundancy and inaccurate data and duplication of data and information
  2. Processing speed was low and undesirable for high traffic during high peak sessions. Databases were also characterized by connection problems with cloud computing services
  3. Configurations, settings, and communication between Oracle database servers were wrongly designed and implemented

Mr. Rex guided interns on how to repair Oracle database using new configurations, updating settings, and establishing new links with database servers. Interns administered questionnaires, as and performed interviews to relevant offices at Mark Infotech Inc 

A session involving system analysis led to discovering several flaws within existing systems. Challenges like inconsistent data entry, high level of data loss at the incident of system failure, and lack of repository recovery centers. Mark Infotech Inc Oracle databases had problems with the end to end data protection, poor data security (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 01, 2016). During analysis, study interns took a benchmark study in various Oracle databases like Google, Facebook, and Yahoo. Their databases were characterized by the presence of integrated tools, processes, and applications. New features analyzed included

  1. Oracle Active data guard that enabled read-only access to physical stand-alone database queries. It enhanced reporting, fast incremental backup procedures, real-time cascading, and global security
  2. They had Oracle advanced analytic tools used for data mining, text mining, and predictive analysis. Enabled most desired operations like provision of descriptive statistics, exploratory data analyzing, as well as advanced numeric computations

Interns were guided in writing deliverable reports containing detailed design architecture database, user needs, and systems requirements.


 Iteration dealing with Oracle database requirements provided detailed information concerning user requirement, needs, and specifications. Databases analysis process was an effective approach that provided detailed tools, systems, applications, and tools embedded in Oracle database systems. Through questionnaire most end users and clients specified for user-friendly systems that enhance quick responses and feedbacks. They required better performance on chats, instant messaging, and support for TELNET capabilities.  More reliable database systems would facilitate the smooth running of Mark Infotech Inc through improving the performance of Oracle database such as access, response, and support to real-time cascading graphics (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 04, 2016).

Through interview session, stakeholders, directors, and managers requested for Oracle database that supports large-scale business operations, support to online data processing, and big data concepts. They specifically demanded accost effective database that implements Oracle compression tool. Compatibility issues were also raised during interviews where proposed Oracle database required features and qualities that promote the easy transfer of data and information through enhancing high-level compatibility (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 06, 2016). Stakeholders required dynamic Oracle database that supports structured and unstructured data, scalable network traffic, and backup database implementation.

Benchmarked Oracle databases provided new insight through applying various techniques, and technologies that could improve existing database. The application of oracle diagnostic pack was one of solution that guarantees provision of automatic diagnostic and advanced system monitoring. The new database shall incorporate event notification tools to databases and other host systems to improve client support services such as chats. Expert performance management tools shall be required to support SQL tuning, and optimizing storage locations (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 08, 2016).


Data and information collection for Oracle database requirements went well. Research based on field observation, implementation of questionnaires, and interview sessions, went well with all responsible individuals used data and information collection operations. Through the session, interns gained expert knowledge, skills and experience for developing high quality and acceptable Oracle database (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 10, 2016). Through intervention of Mr. Rex,interns were guided on how to develop Oracle database systems through use of personalized features that support cloud computing by designing following features

  1. Development of self-service database by linking physical database with cloud service providers
  2. Design support features that enable both single instance and real-time application clustering configurations
  3. Programming accessibility to self-service portals for clients featured with cognitive features like graphical interfaces, link texts, and other high-performance systems

Final Oracle database system shall contain various platforms that support end users. Multiple processes shall be attached to facilitate decisions making such as Decision Support Systems (DSS), Analytical tools, Business intelligent systems (BI), and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) tools. Other systems to be integrated into proposed Oracle database shall include Oracle special and graph to facilitate the provision of geospatial data and features for enterprise resource locating tracking, and for social marketing of products (D. R. Rex, personal communication, June 12, 2016). Warehouse data schemas shall be provided to promote enterprise information management and marketing strategies. According to benchmark data most databases implemented diversified technologies such as handheld device technology like Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) to reduce maintenance expenses in companies such as hardware and software purchasing, upgrading, and security.

Iteration 4: Designing of the Oracle Database and Database Backup


The Oracle database implementation was performed practically through developing database prototypes to facilitate the improvement of database systems in Mark Infotech Inc. Improvement process included planning, designing, coding, testing, deployment, and maintenance processes. Interns were required to make prototypes within two weeks. Mrs. Ahab systems designer and implementation officer facilitated prototype development and implementation.   During first half of week interns were to be guided on how to implement the plan and allocate resources to implement the project. Subtasks in session shall include designing and coding user interfaces. Interns shall be subjected to the implementation of virtual private databases that resemble real database to help in simulating business operations and transactions (K. W Ahab, personal communication, June 20, 2016). The second half of week shall require end users to implement the development of user portals, applications, and functional services.

During the second weekend, users shall design logical and physical schemas of Oracle database. Tables, connection parameters as well as SQL queries shall be coded. Mr. Bin Database Developer shall guide interns in developing tables, addresses, procedures, and storage features during the first half of week. During first half of week interns shall receive some demonstrations on how to embed processes, applications, systems, and tools on databases. Subtask in session shall include developing storage systems on Oracle database. The second half of week shall involve training interns on how to implement a simulation of database systems through performing testing, debugging, and eliminating errors in the current system (T. P. Bin, personal communication, June 20, 2016). Other operations shall include interns being trained on how to prepare for deployment process through training end users, transferring data and information to backup locations and compiling documentation.


Interns were guided on basics involving the development of Oracle database through developing and implementing Oracle database and backup structures. Interns participated in designing user interfaces through designing front end interface. Various user interacting platforms developed included

  1. Dynamic web developing using PHP, CSS, JavaScript, and HTML
  2. Critical business applications development such as inventory control system, Mark Infotech Inc profile, sales, and marketing portal, and finance and accounting control portals using SAP FICO
  3. Management systems such as processing tools, security enhancing protocols, and dashboards like Key Performance Indicators (KPI)

Various developed systems applied various programming techniques to support Oracle database applications. Various programming languages applied by interns included Microsoft Dot Net Framework and Microsoft Visual Basic. Common data types during programming processes included SQL, and PL/SQL (K. W. Ahab, personal communication, June 22, 2016). Interfaces developed by interns applied the following development technologies. Oracle call Interface (OCI), Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), Oracle data Provider (ODP Dot Net), Open Standard Database Connectivity (ODBC).

Other operations involved in database development included connecting and embedding various applications. Interns incorporated various systems such as BI, DSS, and Customer Relations Management (CRM). Processing systems embedded on new Oracle database included ONLP, Online Transaction Processing (OLTP), data marts, and data warehouse. Other activities involved were configuration and setting of developed Oracle databases. Interns used Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) to configure databases so as to support multiple processing with interconnected servers on a cluster (K. W. Ahab, personal communication, June 24, 2016). Interns performed activities involving preparation of deployment process through using manuals and user guides for training end users, cleaning of the database, and updating systems with new configurations.


Development of Oracle database and designing backup systems was well facilitated by Mrs. Ahab and Mr. Bin. The database development process implemented was divide and Conger technique whereby various modules were developed independently. According to developed plan all resources were ready to facilitate the development of a large, optimized high-performance database. Through the development of dynamic website connected to main Oracle database promoted effective and efficient running of business transactions in Mark Infotech Inc. Applications developed on the client side has facilitated easy manageability, availability, and high-performance capabilities. Users find easy platforms with well-defined graphical interfaces with compressed views that allow single application level viewing of data (T. P. Bin, personal communication, June 26, 2016).

Features incorporated using JDBC defines client access to the database and encourage a high level of database security through encryption of sensitive data and information. Through the intervention of Mrs. Ahab in the use of ODP Dot net promoted real time data and information processing as well as securing systems through updating client caches. ODBC techniques allowed high compatibility of Oracle database by supporting end users to access data and information in different databases like Access, dBase, DB2, Excel and Text (K. W. Ahab, personal communication, June 28, 2016).

Development of high-level data storage and backup utilities has promoted big data concepts. New Oracle database, therefore, guarantee high scalability and support to high traffic data and information. It embraces new hardware and software components to solve client’s problems. Software incorporated includes Oracle Big Data SQL. It allows data exchange among databases such as Hadoop, No SQL, nonrelational and relational databases.  Ease of management has been promoted through the use of direct online based cloud resources for updates, and patches. 


Mrs. Ahab and Mr. Bin provided an interactive session that shared new information based on development, integration, and improvement of systems at Mark Infotech Inc. Interaction with developers provided new techniques applied in planning and controlling projects. Professional guided on various methods of solving problems like the use of divide and conger methods of system development. Programming techniques applied in developing standardized Oracle database projects was facilitated through the use of programming techniques such as Microsoft Dot Net Framework, and Microsoft Visual Basic. Such technologies provided high-level systems adaptability and solving issues associated with compatibility problems. Mark Infotech Inc. can enjoy systems scalability due to support development of Hadoop applications that promote the use of big data analysis and processing. For example, systems can be expanded by adding new users to systems can be implemented through increasing nodes along network terminals (K. W. Ahab, personal communication, June 30, 2016). Similarly, developing modified systems that support analyzing of data and information was facilitated through use OLAP, data mining tools, and BI systems that depend on big data concepts.

Activities involving preparation of Oracle database systems through testing was well covered. Simulation of data and information was applied in the testing process. Loading, performance, and stress testing were proved that systems were highly reliable for future growth and implementation of systems. New database systems have been configured to support business enterprise transactions through interconnection to backup locations such as private database cloud services. High-level security has been enforced through to secure most sensitive transactions involving currencies. Interns have gained experience in developing database systems that support big data and data warehouse workload (T. P. Bin, personal communication, July 02, 2016).


Project development research has promoted new insight based on control, management and development of business support systems. Through research, I have gained experience in dealing with business data and information. New insights developed included developing of database and storage locations that support contingency plan. Through database storage such as cloud computing data online backup and recovery plan are supported ensuring business continuity. I have appreciated the need for Oracle database systems in supporting enterprise business operations. I have gained experience required in integrating business operations within Oracle database to in a provision of user’s needs and requirements. As an intern, I have gained skills like collecting data and information using various techniques such as field observation, questionnaires, and interviewing. Systems analysis process has introduced better methods of learning business requirements to promote the improvement of existing systems. Interns acquired expertise skills and experience on how to improve database performance, security, adding big data concepts, and improving availability.

Research has provided better methodologies of developing standardized systems that meet all industrial qualities rules and procedures. Interns have learnt new programming technologies and techniques that prevent, and mitigate compatibility of systems. Interns have learnt new concepts about data warehousing, data mining, and how they can be applied in enterprise resource planning. Activities involving the integration of new processes such as CRM, DSS, and BI have provided better and advanced information required by experts in developing systems. Basic information about database configuration, setting and connecting to other servers promoted high-level skills in managing Oracle database.  Challenges included lack of sufficient time to conduct validation and verification testing. It was not possible to implement installation and deployment activities due to continued failure of network and cloud support. End users were reluctant in adopting and learning through prototype developed. 

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