Education (158)

Thursday, 22 February 2018 08:46

Comparison Writing Assignment

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White Collar Crime Analysis

The white collar crimes most common in India prevent and obstruct economic growth and development of the country. Most of the white collar crimes endanger economic health of India. Such crimes are characterized by having platforms that implement telemarketing fraud, fake welfare associations, securities fraud, racketeering, money laundering forgery, and fake employments (Ralph, & Ann, 2010).   Some white collar crimes common in India include

  1. Emission and avoidance of taxes lawfully imposed
  2. Misusing government positions by public servants through inducing fake contracts and disposal of public property. Officials make use of illegal permits and issuing counterfeit licenses to facilitate the running of illegal businesses.
  3. Procurement processes involving goods and services by government institutions follow wrong procedures through requesting individuals and private owned industries to deliver public goods and services contrary with agreed contracts entered through the public.
  4. Other common crimes in India include profiteering, black marketing, hoarding, adulteration of foodstuffs and adulteration of drugs.

    In USA white collar crimes involve financial institutions such as banking sectors, insurance companies, and other related operations. Other types of white collar crimes in the USA include

    1. Computer frauds which involve hacking and stealing information and details relating to personal accounts such as banking data and information, credit card login credential, as well as proprietary data and information.
    2. Blackmailing activities involving demanding money through inducing threats to harm an individual, to induce an injury, accusation of a certain crime, or threatening to expose a secret.
    3. Cellular phone frauds such as unauthorized manipulation of cellular phone services which leads to the unauthorized use of a phone. Cellular phone frauds include use of stolen phone through faking identification by use of original user signatures. Individuals involved clones valid electronic serial number and programs the phone with a valid serial number to seal the original number (Vadera, & Aguilera, 2015).
    4. Embezzlement of public funds in financial companies, government institutions such as schools as well as migrating convincing members of public to engage in business transactions such as Sacco with an aim of using their money for personal benefit (Vadera, & Aguilera, 2015).

     In India, white collar crimes are mainly conducted and planned by young, educated youth. They must be technology elites to accomplish their desires. The youths are aged between 20 to 35 years of age (Kumar, 2015). In India white collar crimes are also implemented by foreigners such as Africans. Most of the white collar criminals in India are characterized by

    1. Having failed in business investment before planning and implementing white collar crime
    2. Most of the youths are jobless and desire to make quick money
    3. Cheating practices are most techniques applied where technology such as the internet, mobile banking, matrimonial and website advertising for fake jobs
    4. Other cheating white collar youth criminals use implement cheating on lottery fraud, ATM card forging, faking traveling agencies, and counterfeit dealership businesses

    However in USA white collar crimes are implemented by educated professional who operate major offices. The professional include bank accountants, high court judges, doctors, a high official in government as well as managers of different industries, companies, and government institutions. White collar criminals use opportunities and virtue of office as well as their influential positions within a line of their career (Albanese, 2008). Through their plans, they formulate schemes and projects that lead to drawing a large amount of money from accounts, financial firms, and their respective companies. They run fake projects with partners whom they share huge profits or lure public to join them in accomplishing profitable ventures where they gain the opportunity to drain money. 

    Cases of White Collar Crime in India

    India crimes have various formulation and means of implementation. A group of youths was involved in computer crime and credit card fraud in India. Culprits included Amit Chauhan, Vinny Taneja, Sunil Grover, and Rohit. They were aged between 22 and 29. They were guilty of identifying and forging dormant bank accounts as well as withdrawing money from those accounts for a long period. They used a unique technology called modus operandi to ensure they have tricked banks and customers. Group applied the use of checkbooks with using mobile banking technology to withdraw money (Kumar, 2015). They were excellent in forging signatures and documents while pretending to be genuine account holders. Their eloquent crimes included visiting ATMs to gather details of customers to identify those with a good amount of money. They were arrested on charges that they successfully managed to withdraw RS3, 454,000 from multiple banks. They lost their investments to the government as a means of recovery (Kumar, 2015).

    Amit Chauhan was jailed for 7 and half years

    Vinny Taneja was jailed for six years

    Sunil Grover was jailed for seven years

    Rohit was jailed for six and half years

    India has also recorded white collar crimes implemented by a large number of foreigners. Nigerian nationalities living in Delhi are involved in implementing some fraud activities. A gang of Nigerians was cheating innocent people through popular matrimonial sites pretending to be wealth NRI’s. Fraudsters used various websites such as,, and Major means of communication was via Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) as well as other innovative methodologies (Kumar, 2015). The tricks involved were cheating women through the creation of fiction profiles on matrimonial sites. Their sites attracted a large number of SIM cards from United Kingdom (UK), United States (US), and other countries. They were used in India through international roaming to mask their real location and identification. Through the act of law, police arrested Nigerian nationals for ten years, who included Joseph Irabor Bhahemen, Bawo Hilary Omagben, and Leniya Magh. They were accused and found guilty of cheating Hyderabad young lady. She was deprived off RS 48000 (Kumar, 2015).     

    Differences between White Collar Cases in India and USA

    White collar crimes India involves youths and foreigners who are elites of technology. The sentences given to criminals involve having to serve a jail term without fines or repayment of funds. However, their assets are owned by the government for purpose or recovering lost and stolen goods. The crime sentences in the USA go beyond twenty years term in jail. Huge Fines are also imposed when criminal are found guilty. USA sentences may include being jailed as well as being ordered to pay restitution fee as the case of Bernard Madoff. In the USA white collar criminals may be banned from trading as the sentence case of Jerome Kerviel (Julian, 2009).


    Albanese, J. S. (2008). White collar crimes and casino gambling: looking for empirical links to forgery, embezzlement, and fraud. Crime, Law and Social Change : an Interdisciplinary Journal, 49, 5, 333-347.

    Julian C. (2009). 10 Biggest White-Collar Crimes In History (and How They Were Unravelled). Retrieved from :

    Kumar S. S. (2015). Rise in White Collar Crimes Grips Delhi Cops. Retrieved from: 

    Ralph, B. J.,& Ann, M. G. J. (2010). White-collar crime: A due diligence issue in India. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 21, 6, 9-15.

    Vadera, A. K., & Aguilera, R. V. (2015). The Evolution of Vocabularies and Its Relation to Investigation of White-Collar Crimes: An Institutional Work Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 128, 1, 21-38.

The school education system significantly impacts the moral development of students positively. According to Weissbourd, Bouffard & Jones (2013), moral values saturate the daily life of classrooms. Various strategies play a vital role in influencing the social and moral development of learners. Teachers and other staff in schools play an essential role in influencing the moral development of students since in school environment they act as role models and also as disciplinarians. Teachers mold specific forms of social life within classrooms as well as influence student’s experience of community and school membership. Teachers also influence student’s moral development through their contributions to their relationships with learners. Teachers also influence moral development through their ability to appreciate learners’ opinions and also disentangling them from theirs. The ability of educators to assist learners to develop moral thinking without shying from an own moral challenge also leads to positive moral development among students. School climate also impacts social development through offering opportunities to develop and practice skills. Positive-student teacher relationships and peer-peer relationships contribute to high social and moral development of students.

RQ2: What cognitive outcomes are associated with one- to three-year-olds playing tablet and smartphone games?

Tablet and smartphone games have both positive and adverse effects on children playing games. Significant learning and capturing of events or objects take place in the mind of children between one-to-three-year-olds; hence games can have a positive and negative effect depending on the type of images they present. Violent games and other games that send wrong images such as riding a bike without wearing a helmet create wrong memory perception compared to board games. Games require an extensive amount of attention hence improve the eyesight of children. Children also develop the good ability to follow instructions and excellent problem solving and logic skills. Tablets and smartphone interaction for children lead to reduced development social interaction for the kids and also gets associated with poor health development (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005).



Bianchi, A., & Phillips, J. G. (2005): Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(1), 39-51.

Weissbourd, R., Bouffard, S. M., & Jones, S. M. (2013): School climate and moral and social development. School Climate Practices for Implementation and Sustainability, 30, 1-5.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 08:29

Letter to the Editor

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Letter to the Editor

To New York Times, U.S.A

Date: Jun-30-2016

Subject: Poor waste management

Dear Editor,

            I write to draw the attention of the concerned authorities towards a problem in the waste handling and management system at Buffalo City in New York. Our city is the second largest populous after New York that has attracted a high population in the recent past. The result increases in waste materials from the industries, human activities, and other economic activities. However, the city lacks a proper waste management system that has led to air pollution and foul smell day in day out. The residents in the region complain of the poor waste management system to the relevant authorities, but no action has been taken to address the issue.

            Poor waste management is an environmental hazard to the surrounding environment as well as the ecosystem. The wastes are harmful to the atmosphere and can lead to the destruction of the ozone layer and cause diseases. Global warming is also a looming problem, and air pollution could lead to acidic rain which destroys the crop life. Some waste materials are waterproof and can be dangerous to the soil thereby hindering agriculture. Uncollected wastes that include broken glass, razor blades, needles, and other health care wastes pose a great risk of injury and poisoning to children and young people. Some people burn the waste on the disposal sites causing major air pollution, affects climate change, and also cause respiratory diseases. The impacts of poor waste management are inexhaustible, hence necessary for the relevant authorities to take action.

            As a solution to the problem, there ought to be proper prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse, and residual disposition of solid wastes. The most common methods of waste management include landfills, incineration, recovery and recycling, plasma gasification, as well as composting. Landfills focus on burying the waste in the land after eliminates the odors and the dangers of the waste. The method is becoming less common due to contamination problems. Incineration is disposal through combustion that reduces the volume of the waste before land filling. Recycling is a method of reusing to make new materials and has several advantages to the environment. Plasma gasification uses an electrically charged and highly ionized gas to produce high temperatures to convert the solid and liquid wastes to syngas. Composting takes the organic waste and turns them to nutrient for the plants. However, it is a slow process and requires a large space.

            Among the waste management methods, recovery and recycling is a reliable method since it helps to recover materials and resources and also to convert them to energy. Recycling converts waste products into new products and prevents energy use and consumption. It reduces energy usage, reduce the volume of landfills, and reduce air and water pollution, as well as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The method preserves the natural resources for future use thereby reducing degradation. Proper waste management should be a priority for the local authorities to ensure a clean and conducive living environment for the residents in the region. As the authorities continue to reap from the taxes payable by the business people and other entrepreneurs, they have an obligation to give back to the community by enacting proper waste management systems. The authorities can liaise with the recycling companies to reduce the accumulated waste from the dumping sites.

            It is my humble request to the relevant authorities to take an informed and immediate action to address the menace.


Yours faithfully,


Thursday, 22 February 2018 08:13


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There have been several films productions and novels written about the American colonization history. It was at the end of the fifteenth century when the European America colonization took place marked by Christopher Columbus and his expedition arrival to the new lands. From that point, the Dutch, Spanish, French, British and Portuguese colonized and settled in vast areas of land that were originally for the indigenous population. “The last of the Mohicans” is a film that derives its story from the novel “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration” by Mary Rowlandson. They provide detailed examples of the early interactions between the native Indians and the colonists. They also have common elements more than just their plot but also share the same context. Both the Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration and The last of the Mohicans provide us with common universal themes such as death, the lack of freedom, love and family.

            War is always a social vice that contributes to family separation and division as causes much destruction. The film Last of the Mohicans has it's setting in 1957 a time of the Indian and French war, and it was also a time when the British were fighting to have control to most parts of North America. The film displays the vital role of the family by showing various examples. There is first the Mohican Indian family that comprises of father and sons but one of the sons is of the white race, and it shows an example of unconditional love in the household. Another example is the daughters of Colonel Munro, who risk their lives to rescue their father trapped at the fort. Cora, who is Colonel Munro’s eldest daughter, is a strong woman who eventually dies in her quest to fulfill her heart desires of ensuring that their family unit attains complete restoration. Cora has the sincere desire that together with her sister Alice will finally be reunited with their father who was at William Henry Fort that was under attack by the French people.

            We also find the same universal theme of family in A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration by Rowlandson. The author regards the family as being of great importance. From her personal experience, we learn that Rowlandson was among the Indians Captives, and she had to separate from her husband and children, and she can compare the pain of separation from people you love from anything else. She writes, ‘all was gone…my children were gone…my husband was gone, friends and relatives all gone “(Rowlandson, 1682).

The lack of freedom is another universal theme shown in the film and reading. The film displays various scenes of people under captivity by their oppressors. Thus we get the idea of prisoners of war treatment and suffering and the importance of freedom for all human life. The reading “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration” also displays how life can be full of uncertainties after losing one’s freedom.

 Both the reading and film also show the universal theme of death. The A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration” is a very emotional text especially the way the author tells us the painful experience she went through after losing her wounded child to death. She writes, “I went with a hefty heart and sat down holding the picture of death on my lap. I sat with my sweet baby for two hours in the night like a lamb departed this life” ” (Rowlandson, 1682). We also see the same theme of death in the film right from its start to its end. The death of Uncas and Cora have the most impact on viewers, and I am left imagining how sad it is for them to die but also hopeful that they are together in their second life.

 In conclusion by reading Rowlandson’s novel “A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration” and watching the film “The last of the Mohicans” I get to learn the common themes they share that are universal. We learn of the importance of family unit and war causes much pain by separating mothers from husbands and children, and children from fathers. Thus through these two literature sources, we get the pain and suffering that people in the colonization period in America experienced. It was a period whereby there was no personal freedom, injustices, devastation of homes and families and death of innocent people.



 Baym, N. (2008). The Norton Anthology of American Literature (Vol. Shorter 7th Edition). (Reidhead, J. Ed.) New YorkUSA:  Norton and Company Inc.

 Rowlandson, M, 1682; p.126-143



Both Shackleton and Everest events have various important lessons on teamwork. The Everest event brings a critical realization about teamwork. It is not possible to reach the summit without communication, optimism, crisis management and effective solving of conflicts between team members. Additionally, each member’s full commitment to shared values of the team is crucial to a successful team. Soft skills can also be credited to the team’s mountaineering achievements. These skills must be present for organizational teams to achieve their goals. It is also clear that working in teams may prove difficult than working as individual members. This is particularly true when team members get trapped by various conflicting goals, fall into a pattern of group think, fail to share information and lose themselves in an unproductive argument. Creating a sense of agency also contributed to the effectiveness of the team. The sense of urgency should propel team members to get busy and move ideas along. Urgency removes the slower pace of carrying out activities among team members to ensure that the activity is carried out at the desired pace. This could have contributed to the effectiveness of teamwork by eliminating the ineffectual actions that slowed the team down. 

The Shackleton team was effective in various ways. When individuals work as a team in an atmosphere of trust and accountability toward a common goal, they put aside different issues and problems and focus on the tasks that require to be done. The focus builds momentum, helps to identify new opportunities, overcomes barriers and that leads to greater productivity, better problem solving and more effective use of resources. Shackleton welded a tight-knit team with a common culture. This is a common goal for many leaders.  Shackleton emphasizes on setting out ground rules and ensuring team members work together. An important lesson in this event is the importance of discipline in teamwork. Shackleton saw indiscipline as the enemy of teamwork, and the strict measures on early signs of disobedience and drunkenness and replaced various crew members within the first month. Additionally, the effectiveness of the team was also influenced by the recognition of diversity.  Those individual from nationalities characterized by widely diverse temperaments were encouraged to mix through games and singing sessions where everyone would join. This can be viewed as part of a conscious team-bonding process. Shackleton’s team was also guided by clear rules that ensured that right individuals were in the right jobs. For example, the captain was demoted early due to his indecisiveness despite his valuable depth of experience that would benefit the expedition.

The effectiveness of Shackleton’s team was also determined by goal ahead. In many various occasion, Shackleton and the team felt incredibly hopeful that a goal was in sight. In numerous times, they would only have their hopes utterly dashed. However, the leader is still hopeful that the team would achieve their goal.  Of equal importance is the leader’s supreme resilience and care for the well-being of his men. The leader also maintained the team’s morale as he understood the importance of the element in the success of his team. The men were kept active as possible through sending vigorous games of hockey and football (Morrell & Capparell, 2001).

What I would have done differently to elevate the group in each scenario

In Mount Everest expedition, five climbers did not survive the descent despite being extremely skilled team members with much experience on Everest. As a leader, I would set the tone and starts the ball rolling in different ways. Everest case also demonstrates the importance of shaping perceptions and beliefs of team members. Beliefs and perceptions determine how team members interact with one another in critical situations. I would not have done anything differently in Shackleton event.  In this case, calculated risk is a central factor that the leader considered too before engaging in the expedition. Additionally, the leader recognized that exceptional teams do not emerge in a vacuum or naturally. A leader must set the tone.

Managing the crisis faced in both events

According to Rowe (2007), leadership involves influencing people to achieve high goals and not simply ordering people around (Rowe, 2007).The Everest case is characterized by a major crisis. Team leadership model could be used in managing the crisis that faced the expedition. Leaders require nurture commitment within teams. It is also important to act decisively when faced with a crisis, and they must inspire others to do so as well. A lack of can commitment can result in apprehension that team members often experience before making a decision.

It is also important to foster a constructive dissent. The Everest case was faced by an insufficient debate among team members which affected the effectiveness of the team in reaching its goals. Creative alternatives could not be generated, and flawed ideas remained unchallenged. Continued dissension can disrupt efforts.  A strong buy-in is also necessary to diminish the danger posed by the lack of commitment to a failing course of action over time. This can be done by providing others with necessary opportunities to participate in decision-making and minimizing the level of interpersonal.



Morrell, M., & Capparell, S. (2001). Shackleton's way: leadership lessons from the great Antarctic explorer. Penguin.

Rowe, W. G. (2007). Cases in Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 06:54

Personal Portfolio and Leadership Plan

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            Leadership is a highly valued commodity in which people continue to ask themselves and others what makes good leaders. As individuals, they seek information on how to become effective leaders in the positions they hold (Northhouse, 2013). As a common belief among people, leadership is a way to improve their personal, social, and professional lives. Companies and other hiring firms seek for individuals with special leadership ability since they believe that they will transform their companies. In seeking to understand my personal portfolio as applicable in leadership, I completed a leadership portfolio which is a collection of materials that assess my work and progress and also reflect on the areas of improvement.

Personal information

            I am currently studying a master’s degree in Respiratory Therapy at Georgia State University in the United States of America. I graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Cardio respiratory Care in 2013 and previously had an intermediate degree in the field of Nursing Sciences. I have worked in different places where I acquired some leadership skills. I worked as a Registered Nurse at King Fahd Central Hospital and later at six hospitals in mobile for both AL and FL. Since 2013 to 2015, I worked as a Registered Respiratory Therapist at King Fahd Central Hospital and Jazan Home Care Medicine. My personal skills include being well organized, with strong work ethics, as well as problem analysis and solving among others. I registered as a member of the American Association for Respiratory Care and also Saudi Society of Respiratory Care.

 Personal Assessment

            Over the last decade, I have engaged in professional tasks that helped me to develop my personal traits and also professional abilities. I worked for five years as a Registered Nurse in Saudi Arabia where I acquired several leadership skills. I learned how to interact with both patients and other care providers in the attempts of finding solutions to the issues that arose. I spent adequate time participating in different tasks of leadership and also management. The engagement with different people especially professionals helped me to develop teamwork and the skills to become a reliable leader in the health care sector. I also had an opportunity to work at six different hospitals in mobile that accumulated to over 1000 hours in clinical experience for two years. I interacted with adult patients with medical, surgical, and neuro problems, sleep disorders, pulmonary function issues, and cardiac problems. The clinical experience was very instrumental in imparting several personal traits in patient handling. I had to be patient, compassionate, willingness to assist, and also hardworking. I also learned the art of leadership through teamwork with other healthcare professionals.

            The different work experiences were essential in helping to assess my weaknesses and strive towards improving on them as discussed later. I have always desired to demonstrate the highest level of leadership traits despite the challenges. My work has offered an opportunity to offer support to others, get involved in various tasks, as well as engage in team working which are critical in shaping my personal portfolio. I handled the challenges in my workplace as they arose that helped in enhancing my leadership skills. I am exposed to many effective leaders in the health care sector that have impacted my life as work towards becoming a leader. The comparison of my past leadership abilities and the present shows a marked difference, but I am still in my early stages of the leadership abilities. I have to strive to reach the helm of my leadership ability. However, I am an active participant in various tasks of leadership that helps to develop the required traits in leadership.

            Leadership can mean different things to different individuals. However, to many people; there are common attributes to leadership that includes motivation, hard working, commitment, team working, result oriented, trust, and problem solver (Swanwick & McKimm, 2010). For my case, I have not held a leadership position, but I am a reliable team worker, good communicator, and decisive. The subjective information provided in my personal assessment is essential in evaluating myself as I compare my personal and professional experiences.         

            I have faced several challenges in my life some of which tested on my leadership ability. I once worked with a team of nurses on a project of community sensitization on proper management of diabetes disease. I was the leader of the group and was tasked with organizing the sensitization schedule as well as the tasks for each participant. However, it was not readily accepted by the team members as I expected. I spent long hours trying to convince them that they had to follow the schedule as it was but to no avail. I realized that I lacked proper communication skills that required me to consult with the team members before submitting the schedule. I was also authoritative which limited my leadership ability. It was a challenging experience from which I acquired crucial leadership skills. I have had other instances of leadership experience that have shaped my personal and professional skills. My goal is to excel in every leadership position that I hold. As such, I strive towards improving on my weaknesses and also advancing my skills as required in leadership. I prepare for working as a leader in the health care sector and remain committed to it. My leadership examination has been through different methods of assessment as provided by North House books. 

Use of Leadership Trait Questionnaire

            The questionnaire helps to assess the personal characteristic of leadership. The questionnaire ought to be completed by an individual and other individuals who are familiar with the leader. Since I am interested in being a good leader, it is necessary to establish what to improve on to become a great leader. Northhouse (2013) postulated 14 classifications that a great leader ought to possess. The traits are articulate, perceptive, self-confident, self-assured, persistent, determined, trustworthy, dependable, friendly, outgoing, conscientious, diligent, sensitive, and empathetic. I requested my friends, colleagues, and family members to complete the leadership trait questionnaire to help in identifying my traits.

            I was not surprised by the responses they gave about my portfolio. I scored highest in self-confidence. I am happy that my respondents look up to me as being self-confident which a crucial trait in leadership is. Most of them also identified that I am determined, trustworthy, and friendly. Leaders must be determined to achieve their goals in life and also in the profession. They also ought to be trustworthy with all the responsibilities bestowed on them. Northhouse (2013) emphasizes on the personal drive as a key aspect of leadership. Personal drive enables a leader to be determined in achieving their goals regardless of the perceptions and efforts made by other team members. My worst score was regarding being outgoing and sensitive. As a matter of fact, I shy away from engaging in social affairs despite being self-confident in handling professional tasks. I am also less sensitive to the affairs of others that make it challenging to be outgoing. I would rather spend hours indoors than move out with colleagues or peers for a social event because I consider it as less important. I think that leaders ought to be sensitive to the affairs of others since their welfare is a major contributor to the well-being of the organization. As Northhouse (2013) explains, leaders ought to strike a balance between their work related duties and the social issues that affect performance. I understand that leadership is a complex subject, and a review of the traits of leadership is not conclusive. However, the trait questionnaire responses reflected a true replica of my traits.

Skill Inventory

            The skills inventory analyses the specific components of a person’s skills and has a focus on the aspects not certain about, unlike the comprehensive assessment. It helps in identifying gaps in competencies to initiate an action. My scores on the skills inventory in all the three major skills and aspects maintained a balance. The score for the technical skills was 28, my human skill score was 29, and my conceptual skill score was 30. As a leader, I spend adequate time in setting the direction and objectives to follow in the line of duty. I am conceptual as well as innovative in ideas but less on the technical skills. I have limited knowledge in actualizing my innovative ideas to practice through fixing machines and making physical products. My human skills or the people related skills are good. They involve my ability to work collaborative with team members, investors, administration team, family, and friends. According to Northhouse (2013), human skills and proficiency allow a leader to assist the group members in working cooperatively in a group to achieve common goals.  Conceptual skills relate to the ability to succeed, innovate, and bring out ideas. Since the skills inventory is fair and truthful, I expect to work on my technical skills by reading more scientific books and magazines. The inventory is very significant in matters related to leadership. 

Situational Leadership Assessment

            The style of leadership used is influential to the people around a leader. The situational leadership model can be helpful in understanding the four main leadership styles; delegating, supporting, coaching, and Directing (Northhouse, 2013). In situational leadership, leaders not only consider their approach but also recognize the development level of the followers. I assessed my style of leadership and scored highest in having coaching style of leadership. The style involves being highly directive and highly supportive. In most instances, the communication from the leader to the follows has a focus on getting the job done as well as emotional and social needs (Northhouse, 2013). As a leader, I encourage the followers to be more aggressive but still decide on what requires being accomplished. The people I work with are competent but lack commitment and motivation. Thus, I have to be directive, but also consider their social aspects despite being insensitive.    

Path-Goal Leadership Questionnaire

            Path-Goal Leadership questionnaire contains questions about different styles of path-goal leadership. It requires that an individual indicates how often each of the statements is true to their behavior. According to Northhouse (2013), the path-goal model is theory based and specifies a leader’s style or behavior that fits the employee and the work environment so that they guide employees through their path to achieving the goals. I performed the assessment by ticking how often the 20 statements are true for my case. I then reversed the scores for items 7, 11, 16, and 18 to obtain the sum of scores. My sum of the score of items 1, 5, 9, 14, and 18 were 23 that indicated the directive style of leadership. My lowest was on supportive style which I had 19. From the assessment, I realized that I like directing what others ought to do. I inform my followers on their expectations especially when uncertain about the tasks they ought to perform. I am not supportive since I do not show concern for them by being friendly and approachable. As earlier identified, I am insensitive that makes me less friendly which I ought to work on. 

LMX 7 Questionnaire

            The Leader-member exchange theory regards the dyadic relationship between an individual member and his or her supervisor and describes reciprocal fulfillment of expectations. It maintains that the work group under a leader should not be considered a single entity. The instrument has seven items that examine the quality of exchange between leader and subordinate. I requested some of my followers to complete the questionnaire on my behalf for evaluation purposes. According to Northhouse (2013), the LMX instrument shows the relationship of subordinates with the leader, their personality, and the willingness to take a role that benefits the group. My results for the questionnaire were 20 which are moderate. It indicates a moderate quality leader-member exchange. I require working on my relationship with the followers and work colleagues to raise my LMX scores. I agree with Northhouse (2013) that my group members act differently in that they only perform to the minimum requirements without expanding the role. The reason for not expanding the role is the poor work relationships between the leaders and the followers which are at stake.

Leadership Development Plan

            As identified in my personal portfolio both the personal assessment and use of assessment tools, I realized that I have strong leadership traits that are crucial in leadership. The leadership evaluation tools provide a clear analysis of different leadership aspects and the scores. In some areas, further development is necessary to improve on my leadership portfolio abilities. I will focus on the aspects that I scored low in the assessments and questionnaires.

            From the leadership trait questionnaire, I scored low in being outgoing and sensitive. They are important leadership traits that enable a leader to get along with the affairs of the followers. As such, it is important to increase the engagement with others by being approachable and accommodative of their concerns. There are social issues that arise in the workplace that require the colleagues to take part which demonstrate the level of sensitivity to others. Leaders have tight schedules, but ought to spare quality time in meeting with colleagues, friends, and other people of concern. It is a mundane way of enhancing my outgoing and sensitivity aspects.

            The Path-Goal Leadership Questionnaire results revealed that I am less supportive as a leader. The followers and subordinates are influenced by the motivation and support they receive from the leader. They felt more appreciated and valued when the leader recognizes their efforts to the organization. As such, I will work on my supportive trait by being sensitive to the issues faced by the people around me. It requires good communication skills like being a good listener as well as giving timely feedback. Followers ought to be encouraged through assisting them when they raise concerns over certain issues in their workplace or personal lives.

            Lastly, the style of leadership of being directive is appropriate when dealing with people who are not sure of their expectations in the workplace. Thus, an improper use of the style of leadership could be a source of conflict and reduced performance when dealing with competent and qualified individuals in their work. It is important to assess the work environment to understand the approach of handling the subordinates. The development of individual goal assessment plan enhances personal growth and professional achievement. I plan to engage more with the people around me to learn about their perceptions of different issues and also help in improving on my weaknesses.


            The use of leadership assessment tools provided in Northhouse books helps to understand my leadership traits and weaknesses. In regard to the findings, I will focus on improving on the traits as well as working on the weaknesses to enhance my leadership. The quest for good leadership is the drive towards daily improvement on my traits.



Northouse, P.G. (2013).  Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th Ed).  Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Swanwick T. & McKimm J. (2010) The importance of Clinical Leadership: Chapter 1 of the         ABC of Clinical Leadership. BMJ Books series).Cite all APA format




Thursday, 22 February 2018 06:47


Written by

The biases of media

Audience: The appropriate audience for this persuasive research paper is the members of the public, media professionals, policy makers and students of media courses.


 Most members of the public have the belief that the media is always unbiased and that they give us fair reports about the current news. However in every country that has its freedom of speech, there are high chances for the media only to give factual reports on issues that affect America and our economy. There are numerous studies indicating a major network that contributes to a specific political party more and have a tendency of bashing the opposing party. The bias reporting does not end with politics but also presents in world events. For example, the media looks down upon those countries that have very little or no impact at all to people of America and its economy, these countries are overlooked by the media and are not for reporting on in cases of major events taking place in those countries. In general, the way Americans view world events, celebrities, women, politics and the world as a whole has a close relation to the manner in which the media delivers its reports, stories, and information as well as the spin that the media chooses to place on their report.

 Looking at the early origins of media provides us with a better understanding of the manner in which the media operates. The media reform movement of the 1940’s comprised of the progressive organization Federal Communication Commission (FCC) and other grassroots activist who aimed to challenge the commercial interests in control of the US media (Pickard, 2012). The movement contributed to the existence of the Blue Book a water mark for the progressive activism of FCC that mandated the obligations for social responsibilities among broadcasters in return for using the public airwaves. Thus this rule was that the broadcasters would be allowed to use the airwaves if they would promote cretin people and products.

 Always the freedom of express and press acts as an indication of a healthy democratic state (Piffer, 2010). The mass media role has to be informing citizens in an objective manner concerning the important events taking place in the economic and political environment all around the globe. However, in reality, this is always not the case. There is a high tendency for the mass media to report information in a biased manner that misrepresents the certain group of people, an entire generation or a country. A good example is the high tendency of the media alienating the poor, old, young and the uneducated members of the society for they are considered to have no good effect on the society. The period from 1986 to 2006 was a time when the media especially newspapers could not report disasters taking place in an underdeveloped nation only unless the disaster did have a huge impact on western people. The smallest disaster taking place in high-income and western countries would have reported with great detail (Joye, 2010).

       The media always have a major impact and play a huge role in more ways than we realize. It has an impact on the functioning and structure of modern electronic and print media. It impacts on the general knowledge of the people, our multidimensional and interactive relations between the media and society. The media sets the factors and conditions that contribute to the improvement and protection of mental health. It sets a model for us to identify the risk factors and know how to eliminate and reduce the impact of these risk factors and mental health. Finally, the mass media structures the personality of the recipient, sender, the physiological and technological adequacy of channels of communication, and the media and ensures that there is a reliable perception of the program mode effects in media communication. Thus the media has a huge part to play since it shapes how we perceive a certain group of people, the products we buy and what and how we perceive as being beautiful.

       The media also impacts significant pressure to people in believing in what is beautiful, and popular which sometimes is on the extreme. For instance, the Hollywood scenes and its reporting in media about the prominent individuals in pop culture have made the young generation to be highly concerned and worried about their self-image. They are always in constant fear in ensuring that they dress up in the appropriate fashion. The media has also allowed others to dictate on aspects and products considered to be beautiful which a highly dangerous game that has made young girls to lack good self-esteem about their appearance or even distorting their natural looks (Lin, and Yeh, 2012). When the media is the source of informing these young people about whom they have to look up to and who are the most important we wonder how the young people would stop and for them to take personal control of their lives (Lin, and Yeh, 2012).

Any time you turn on the TV or decide to read a news article from a magazine or newspaper always knows that you are reading a story that is mostly likely to lean towards a certain belief of a subject. It is, therefore, crucial for you to always have an opinion on the kind of information you receive and this will be your defense mechanism against being brainwashed by the media. The first thing that you need to ask yourself is why that story is a subject for reporting?   Why are some countries more crucial than others? Why are the people in ads?  And should I use a certain product or regard something to be beautiful because of the media? (Lin, and Yeh, 2012)? Thus always do your personal research so as to establish the truth of that story. There is also need to protect the freedom of speech of mass media so that it does not misreport information or persuade people to believe in a certain belief.



Pickard, V (2012)The Great FCC Blue Book Debate: Determining the Role of Broadcast Media in a Democratic Society, 1945-1949.  Annual Meeting, p1-29, 29p;

Lin, C; and Yeh, J (2012)Comparing Society’s Awareness of Women: Media-Portrayed Idealized Images and Physical Attractiveness.  Business Ethics Journal, Issue 1, p61-79,

Piffer, D (2010) Democracy and Mass Media. Learning Community, Vol. 1 Issue 1, p94-98,

Joye, S (2010). The (de)construction of risk in mass media. Flemish newspapers cover and select international disasters. Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p253-266,






Thursday, 22 February 2018 06:08


Written by

On this day, I went to the student center with the objective of observing a conversation among the students in the students’ center.My attention was drawn to a group of male students who stood at a corner in the students’ center and talking in low voices. One of the things I noticed is that it was one boy whose foot was on a ball, was taking most of the time while the rest were very attentive and maintained a direct eye contact with him.The main speaker timed his vocalizations effectively by using numerous pauses between the diverse hand gestures. The speaker kept touching the other members of the groups and positioning them in different postures and positions, suggesting that he was developing some form of strategy and putting plans in place to ensure the rest knew their roles in the execution. While making the hand gestures and shuffling the members of the group in different formats, he kept on making different facial expressions and postures and movements as he demonstrated to the rest on what they should do. While talking to a particular member, he maintained a direct eye contact and the additional fact that they were all in close contact with each other, implied that they had known one another for a long time.

From the above assessment of the nonverbal cues that was observed from this group, it is evident that they were strategizing on how they were going to execute their attacks and defense during the coming university games. The shuffling and reshuffling of the different members were a way of ensuring that each received specific instructions as to what their roles would encompass.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 06:04


Written by

I stood some meters away from Rhatigan CAC as I watched a group of five young men conversing with one another.I saw them arguing and pushing each other away as they also banged one another on the shoulders. One ran for some distance and raised his arm. He then came back and pushed the others away to create some space. I saw him demonstrate something with the foot as if he was kicking a ball. Then I saw another one pointing fingers here and there as if he was arranging some people or assigning the duty to someone. I also say one of them raising both hands up and throwing them in the air as if he was holding and throwing something with the two hands. I also saw them kick their feet in the air here and there and tried to dodge something that was not visible. That is when I came to understand that the communication that was going on among these young men was a football communication based on the nonverbal cues observed from the communication.

Wednesday, 21 February 2018 11:32

Community policing

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The courts have addressed some issues that are of concern to the community. Describe, in 250 or more words, one issue that the courts have addressed and your opinion of this issue. This response should include one resource and a word count

            When it comes to ensuring that the community is safe, the criminal justice system and particularly the courts have played a significant role. There are many issues that the court as a criminal justice stakeholder has played. Among them is ensuring both the society and the offender are safe. When one commits an offence, he becomes a threat to the society. Similarly, his life becomes endangered from the fact that the community can take the law in its hands in a mob justice.  Usually, before sentencing, the court always request for social inquiry report of the offender for purposes of compiling a pre-sentence report (Shetreet, 1988).  This process always gives the community an opportunity to give its views on the crime and the perpetrator. When the court determines that the offender’s life is endangered in the community, the court always gives the offender a custodial sentence.    Similarly, if the court finds an offender as a threat to the community, the offender is also given custodial sentence, so the community is protected from further crime. When an offender is kept in custody, the community is protected in several ways. The sentence acts as deterrence on other offenders in the society as well as those people who might likely offend. Secondly, when the offender is sentenced to incarceration by the court, chances that he will socialize other vulnerable community members into crime get reduced. Therefore, the court plays a critical role in ensuring that the community is safeguarded from the crime as well as the criminalization of its members through the learning process. (Word count 264)

The media can help law enforcement do their job, or they can be a barrier. Describe in 250 or more words, how the media can help law enforcement and how they hinder law enforcement in duty performance. This response should include one resource and a word count.

It is evident that the quality of a law enforcement department, its personnel as well as its command staff is not reflected by  Twitter followers as well as  Facebook fans the department has, or any unit of social media evaluations. On the other hand, social media can help this department in many ways. Social media presence can help law enforcement department by developing a trustworthy relationship as well as a sense of community through each other engaging. Social media plays a vital role in gaining the control over law enforcement’s reputation with the society. Similarly, media plays a significant role in the provision of a forum for the community to ask questions and for it to share tips that otherwise wouldn’t get shared (Giles, 2002). This can help in policing. Finally, social media helps in the spreading of knowledge and with less effort that can protect the community, help apprehend suspects and find missing property persons among others.

            On the other hand, media can make the work of law enforcement agencies complex and difficult. Despite the benefit that media can act as a whistleblower to unearth crime in the society, it plays a role in informing the criminals to come up with plans that assist in escaping the law. For instance, when a certain gang is exposed by the media, its members can escape of come up with sophisticated tactics to avert the law enforcement agencies. Similarly, media can expose investigation details which can hinder the administration of justice. (Word count 252)


Shetreet, S. (1988): The Role of the Court in society. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff Publishers.

Giles, H. (2002): Law enforcement, communication, and community. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.

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