Education (144)

Friday, 29 December 2017 07:45

Knowledge management

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Knowledge management


            Since the period of the industrial revolution, organizations have been improving their effectiveness in service delivery thereby creating a healthy competition. This improvement has been in terms of automation and reduction of unproductive workforce. [1]Currently, the organizations continue to restructure their systems to get rid of needless workforce and jobs. This has resulted to great losses in key knowledge assets because the employees leave with their skills and knowledge pertaining to certain areas of specialization. Due to this, the repercussions are reduced productivity and innovation in the organizations.[2]

            Many organizations have embraced the need to work together because of global connectivity and widespread expertise. The organizations have devised ways of improving their ways of service delivery through collaborations and effective communication. Since the world is becoming a knowledge based economy, everyone is after knowledge management as an efficient method for managing the intellectual assets of the organization.[3] Knowledge management has changed the entire aspect of information systems from the initial processing data and giving information to gathering and capitalizing on the knowledge database of an organization. With the good knowledge management, problems that arise are easily dealt with. The knowledge acquired from different sources on how o solve certain problems is stored for later use. Organizations spend much on knowledge management as a long term investment. There is a key distinction between data, information and knowledge. Data refers to the unprocessed facts, measurements and statistics whereas information is defined as the processed data. Knowledge refers to the information that is relevant and whose action can be taken.[4]

Question one

            Knowledge management is the management of corporate information and intellectual assets in order to improve performance and add value to the enterprise to act in an intelligent manner. [5]It involves proper identification, selection and transferring of information that is helpful in the organization. [6]The information acquired helps in problem solving, strategic planning and informed decision making. The knowledge acquired is distributed to all departments formerly and then it’s kept for later use. Knowledge management deals with sharing of knowledge to make it available to others.


            In order for HP to control knowledge management at the corporate level, some things need consideration. Many theories have been developed to describe knowledge management though not all are applicable in this context. An organization that plans in advance, surveys the market, produces good quality products and gives attention to customers is likely to achieve much according to the objectives. Though not the only factors, they assist in enhancing efficiency in products and service delivery. [7] HP has concentrated on these key aspects alongside having a good knowledge management. Due to competition, an organization distinguishes itself from others through how it effectively manages its knowledge. The factors of the success of knowledge management are well connected to the economic performance value; organizational infrastructure; reliable knowledge structure and an elaborate objective. In connection to this, the culture should be knowledge friendly and there should be many channels for knowledge transfer.[8]

            In order to control and manage knowledge effectively, better strategies on dimensions of the organization like strategy, culture and technology should be considered. Knowledge management in HP revolves around product processes and channels of computer dealers. Product process organization (PPO) deals with advancing product development and introduction. Its functions dwell much on quality, procurement, marketing, safety, environmental and changes that arise. To enhance competition, a product Generation Information System (PGIS) group was formulated to work together with PPO. The key issue was to integrate more information to the PPO. It developed knowledge links from various functions which contained knowledge from reporters and editors. [9]

Question two.

            The projects given are on; competitor information, developing an internet based interface to primary and secondary information and managing international intelligence on marketing. Each of them should be in line with the forms of knowledge management, business goals and the required resources. The projects are developed by the two departments dealing with product marketing and change management together. [10]The objective is not for PGIS to oversee knowledge itself but to assist in the process of structuring and distributing knowledge through the use of Information technology. Both information and knowledge are used by HP to help in good management.

            The first project deals with competitor information for the company’s component group. Understanding what the competitors offer and upon slight modifications of their products, they stand out in the market as unique. There are so many other products that are produced by the competitors similar to those in HP. For the company to get maximum returns from their products, market survey is essential. In the project, the areas of concern should be along those areas. Knowing what others can offer and the quality of products offered can help the HP Company to strategize on alternative ways of remaining reliable. The information required for this project is got from the interviews conducted. It is then edited and stored to be used later.[11] The information acquired can then be passed on to others enhancing knowledge management. The different departments in the organize use the knowledge to improve on their work. [12]

            The second project deals with the creation of a web-based interface to the primary and secondary research information. This will provide a platform for interaction using the internet. The primary information is got from direct interviews with clients and employees on how best the company can improve its market base. The information obtained is then integrated with the one obtained from other secondary sources about improving the company’s services to their customers.[13]

            The third project concentrates on managing the international market by gathering all the information pertaining to increasing the market base. The intelligence team must gather as much information as possible to ensure that they have vast knowledge about the target market. The system should then ensure that the knowledge gathered is utilized effectively for the benefit of the company.[14]

            Understanding the different types of knowledge applied in each of the projects is an important step in knowledge management. It’s important to know that even the knowledge got from a document is supposed to be managed. It has to be stored, retrieved, shared and changed in a format that it suits the company’s needs. The knowledge has to be stored in a way different from the one gathered over the previous years. Though it’s the same knowledge, the mode of usage may be different. [15]Different areas of specialization have focused on different dimensions of knowledge. The two types of knowledge within the dimensions of knowledge management are explicit and tacit types. Explicit knowledge refers to the coded one like that found in reading material whereas tacit knowledge refers to the non-coded one usually obtained from personal knowledge.  Knowledge management dwells much on the interaction and relationship between the two types. In practice, all knowledge in use is a mixture of the two types. Through research, a further distinction can be made by using embedded knowledge. It’s an easy way of differentiating between knowledge obtained from people and that embedded in processes, culture and routines of an organization. In knowledge management, the most important difference is between explicit and tacit knowledge. It’s essential to know the source of each type so that the company can strategize on how to deal with it. In an organization, the embedded knowledge is of much importance compared to the others.

            Explicit knowledge is formal and coded usually found in databases, memos and documents. It’s easy to identify, store and refer to.  It’s very effective at facilitating storage and modification of documents and texts. The greatest challenge is that, it is similar to the information. The management has to ensure that people have access to it to solve their problems. It also has to store the important knowledge, update it when necessary and discard the less important one. Most of the projects are based on technology and tend to focus on this type of knowledge.

            Tacit knowledge is a type of knowledge based on people’s experiences and hence hard to define. It includes cultural beliefs, skills, expertise, values, perceptions and mental orientations about certain issues. It is, therefore, based on the context under discussion where people share about their experiences about the context. Over years of working in a certain area, people acquire knowledge about their areas of specialization and this makes them more efficient in those areas. Sometimes it becomes hard to explain much about it because it can be manifested through actions, involvement and commitment. It’s a very valuable source of information in a company and likely to lead to breakthroughs in the company. For a company to have increased innovation and competitiveness, it has to invest much in this type of knowledge. An IT professional troubleshoots problems based on their experience and practice in an area. It’s challenging for them to convey the knowledge to another person in a coded way like in a document. That’s why experience in a certain field matters a lot to an organization. The successful knowledge management initiatives focus much on the tacit dimension of knowledge because it’s more reliable. It deals directly with people and hence easy to handle though the limitations placed by the computerized systems have to be understood.

             Embedded knowledge is found in processes, culture, routines or structures of an organization. It can also exist in explicit sources though the knowledge is not explicit. It’s a bit challenging to deal with embedded knowledge because cultures and routines are hard to understand and change. The routines that are known to be formal are easy to implement and manage. The role of IT in this type of knowledge is limited but still it has some applications. Many organizations find it hard to manage embedded knowledge; hence those who succeed reap benefits and are above others competitively.

            The knowledge acquired whether explicit, tacit or embedded should focus on the company’s goals. HP has been on the lead in its fields of specialization. [16]This means that, for them to meet their objectives, they have to apply the knowledge they have in delivering only the best to their customers. Knowledge management requires that the departments share the information acquired for the benefit of the company. In order to continue expanding its market and meet its objectives, HP came up with a way of managing knowledge for the computer dealer channels. This involves having a technical support for answering phone calls. This ensures that all the customers concerns were attended to and action taken. Another initiative that was introduced was the use of a dial-up database that responded to the clients’ concerns. All these advancements were to find a way of expanding their market base by managing the knowledge they acquired.

            The company requires a lot of resources for the projects to be carried out successfully. In the year specified, the company spent four billion U.S dollars for innovations of products, solutions and development of new technologies. This shows that the management is fully committed to fund all the projects as long as they will be beneficial to the company. It has also invested much on research in the labs so that they continue improving their products in the market. Funds used in the projects are the accrued profits, hence the need of continued improvement on their services.

Question three

            The main challenges faced by HP in improving its ability to manage organizational knowledge are as described in this section. In HP, the Information technical engineer has been working on a project of developing a system that contains a database of the profiles of experts. They are people who are knowledgeable on certain areas and situated in various places. The challenge in this is to create a manageable list in the database that can be widely used and still reflects on the diversification of knowledge in the Laboratory. The company planned to rely on the experts to present their knowledge profiles and be updating it when necessary. Since it was expected that they would have a challenge in this, the engineer used incentives to entice those who were willing. In connection to this, they feared that the term “expert” might scare away potential participants. The system was tested from the labs and later the network of experts will be expanded to other departments. [17]

            Another challenge in HP was how ISST would change the culture of knowledge sharing within work groups and the business units. They claimed that there is little support in that culture hence a need to review it. The company managers felt that much more could be done other than just having the Knowledge management workshops but they do not know which channels to use. The workshops currently in place are helpful in sensitizing the employees within HP about the need to have a platform of knowledge sharing among various departments.[18] What one department knows might be essential to other departments hence the need of sharing. In knowledge management, the information acquired becomes useful to a company if well utilized other than just being stored. That’s why the company management has intensified on the need of workshops where training is done and also people share ideas on different issues affecting them. The company has diversified on use of IT to enhance expand its market base and penetrate even further. From the workshops, HP educators were then introduced though they had a challenge in sharing knowledge.

            Another challenge experienced in HP is on competition due to those having similar products. The company specializes in computers sales and other equipment alongside offering medical services. Other companies have also specialized in these products and services but their quality brings about the difference. In HP, there is no compromise of producing low quality products. They enjoy a well-established market position because many people who use their products have trust in them. To expand their market base, HP has embarked on a process of carrying out a project whose major purpose is to carry out market survey and manage international market intelligence. This ensures that most of the regions are well informed about their products and hence easy for them to decide on buying them. [19]The team that was given the work of carrying out the market intelligence was gathering information from the clients and responding to their concerns on various issues. To do this, they didn’t need to travel to all the places where HP products are sold, but could use the web-based platforms. The use of technology enhances knowledge management strategies because work that could be done for many days, takes only a short time now. The management is tasked with devising ways of dealing with competition because it’s inevitable. However, measures have been taken on this, but the results are not yet realized because the projects are in the initial stages. In the product processes organization (PPO), there is a mission to advance the process of product development and introduction. This meant that, there would be reviews in the designs of the products produced, and thus they would be more impressive in the market. Another strategy used by HP to penetrate further in the market is by serving everyone without discrimination. This ensures that every player in the market is satisfied with the products obtained from HP. Having that diverse strategy is a big boost to expanding their market and thus reduces competition. Understanding the weaknesses of other companies can also help HP to improve in those areas so that their products will be of a higher quality than their competitors. Through knowledge acquired from research in the Lab, the company manages to invent new products and technologies. This improves the customer’s lives and creates business opportunities. The knowledge acquired through developing the new products is stored well to ensure that it is available to others who require it.

            The HP information system is equipped to withstand these challenges because they work round the clock to ensure that they are solved. They have a well structured infrastructural base that helps in combating these issues.

            In the case of coming up with a database having the profiles of experts, the information system team resolved to entice the participants who showed interest. They were doing it by giving them an incentive for every profile submitted and also in maintaining it. This ensures that many experts participated because they were assured of benefiting. They also provide a platform whereby clients with different issues interact with the experts for their problems to be dealt with. On the case of the term “expert”, the IS team considered using another simpler term but referring to the same thing.

            The challenge of knowledge sharing among the work groups can be dealt with by the initiatives to the corporate sections of  holding workshops severally that will allow easy transfer of knowledge among work mates.  The workshops are used for in networking, establishing a common language and management frameworks for knowledge management. A major shift from the workshops is the “Trainer’s Trading Post” This involved educators who worked within small groups though they had a challenge in sharing knowledge.[20] Also, a “training library” and “training review” were established as knowledge bases. The Training review did not work, hence was merged with Trainer’s trading post. All these initiatives ensured that the Information System team was well equipped.

            In dealing with competition from other companies, the Product Generation Information System (PGIS) was established. It’s a group that deals with facilitation of the tasks carried out by the Product Processes Organization (PPO). The two groups worked together in development of Knowledge Links. It’s a web-based collection of knowledge on product development from the various PPO functions among them, product marketing. If the initiative was well thought of, and proceed to the implementation phase, a lot of knowledge would be available to the customers. The major purpose of initiating these processes was to help in applying the knowledge management skills in reaching out to the corporate market.

Question 4

            The effect of the developments such as the rise of social media, in creation of a strong brand identity and establishing brand loyalty

The social media have been on the rise in recent years because many people have embraced the advancement in technology. Social media refer to the sites that are used by people to share ideas and exchange information. Social media have been in use for a long time but its uses are changing gradually. It depends on mobile and we-based technologies to develop highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, discuss and modify the content which is user-reliant. Social media have brought changes in communication between individuals, organizations, and groups. There are many factors that make people use it in different ways. They include; availability, frequency, immediacy and permanence. These days, there are many benefits of visiting the social media. It has gone past sharing socially to building reputations and providing job opportunities and monetary benefits through advertisements. Social media can take different forms including internet, magazines, weblogs, podcasts, pictures, videos and social blogs. It has grown tremendously and that has made many people prefer using the social media for many purposes. It is used in socializing, marketing, advertising, sensitization programs and also in gathering consumer feedback by companies. Many businesses have joined social cites like facebook, Twitter,Linkedln and other similar platforms that target potential customers. Social networking is the leading activity that people engage in online. For companies to reach a wider market found in the social media, companies are hiring specialists to handle their marketing sites. 

            Social media influence the perception of the customers in that the products are advertised in a very appealing way. Also, the descriptions that are given to the product are easy to understand and this makes the customers arrive at decisions swiftly. Since the social media is used by many people, the advertisements reach a large population within a short period. Customers are left to decide without the influence by the seller. This can also influence the buyers because they find it easy to decide on their options when no one else is involved. There are some facts about online buying which shows that social media can influence potential buyers. It’s known that many people end up in a store because of an online visit that they had. This means, whatever was displayed online created an urge of seeing it physically. Also, a big percentage of consumers do their research online. Many people say that the posts that are made on the social media about various products and services by a company influence their purchases. It’s of importance for companies to use the social media in relaying certain information to their customers.

            Companies have devised other ways of reaching a wide market through digital marketing and use of information desks. Digital marketing reaches a wide area and usually is repeated severally for the prospective customers to show interest. The information desks are placed at strategic locations in towns whereby anyone can pass by and enquire of any product offered by the company. Other technologies in use for marketing and connecting companies to their customers are mobile computing and online communications like use of Skype applications. Mobile computing enables people to use their phones or portable computers to perform tasks online.

            Social media has been in use recently by many organizations and companies as a business potential. It is used for marketing research, communication and for sales promotions. In marketing research, companies can easily know which customers visited their site and also when they visited it. By this, the company also receives feedbacks about their products and services from their clients. The information gathered from the social site is then analyzed and responses are made according to the demands of the customers.

Communication has greatly improved between companies and their clients or from one company to another. Social media has facilitated easy and efficient communication and it ensures that customers are satisfied by the products offered. Sales promotion and discounts encourage people to buy more than planned because of the discounts offered. Mobile social media enable companies to offer promotions to specific people only at specific times. For instance, Mc Donald’s offered five and ten dollars gift cards to a hundred clients who visited their sites. It led to 33% increase in the number of people visiting them. 

Electronic commerce is also done online and by use of social media. It deals with purchasing goods and services online. This service has enabled many companies reap many profits because not many people can visit their stores physically but instead depend on the online deals.

            On the contrary, there are some few threats associated with the use of social media in marketing and research. It is prone to online crimes where criminals purport to be distributors of certain products offered by a particular company. They con loyal clients and they lose trust with the company’s online deals. Others hack the databases of many companies and extract vital information   about the company. This may lead to huge losses especially those whose major deals are done online. Due to overreliance on the online platforms, companies do not identify some opportunities and end up losing to their competitors. This to a large extent affects the companies’ market niche.


            Knowledge management is vital to the progress of any organization. For the case of HP, it has utilized all the available channels of acquiring knowledge so that it can be used in expanding their market and also in improving their products. The purpose of initiating the various projects was to maximize on their knowledge management in order to apply the available Information Technology in their product developments. Though there have been challenges in implementing the projects, their returns are enormous. Many benefits are associated with use of social media in companies and organizations in market research and expansion.


[1] Alavi M and Leidner DE (1999) Knowledge management systems:

[2] Allee, V. (1997)”12 Principles of Knowledge Management

[3] Barth, S. (2000). “Knowledge as A Function

[4] Knowledge Management for Development (KM4Dev), ISSN: 18716342

[5] Frappaola, C. (1998). “Defining Knowledge Management: Four Basic Functions” Computerworld, Vol. 32, No. 8

[6] Dyer, G. (2000). “Knowledge Management Crosses The Chasm

It can be represented as shown below by use of a diagram

[7] Huang, K.T., Lee, Y.L., & Wang, R.W., (1999). ”Quality Information and Knowledge” “IDC

[8] Gupta, B., Iyer, L.S., & Aronson, J.E. (2000 “Knowledge Management: Practices and Challenges “.

[9] Davenport, T. (1998) Knowledge management at Hewlett-Packard, early 1996 Austin, TX

[10] Knowledge Management Research & Practice (2006) 4, 105.doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.850009

[11] Chou T (2001) An investigation of association between knowledge management activities and management performance

[12] Stenmark, D. (2002). “Information Vs Knowledge: Role of Intranets in Knowledge Management”.

[13] Davenport, T.H & Beers, M.C. (1998). “Successful Knowledge Management Projects”

[14] Studies Finds Knowledge Management Moving Beyond Early Adopter Stage

[15] Clarke, P. (1998). “Implementing A Knowledge Strategy For Your Firm”. Research Technology Management

[16] Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1998) Working knowledge: how organizations manage what they know. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press

[17] Holsapple, C. W and A. B.Whinston. (1996). “Decision Support Systems:

[18] Malhotra, Y. (1998). “Knowledge Management, Knowledge Organization and Knowledge of Workers

[19] Davenport, T. (1996) Hewlett Packard promotes knowledge management initiatives

[20] Dyer, G. (2000). “Knowledge Management Crosses The Chasm”

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Friday, 29 December 2017 06:02

Week 4 Discussion

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Week 4 Discussion

In my position as the business development manager, I was involved in the development of a tablet for personal use. A business development manager is tasked with the mandate of boosting the market position of the firm and assisting the firm to realize financial growth (Allen, 2005). The business development manager is responsible for defining the long-term goals of the firm, building relationships with key clients, identifying and responding to business opportunities, negotiating and closing business deals. In order for one to be a success in this position, he or she need possess certain competencies. One must have knowledge of the business including the strategic goals and the market position of the organization. The person must also have knowledge of the environment wherein the firm is working including the economic, competitive and legal environment. The person must also have research skills in order to gather information on various issues such as the needs of customers.

 Analytical skills are also essential as the person need to develop an understanding of the gathered information and use it to inform key decisions. A business development manager must also have excellent communication and interpersonal skills. These skills will enable him to work effectively with other members in enhancing the position of the firm. Leadership skills are also vital for a person in this position as he or she has to work through other people to achieve objectives. Since the business development manager is tasked with the duty of negotiating and closing business deal, she or he must also possess negotiation skills.

Several approaches are available to develop these competencies. The first approach is formal training program. Formal training programs are common strategies for promoting competencies among employees. These formal programs are specially designed to address a particular gap in skills or knowledge (Hameed & Waheed, 2011). The organization has a systematic procedure of developing formal training program. The process begins with the need assessment phase, moves to the program design phase, implementation and conclude with an evaluation phase. Various tools and techniques are applied in these phases.

Another approach of developing competencies is coaching and mentoring. Coaching entails teaching least experienced individuals how to perform certain tasks (Lord, 2008). Mentoring entails developing an environment that enables the trainee to realize personal and professional success. Unlike formal training, mentoring and coaching activities take place continuously within the organization. Less experienced employees are encouraged to work with more experienced employees so as they can share knowledge and experiences. Mentoring and coaching are effective approaches of developing competencies as the enable trainees to tap into the tacit knowledge of experienced workers (Khakwani, Aslam, Azhar, & Marteen, 2012). Since tacit knowledge cannot be documented, the only way to acquire this knowledge is to interact with those who have it. Mentoring and coaching also enable to acquire human competencies such as effective communication, problem-solving, negotiation and conflict resolution (Khakwani, Aslam, Azhar, & Marteen, 2012). It is hard for a trainee to acquire competencies in these areas through formal training programs.


Allen, K. (2005). Business development manager job description. Retrieved from

Hameed, A. & Waheed, A. (2011). Employee development and its effect on performance. Business and Social Science. 2 (13), 224- 229

Khakwani, S. Aslam, H. Azhar, M. & Marteen, M. (2012). Coaching and mentoring for improved learning employees in organizations. Educational and Social Research. 2 (1), 257- 266

Lord, P. Atkinson, M. & Mitchell, H. (2008). Coaching and mentoring for professionals. National Foundation for Education Research. Retrieved from

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Wednesday, 27 December 2017 13:39

Rehabilitation On Juvenile Offenders

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Rehabilitation On Juvenile Offenders

In current times, challenges facing life and the behaviors of children’s are copying from the adults can be good or bad. Illegal activities are being committed more frequently and often by the adolescents. Juvenile delinquency has been on the increase and yet the number of delinquencies that goes to the rehabilitation centers to serve time for the crimes they have committed is on the rise. Lucky enough the youths have come back to the society and been accepted after completion of their correction period (Furniss, 2009). Rehabilitation is the process where juvenile offenders are taken into correction centers to serve their offence term and ensure they have changed to be good people who can be integrated back into the society. This research paper examines; causes of children crimes, the methods used in the rehabilitation centers have the required resources to handle the children offenders and correcting their behaviors, and integrating them back to the society (Chung-Yi, 2012). Many juvenile delinquents both male and children are faced with issues like drug abuse, poverty, orphans, substance use, rape victims and other issues pressurizing them to commit unacceptable behaviors in the society.

Cause of children crimes

The cause of juvenile offences is due to the social factors, economic concerns and cultural conditions prevailing in the country. There is evidence of the worldwide, continuous increase in juvenile crime taking place due to economic decline and poverty. Juvenile crimes are driven because of negative economic development like political instability, particular economic crisis, and weakening of major institutions social-economic factors are often linked to unemployment of young people that leads to an increase in criminal activities (Chung-Yi, 2012). Cultural factors lead to breaking down of the norms for acceptable behaviors, making the rules deterring people from doing socially unacceptable acts lose the irrelevance in the society. The juvenile delinquents fall victims of rebellion, defiance, and criminal activities. It makes the adolescents fall to be victims hence practicing illegal acts.

Substance abuse by juveniles is one of the causes of delinquency, as they are compelled to commit crimes to obtain dollars to support their substance. Urbanization is another prime cause of delinquency in juveniles; it fosters the development of new forms of social behaviors arising from weak primary social relations and control, increase reliance on the media at expanse of formal communication and the tendency towards anonymity (Zaitsev. et al., 2009). Children from families with poor supervision and training the fallen prey to crimes, thus heading to delinquents. A family that values family relationships well and trains the members the right society norms they grow well-avoiding jail at an early age (Steiner & Cauffman 1999). The media are another influence due to the display information especially movies with criminal cult and issue.


Juvenile delinquency is a major issue that affects the youth of America. Children delinquents are representing concern issues that need urgent answers. Rehabilitation methods include such interventions as probation rehabilitation; work readiness; behavior therapy and training cognitive skills will minimize juvenile offenses (Chung-Yi, 2012). Rehabilitation is vital for juvenile delinquents and re-absorption into the society. Rehabilitation leads the line into societal acceptable habits and a healthy lifestyle back in the society. Rehabilitation methods are ideal because they are not centered on the punishment, but it looks at the correction of the behavior. Rehabilitation processes are practical and can be measured at the end of the training; the juvenile can be assessed to establish how much they have positively changed. The juveniles are forced to result into illegal activities due to certain reasons no child is born a criminal.

The goals of life and achievement are taking into consideration once the children offenders are taken to the rehabilitation. For children offender, rehabilitation is important because it trains one the process of correction and there are established steps that are taken to obtain goals and the means of getting the offenders’ goals accomplished in a legitimate way. The implemented programs are realistic at they teach the delinquents on how to achieve their dreams in life after completing their terms (Chung-Yi, 2012). Rehabilitation is an important part of mainstreaming the juvenile back into the society. Therefore, proper rehabilitation helps to eliminate the vicious cycle of recidivism and cannot resort into adult criminal activity.

Rehabilitation programs

Group therapy

In group therapy a number of juveniles are rehabilitated together, where professional instructors are given the role of teaching them what is expected of them. The children undergo several lessons aimed at teaching them and correcting their previous behaviors. The therapist allows the delinquents to challenge themselves in figuring out issues they deal with and how to overcome them (Chung-Yi, 2012). It means the offenders have active interaction lessons, and they create a foundation of commonality. The juveniles can motivate and encourage others to drop the habits that are not good. Therefore, it allows them to learn from one another experiences, thereby realizing the wrong they did in the society and agreed on how to stop the illegal acts (Zaitsev. et al., 2009). Acceptance of all the juvenile delinquents in rehabilitation group allows them to have respect upon each other as they know they are in a similar situation.

 Group therapy encourages participation thereby becoming one of the best methods to be used.  This form of rehabilitation is vital as children offenders can draw on each other experiences of other group mates, thus making the therapy session more meaningful and effective. However, this method can have limited limitations like children offenders developing groups that will be used in practicing illegal activities in the future (Steiner & Cauffman 1999). The therapist must be very keen and sensitive to the rehabilitation process and ensure the rehabilitation goals are met.

Rehabilitation in group therapy it encourages the juvenile offenders to learn from each other and emulate the behaviors that will suit the in the society. In the rehabilitation center, the child is given advice and the steps to follow in becoming acceptable in the society (Zaitsev., et al., 2009). Rehabilitation is best as the offenders at the time of the crime they were not able to recognize wrong and good, therefore in the group rehabilitation the child will learn from her colleagues.

Group housing

Group housing offers a better way of teaching the juvenile delinquents in rehabilitation. Group housing is a process of going back home to a good environment after changing from the bad habits that have been held the juvenile in the rehabilitation camp (Furniss, 2009). Rehabilitation plays an essential role in reducing recidivism. It also eliminates future crimes, as the juvenile delinquents are committed to changing their lives, because of the positive environment of flourishing in rather than going back to the original crime face surrounding (Chung-Yi, 2012). The people involved in this therapy they are brought in the same house with the requirement and trained by a therapist on how to correct their behaviors.

In group housing it can be good for the juvenile offenders who do not have home, parents, relative and have committed crime. The juvenile offenders are housed in the center support by the federal, local and county government, and their role is to ensure correction is achieved (Furniss, 2009). The street children will like take this option as they do not have a home to go to. The government must support the center with enough support and training facilities require.


This is the process of releasing the convicted juvenile delinquents into the community rather than having the in prisons. The individuals are placed under the probation as imposed by the court. The process of granting probation has no comprehensive standards, but is limited to persons who have conducted serious crimes like murder and rape etc. the work of the probation officer is to counsel, act as social worker, a teacher and a law enforce (Jones & Wyant 2007). The probation officers must have the ability of investigating well the person under the probation, the resources available to help a person change or learn consistently. The propagation officer’s sets out a guideline to guide the juvenile delinquent during the period granted and the progress is recorded (Furniss, 2009). Probation method does not interfere with the right of the affected person, but certain conditions have to be followed.

Probation is important for elderly youths who can distinguish between bad and good. The offenders can learn by following the coaching and conditions of the probation officers. The probation officers are experts in measuring the development of the juvenile offenders.

Family therapy

 Relatives and family member’s involvement in the rehabilitation process are important as the juvenile’s delinquent feels that he /she is cared and love. Many studies have showed that the families who have issues with substance abuse, poverty, incarceration and lack proper training of their children leading to illegal activities (Furniss, 2009). Supportive families help the offender in realizing their mistakes and wanting to be a good person, thus helping the offender overcome challenges faced during rehabilitation. This therapy allows the family to be rehabilitated, and the family gets the opportunity to process the situation of their former delinquent child (Jones & Wyant 2007). This theory helps to develop a strong social bond their by rebuilding a strong foundation relationship. The family together with the rehabilitation officer work together in ensuring rehabilitation objective is achieved. The most successful style as it emphasizes family interaction properly because it focuses the skills to the adults to supervise and train the child.

Family therapy is relevant to children who have responsible and informed parents. The parents and people at home must be willing to train and provide the necessary support for correction (Furniss, 2009). The family will provide a foundation of caring of their future children. The affected child will not develop any future mistakes.


Rehabilitation is the best method used in correcting the behavior of children who are involved in criminal activities. The methods use are suitable in correcting the behavior of the children by making, them realize the best and acceptable societal practices. Rehabilitation promises a future with minimal adult crimes and combating juvenile delinquency. The rehabilitation process is a step by step developed model for correcting juvenile offenders to ensure they become good future citizens.


Chung-Yi, H. (2012). Ethical Dilemmas Of Social Workers; In Juvenile Offenders Rehabilitation Service. (English).Journal Of Youth Studies (10297847), 15(2), 157-167.

Furniss, J. (2009). Fighting For The Futures Of Young Offenders. Corrections Today, 71(3), 36.

Jones, P. R., & Wyant, B. R. (2007). Target Juvenile Needs To Reduce Delinquency. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(4), 763-771.

Olson, D., & Baglivio, M. (2013). Creating A Safe Residential Environment For Juvenile-Offenders: The Florida Experience. Corrections Today, 75(1), 64-67.

Piquero, A. R., & Steinberg, L. (2010). Public Preferences For Rehabilitation; Versus Incarceration Of Juvenile Offenders.Journal Of Criminal Justice, 38(1), 1-6. Doi:10.1016/J.Jcrimjus.2009.11.001

Steiner, H., & Cauffman, E. (1999). Personality Traits In Juvenile Delinquents and Relation To Criminal Behavior And Recidivism. Journal Of The American Academy Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(3), 256.

Travis, L. F. (2006, November). Editorial Introduction. Criminology & Public Policy. Pp. 623-625.

Zaitsev, G. K., Zaitzev, A. G., Dmitriev, M. G., & Iu Apal^Kova, I. I. (2009). Rehabilitation Of The Personality Of Juvenile Offenders. Russian Education & Society, 51(11), 50-60. Doi:10.2753/Res1060-9393511105

Rosemary Charles is the Managing Director of a globally competitive free research papers online which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Wednesday, 27 December 2017 13:36

Miss America scholarship foundation

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Miss America scholarship foundation

Miss American foundation organization is it the sole provider of the scholars they give, but this was not truth as they contribute almost 10% of the total scholarship they give yearly. They claim to be providing $45m in scholarship to women yearly, but they contribute only $4m. On another ethical question come up on accountability is this all money given out, how sure the public be?  Here it shows that there may be some unethical practices going on. Also the procedure used in giving out the scholarship looks as discriminative as they only focus on the winners and must be going to a college within their state and or if she won nationwide she will receive the scholar within certain states. The colleges involved in this program, for instance, from Pennsylvania states, are only four colleges, and all are small, private colleges. It indicates that there is something may be happening as young women cannot leave their current colleges to come and study on small colleges that may not be offering their respective courses. Other implications are if the area of study of a woman is not available in the colleges in the list what will happen to the scholarship she received? Will the money go back to the foundation for another person or it will not be accounted for. What is their objectivity of this foundation? Does the foundation achieve its aims? When we look at the women running this foundation and the picture, they display to the people it does not complement what they stand for. These women are focused on never being married, and this pose a challenge to young women who take them for their role models.  Ethically this affects lives of many young girls who will grow up knowing that marriage is not good their dressing style is questionable as the go round always in bikini and high heels, this looks like they are advocating for immoral behaviors that does not ogre well with their position as role models and national figures. Miss America is out to give scholarships to the women, and the scholarships are supposed to be donated through Society Woman Engineers, Patsy Mink Foundation and Jeannette Rankin Foundation. The Miss America foundation is involved in offering scholarship to young women who come from low class and middle class in the society. The ethical implications of this are to allow more women to acquire education, and the organization is feminist. Miss America portrait to the people is that for previous years the organization has not been able to achieve its objectives. The pageants open doors to many girls and expose them to many positive experiences and fantastic community projects. The foundation is out to teach many young girls on how to become role models to the society and gain positive attributes in their lives. The criteria having changed it paves the way for more features to be considered for the beauties to participate. The foundation natures many young girls in the US, therefore, their moral standards and behaviors must meet the societal accepted practices. Also, another take is the definition of beauty the organization must come out clear and say why they prefer certain traits to be beautiful over the others. As this shows some, it leads to discrimination of a certain group. There must be equality and no double standards on the issues of Miss America.

The corporate organization to address these issues must start from the greatest supporters and come down to other stakeholders affected directly. The sponsors who donate their money should review the way the organization is handling their financial management, and they should set procedures to be followed in offering scholarships. The records of accounting must tally with the records provided by the organization and the others as the scholars are distributed. The educational ministry should provide guidelines on the conditions of the scholars they expect from the donors. The organization must look at the moral features and see if it can achieve their objectives and be good role models to their followers. Lastly, this is an influential organization that should act as an example in terms of moral lessons, accountability, ambassador of education and promoting national cohesion.

Rosemary Charles is the Managing Director of a globally competitive free research papers online which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Wednesday, 27 December 2017 11:12

Wireshark project

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Wireshark project

This is my Project Abstract TCP/IP is used to interconnect programming facilities in today's web settings, and it is vital content for networking components study. This paper presents the capacities and attributes of Wire shark, the paper also explains its study and application in TCP/IP protocol explaining with specific examples. The good teaching practice will be received with wire shark and also it’s the popularization along with the application. This research paper introduces the functions and attributes of Wireshark and expands its analysis and application in TCP/IP protocol teaching by specific examples. This practice unveils that good teaching results will be received with the assistance of Wireshark, and it is worth familiarization and application. Wireshark history is important in my study and looking at how Wireshark can be both hacker and professional security tool box.


A Wireshark is defined as network protocol analyzer software that is used for troubleshooting and analysis of communication protocol development, educational purposes and software. Wireshark is network analysis tool that improves the ability to perform serious inspection of many protocols. Deep packet inspection is interpreting, extracting and viewing the headers associated with higher and higher level protocols (Orebaugh., et al, 2007). These level three to seven of the OSI model for each frame Wireshark provides alternative easier graphical user environment. When the network interface is chosen from the list, a user will start to capture datagrams with simple click start button.

The wire shark main window has three panes. The top pane provides a line of entry for every interface. The bottom pane that is hexadecimal while the middle panel presents the lists of PDU headers for each of the nested protocol. The middle frame can be interpreted as; the first line produces general information about the frame itself and the bytes it contains. The second line provides the data-link protocol and shows the source and destination address (this can be expanded to produce more vital information) (Orebaugh. et al., 2007). The third line of the middle pane indicates the source of IP addresses also can be expanded as line two. After expanding you, can see the sources of the IP version used and the length of bytes and others. The fourth line it shows level-4 protocol address and you can expand for more details. In lines, 5&6 provides information about the protocol headers in the encapsulated payload of the TSP segment and all available details.

Wire sharks provide features to filter the frames collected using wide constraints. Wire a shark specifies over 80,000 different filters can be applied to flow down to the specific traffic that has to be analyzed (Ader. et al., 2011). You can achieve this by applying a filter only to show frames that contain a TCP segment with a matching port. Therefore, a wire shark is network packet examiner captures selected network packets and displays the packets as details as possible. Thus, it is like a measuring parameter that is examining what is going on inside a network cable. Wire shark is one of the best open source packet analyzers used today.

The history of Wireshark

In early 1998, Gerald Combs wanted a tool that will track down the network problems and provide solutions to the problems detected. Thus, they wrote Ethreal program to solve these issues. Ethreal was released in mid-1998 as version 0.2.0, and it provided solutions to the patches, bug reports, and this was a success to the solving of these network issues (Orebaugh. et al., 2007). Ethreal was under the trademark was owned by Network Integration Services. The founder of Ethreal on 1998 October he had a better idea of developing an advanced tool to work as Ethreal. In late 1998 Richard Sharpe was teaching on TCP/ IP causes where he saw potential of developing a better program than Ethreal, so he started to contribute to the dissectors and contributing patches. All of the people involved in the dissertation started with a protocol that needed Wireshark, but it did not handle. Therefore, the research team continued to deal with the project until to 2006 they named the project Wireshark. In 2008, the developed a wire shark that was brought to the market version of 1.0 (Ader. et al., 2011). The protocol developed had the following analyzing features; network administrator used to detect troubles, network security engineers for analyzing security problems, and debug protocol (Smith, 2013). The protocol can be used in the teaching process to analyze data captured and packet structures. Students can observe IP datagram, TCP packet segment, MAC frame and other content transmissions of PDU.

The capabilities of wire shark in the network

The wire shark has these capabilities in the network system; it is used as a network administrators in troubleshooting network problems, has the capability to be applied as a network security engineers in examining problems, it is used to debug protocol implementation and computer use it to learn network protocol internals. Wire shark is the same as tcpdump, but it is more advanced because it can produce a graphic front-end with integrating and filtering options. The wire shark allows the clients to put network interface controllers that enhance promiscuous mode in a mode to see all traffic visible interfaces not only traffic addresses.

Wire shark as a Network administrators

Wire share is a good network administrator; it functions better if it has the real information at the fingertips. Eire shark is based on Winpcp as it needs the latter to be installed on your PC. If it is not in the computer wire shark prompts you to install it. Winpcp is a separate program that is used to capture network packet data without interrupting any protocol. It involves kernel level packets filtering, network scenario, for communicating data and have a set of layers. We work on the application level that is the topmost level in TCP and OSI protocols (Scalisi, 2010). When applying wire shark as the administrator, if you have many network adapters you have to choose the one you wish to capture. For example, if your computer is showing you a list of network including WiFi you select the one you want, and then Wireshark will determine the packets coming in to the computer and going out. Wire shark examines data from any machine that is present on the network because it allows data packets from external targets address in the promiscuous mode. If all the electronics on the network are linked by means of hubs using promiscuous mode then you can read all data packets from all ports (Ader. et al., 2011). Therefore, Wireshark has a strong capability in administrating how you are operating you network system.

Wireshark is used as a debug protocol

This is a protocol use with many language tools and engines for the objective of the debugging application. Protocol provides a means of communication between e debugger engine and debugger. Wireshark allows a debugger to link to the browser, and examine what sorts of things are present to debug or inspect, this protocol provides uniform view of JavaScript, CSS rules, DOM nodes and other technologies used by the client-side web (Scalisi, 2010). All links between the debugger and the browser are in the form of JSON objects. Wireshark makes directly readable information, and it operates the JavaScript level.

The attributes of Wireshark

Wireshark has various attributes that make it work better in executing it is capabilities. These attributes include; creating various statistics, colorize packet display, search for packets on many criteria, filter packets on many criteria, export some or all data in a number of capture file formats, save packet data captured, display packets from text files containing hex dumps of packet data, capture live packet information from a network interface, open files containing packets captured and import packets from text files containing hex dumps packets.

Color coding

This is a special feature of Wireshark network examiner. You can use the ready –to –use color codes or customize the colors in preference on toolbar. Color coding is important for identifying the data packets.

Filter packets on many criteria

The toolbar contains attribute of options set up filters. Wire shark will capture complete traffic data and present all packets to require by the usual management of the network as the results including; IGMP and STP (spanning tree protocol), ARP requests, NetBIOS and Cup broadcasts. In term of network examining packets like these are irrelevant, unless you suspect ARP poisoning attack. Therefore, you need to apply a capture filter to remove these packets from recording the results (Smith, 2013). Packet filter is done following one of these criteria; protocol, value of the field, type of protocol, and the presence of a field. Build a new capture filter that can capture only HTTP/UDP employed as transport layer protocols for duration of a half a minute.

Creating various statistics

Wire shark has useful statistics functions for IP addresses, packet length, communication endpoints, protocol types, conversations, service responses times and many others. The statistic menu can be used in

Wireshark performs security tasks for the network analyst.

Security tasks both active and proactive are executed and performed to identify security scanning processes, holes or beaches on the connection. These are the task Wireshark can perform; intrusion detection, test firewall blocking, validate secure login and data traversal, passive discover host, operating systems and services, identify and define malicious traffic signatures. Wireshark has the capability to perform smart security tests.

Capture live packets from a network interface data

Wireshark can be engaged to capture data from different network connection. If you connect Wireshark to one port of the switch, you will observe packets streaming between the switch and the terminal. The switch can be divided the connection into segments creating separate collisions domains that eliminate the need for each packet to struggle for the network segment. Packets are only allowed to all ports that are belonging to the same virtual LAN-VLAN. To meet the objective of linking to the hub in the same network segment on your server, you share all the traffic between the switch and the server, and analyze the terminal (Trabelsi, 2005). After capturing the network traffic port mirroring or VLAN-based ACLS, can be done. This enables you to duplicate the connection and channel it to the port that you need. It is crucial to know that the port that is configured as a mirror has to be fast as the ports to be monitored to avoid segment loss. This mode is used by many administrators to install IDS or other examining tools. One benefit that VLAN has over port mirror is that it accepts a better granulation when specific traffic is analyzed. On configuring port mirroring, it is easy to reverse traffic from one port or VLAN to the next: with VACL can specify ACLS to determine the specific type of traffic you are interested.

The bridge mode can be used to capture data when you are unable to access the switch, use two computers with two network cards locate yourself between the switch and the server at the physical level; where we have active access to all traffic throughput (Scalisi, 2010). The bridge units can be installed and configured. For this method to work, you must add physical interfaces to it. The limitations to this method are loss of segments during installation, and it is unacceptable.

ARP SPOOF can be used to capture data by Wireshark; it is an offensive method and only useful in non-critical situations where there is a need to intercept the connection between various machines. Results come as the machine you want to examine all the data via your PC that has Wireshark executing its work (Ader. et al., 2011). The process is achieved by influencing the cache of the machine to have a false IP/MAC association. Some machines can detect this process, so it is essential to deactivate this function in the connection devices if you do not want your port to be in shutdown mode. The Wireshark engine for capturing life data can capture packets from different kinds of networks. To stop the capturing process, it shows the amounts captured, capture time and captured a number of data. Simultaneously showing the decoded packets as it keeps on capturing and packet filters work to reduce the amount of data captured. Thought it is able to capture the capture engine needs improvements in simultaneous capturing from multiple networks (however you can start multiple captures and merge capture files later) and the stop capturing option depends on the data captured.

Open source software

Wireshark is open source software that does not have restrictions on access. Wireshark can freely be used irrespective of a number of computers you have. All source code is freely available the GPL, because of that it is easy for users to add new protocol to Wireshark as plug-in or built into the origin.

Practical examples of the above-mentioned features

A packet examines for o token ring network may detect lost or presence of too many tokens. Wireshark has this strong ability of verifying the protocols.

A packet detector would analyze that information being sent to the network adapter has been received or not. If the network adapter has done not report receiving the massage then, this will localize the failure to the adapter.

Wireshark could collect the amount of statistics on the amount of traffic from the processing detecting the urge for more bandwidth or a better method. Also, it could be used to analyze data sent to and fro secure systems in order to examine and circumvent security measures, for the purpose of penetration testing or illegal activities.

A packet analyzer could be used to detect operating connectivity issues like web, ftp, SQL, active directory e t c. in addition Wireshark can passively capture data going between the web visitor and the web serve thereby, decoding it at the HTTP and HTML models and create internet log files as a substitute for server logs and pages tagging for web analytics.

Protocols detected by Wireshark

Capturing packets from e link in the network interface, Wireshark captures all of the information coming and going from the network. Wireshark provides capture display that necessitates capturing of only specific packets that you are interested in. The protocols that can be captured are; ICMP, ARP, HTTP, and TCP/IP. The TCP/IP mostly widely used connections; HTTP is the server / client protocol used to transfer or web pages on the network. TCP/IP is stack of protocols with different protocols on both layers 3 and 4 (Smith, 2013). In layer four protocols and provide bi-directional communication. And layer 3 address systems that allow communication on the network. TCP/IP session is a three-way process.

Application of Wireshark on TCP/IP

TCP/ IP are widely used to interlink computing facilities and the network environment and are the most crucial content of networking element study. Wireshark assists with TCP/ IP in teaching. The two sections are too crucial and difficult points of TCP/IP protocol teaching. Examining devices of two hosts, host A and host D on LAN. IP address on host A is, physical address of host A is 00:02:3f:02:3b:ed, IP of host D IS, physical address is 00:11:11:02:59:e8. Host A is equipped with Wireshark all executions are done on host A. in order to facilitate analysis we set filter on only snatch connection data between hosts A and D. we can set up specific filter protocols such that data only contained ARP/ ICMP protocol is collected. Wireshark has an ability to sniff and collect data and analyze it a lot.

Security issues arising on using Wireshark

Wireshark is a program that is used by attackers to sniff and monitor connectivity in order to extract sensitive information from the victim. Wireshark is proved to be very effective in hacking especially on the hub networks. Wireshark collects and monitors the data transmission over a network and lets you go through the data. Wireshark also captures cookies that can be used to gain control of the victim's account. However, this works if there is a website the victim is logged into and does not use a secured HTTPS link. It is effective on HTTP link that does not encrypt login data.

A packet sniffer of Wireshark is advanced wireless protocol can analyze a network and get the summary of what is happening on the connection. During the sniffing process the purpose is to sniff and steal the users’ information specifically the passwords, user IDs, port numbers, credit card numbers and other user’s sensitive information. Sniffing is commonly passive type of attack the attackers can be silent or invisible on the connection (Scalisi, 2010). This makes it hard to identify and diagnose them hence very dangerous attack. The hackers, usually, use the form of attack to invade victim’s sensitive information. TCP/IP packet ensures the data is placed on the packet frame and sent across the link to the intended receiver. Safety for the data is not guaranteed.

The security issues that Wireshark achieves are; user identification, host authentication, data encryption and data integrity (Geier, 2013). Authentication purpose is the process of identifying the client the system verifies the access is given tithe intended user alone. The secure shell protocol is flexible allows new authentication methods to be included in the system as they become available. Data encryption avoids attackers from using encryption algorithms. While in data integrity data sent from the user is received without any changes. Wireshark takes consistently ensure data flowing in the link is secure. Hackers can use Wireshark to obtain the sensitive information of the users. Packet sniffers collect all the information about the user and can avail it to the hackers.


Wireshark is one of the best band powerful sniffers of packet and is comparable to commercial products. This research looks greatly on the capabilities and attributes of Wireshark and their application in TCP/IP on the network environment. The supported protocols, built-in filters and analysis functions alone are important. In-depth network examining does not become easier with the use of wizards and filters if you do not have protocols understanding and operation skills. Wireshark is commonly a manual procedure however the toolbox keeps on advancing as each new version of the software arrives. If you do not understand networking and how the protocols and services interact, Wireshark will not aid you to discover performance weakness or configuration errors.


Ader, R., Burke, J., Keefer, C, Orebaugh, A., pesce, L., & seargen, E. (2011). How to cheat on configuring open source security tools. Syngress publishing, Inc.

Geier, E. (2013). Four ways to make Internet Explorer more secure. PC World, 31(9), 189-191.

Hachum, O. (2011). Mosul University WLAN Security: Evaluation and Improvement. Iraqi Journal for Electrical & Electronic Engineering, 7(1), 138-143.

Khan, A., Qureshi, K., & Khan, S. (2009). Enhanced Switched Network Sniffer Detection

Orebaugh, A., Ramirez, G., Burke, & Morris, G., (2007). Wireshark & Ethreal network protocol analyzer. Syngress publishing, Inc.

Scalisi, M. (2010). Analyze Network Problems With Wireshark. PC World, 28(4), 30.

Smith, R. (2013). Elementary Information Security. Published by Jones & Bartlet publishers

Technique Based on IP Packet Routing. Information Security: A Global Perspective, 18(4), 153-162. doi: 10.1080/19393550903044120

Trabelsi, Z. (2005). Switched Network Sniffers Detection Technology Based on IP Packet Routing. Information Systems Security, 14(4), 51-60.

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers free research papers online. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Wednesday, 27 December 2017 10:20


Written by


My name is Ugur salik, aged 28, an immigrant student who arrived in New York in 2007 from Turkey. I am currently studying criminal justice. I desire to become a police officer since I would love to help people. My Academic, career and personal goals have been influenced by several factors. There is a great impact from family, school, and community upon my academic, personal and career goals.

Factors and events

Environmental factors

Environment comprises of surrounding made up by complex physical factors that act upon us. The environment includes the forces of family, social, political, and economic issues that individuals may deal with on a day-to-day basis. In the course of life, an individual tries to contain the environment with one’s goals, at the same time being integrated into the environment (Lankard, 1996). Being a student immigrant in Long Island University Brooklyn campus influenced me to become a student immigrant vice president. Being in that position, I organized social, cultural and community service events for the campus. I led group discussions about social justice as a project facilitator for a discrimination club. I also was in charge of organizing community service activities for the campus for the elderly including blood drives. The environment, therefore, is a factor that has nurtured my decisions in the day to day choices. Environmental factors also affect our hobbies, skills and talent (Basavage, 1996).

Motivation Forces

     Motivational forces act on or within us causing an initiation of behavior or what it is that moves us. Personal values and desires rarely are realized without conscious efforts on the part of a person. Furthermore, my belief is that the education is the key to success. i relate my passion education with my desire of helping others. When I have my degree done I plan to be part of the establishment of an organization that which provides college education resources to educators, parents and students regardless of their status. Along with other university and college students and advisors, I have decided to establish such organizations in order to bring up a more educated society by promoting the attainment of higher education. My responsibilities will consist of planning and organizing educational discussions about immigrations at conference to translating any scholarships documents in high schools. It is after getting my degree done; that I will develop a practical plan of action. The plan will assist beneficiaries regardless of their status (Anderson, 1995).


    Opportunities are those choices in person’s life which are exposed either in a restrained or obvious manner. Having worked as a volunteer in organizations such as American Cancer Society and Breast Cancer Research Foundation, I got the opportunity to engage in helping the society. These organizations provide breast cancer patients with direct assistance to support the survivors. In the community, i belong to a team. We look for other existing teams that we join to be able to work as volunteers providing donations and fund raising activities in order to support these organizations’ goals. Timing and location of opportunities are important in satisfying aspirations (Super et al., 1996). Different opportunities present themselves in our day to day life. It takes one to recognize such opportunities and make proper use of them.


    Personality involves the way of behaving, thinking and feeling. One’s personality may embrace opinions and attitude that affect the way they interact with people (Heyde, 1997). Being a self-driven person, I am committed to meeting all my goals otherwise; all of my goals will remain dreams. I will only achieve this if I complete my degree. I have committed myself to assisting others and to advancing society’s level of understanding. Therefore, I put extra effort in school while looking for opportunities that could help me to turn my dreams into reality.

Quality of life

    When we recognize barriers that exist in our lives, we seek ways to overcome those obstacles (Harris, 1997). I am a full-time student and after school I work in New York city to provide personal expenses such as books, rent, foods, and transportation. My job is that of a security guard. I have to provide for myself despite being in school since my family cannot afford to support me due to limited resources. I have two siblings who attend school in Turkey. I am the eldest in our family. i am also the only one in our family who has acquired college education. My parents did not get the opportunity to attend college that has affected their personal and professional lives negatively.


    The choices that we make are decisions that are influenced not only by their development, but also by the context in which we live (Chen, 1997). The impact of family, school and community is evident in our academic, career and personal goals.



Chen, C.P. (1997). Career projection: Narrative in context Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 279-29

Anderson, K. (1995) use of a structured career development to increase career identity Journal of Career Development, 21 (4)

Basavage, R. (1996) Gender-role stereotyping and how it relates to perceived future career Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin

Harris B. and Jones S. (1997) the parent’s crash course in career planning Lincolnwood VGM Career Horizons.

Heyde M. and Jordaan J. (1979) Vocational maturity Teachers College Press, Columbia University

Super D.E, Savickas M.L and Super, C.M (1996) the life-span approach to careers Career choice and development (pages 121-178).

Lankard Brown, B. (1996) Acquiring self-knowledge for career development (ERIC Digest No.175)

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers free research papers online. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting


Wednesday, 27 December 2017 09:25

Western civilization

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Western civilization

Enlightenment contributed indirectly to the French revolution, and the revolution embodied most of the Enlightenment ideas. Enlightenment thinkers put forward ideas of natural law and ideas of progress in all aspects of the society. Enlightenment thinkers such as Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau had a major influence in the French revolution. They advocated liberty and reason. Liberty meant freedom of the press, religion and from unreasonable government. They influenced leaders and ordinary people to act against the anarchical administration. The Enlightenment helped to broaden the claims and effects were evident in the various stages of the revolution. The Enlightenment ideas applied by the revolution were division of power, constitutional monarchy, and the declaration of rights of man, popular sovereignty, the social contract, enlightened absolutism and replacement of the old regime

French revolution can be considered to have embodied the ideals and aspiration of the movement and the belief that reason should be the guiding factor of all human affairs. Through its various achievements, it can be seen as the dawn in Enlightenment. Gregory explains that, the revolution made several accomplishments. First, the revolution was strong to weaken political influence and leadership. Privileges were not on birth but wealth and property. Prior to the revolution, high positions in the state were accessed by the bourgeoisie since careers were open to talents. The French state throughout the 19th century was controlled by the bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisies were of the middle class and therefore echoed middle-class values and needs. Sans-culottes realized that it was simply an act of one evil replacing another. Secondly, the old dynastic state was transformed into a modern state which was no longer private property of the monarchs. Citizens of the state acquired rights and duties unlike the older regimes where individuals were subjects of the state. Thirdly, the revolution brought about the application of principles of equality before the law, freedom of speech, religion and press and trial by jury. (Gregory 2007)

Enlightenment was a contributory factor, and it gave flavor to the French Revolution that has reverberated through the many years. The lofty ideals became the language of revolution. The ideal of equality took priority and became the motivator in the political movements. This was something that not even the American war of independence from England embodied.
In addition, the works of Jean Jacques Rousseau pushed forward the French Revolution, despite the fact that he died before it commenced. "Le Contrat Social" was the blueprint for the desired society. The people at the centre stage of the revolution found it to be a great tool of reference. It resulted to the radicalization of the French society where new egalitarian forms were established while old forms of address were abolished. The church was dispossessed and largely lost its influence. Religious ties were purged and consequently, the calendar was also reformed.
Finally, for a time, Atheism was replaced by a generic, new religion sponsored by Robespierre, who was a disciple of Rousseau to the pursuit of the revolutionary fervent. The end of Robespierre rule brought an end radicalism of the revolution. Eventually, Napoleon set in, and his genius allowed the revolution fairly to continue. By the end of Napoleonic era, a new form of French society had been established. Napoleon allowed only parts of the revolution ideals to remain. Thus, the enlightenment ideas found expression in a person who fitted the mold of an enlightenment era monarch. The cause of the revolution in France, therefore, was advanced by the enlightenment period ideals, which Napoleon further advanced throughout Europe.

The French revolution

According to William, The French revolution became a public opinion Ten years after 1789. Historians have discerned its components to reflect elements of rationalism and anti-aristocratic passion which emerge from Universalist nationalism. There was implicit demand for a radical king different from other kings one who would be born of people’s sovereignty and reason. The description suited the king of French revolution Napoleon Bonaparte. France was a republic under monarchy. Napoleon Bonaparte created a monarchy under the name of a republic ten years later. (William 1980)

Various phases of the Revolution

France was in the brink of bankruptcy as the 18th century drew to a close as a result of extravagant spending by King Louis XVI (1754-1793) and its costly involvement in the American Revolution. Kings Louis XVI predecessor had also left the country in a bad state. The country had experienced two decades of drought, poor cereal harvest, price inflation, cattle diseases and from peasants and urban poor. There was desperation from the people as a result of government imposition of heavy taxes and its failure to provide relief. The resentment was in the form of striking, rioting and looting. Another factor that contributed significantly to the French revolution was the increasingly prosperous elite of bourgeoisie who represented wealthy commoners. The peasants were less willing to support the burdensome and anachronistic feudal system. Also, philosophers who advocated political and social reforms influenced the revolution.

In 1786, Charles Alexandre de Calonne (1734-1802) who was Louis XVI’s controller general anticipated a financial reform package that would include a universal land tax. The proposed reform would not exempt the privileged class. The proposed reforms were necessary to avert the growing aristocratic revolt and garner support. The king summoned, for the first time since 1614, the estate general which was an assembly representing nobles, middle class and France clergy. The meeting was scheduled for May 5, 1789. The delegates were required to compile a list of grievances to present to king. (Noah Shusterman 2013)

Thomas Carlyle describes that the revolution was after enraged Parisian men and women attacked the king’s palace and killed several hundred Swiss Guards. Louis and Marie Antoinette fled and took refuge in the Legislative Assembly. The royal family put under house arrest where the king could not perform any political function. The revolutionaries had their constitution draft in place even though they did not have a monarch. (Thomas, 1837)The leadership the revolution became more radical, and the national convention was dominated by moderate. Moderate reformers included the Girondins, who preferred a decentralized government where various provinces would carry out their affairs independently. They were also against government interference with the economy. Later in June 1793, disputes led to the replacement of Girondins with Jacobins, a more radical group. Jacobins preferred a more central government which would control the economy from Paris. They managed to gather support from the sans-culottes. Some Girondin members of the convention were arrested and the Jacobins of the convention and the nation. They were determined to keep sans- culottes satisfied in order to push ahead the revolution. The committee of public safety (CPS) that was a branch of the national convention assumed leadership led by Maximilien Robespierre. The committee imposed government authority across the country and arrested and tried counter-revolutionaries.( Francois, 1981)He and the committee instituted the reign of terror. Girondins, counter- revolutionaries, priest, aristocrats and nobles were treated with suspicion and execution was performed on anyone who sought peace with Europe. (Richard, 1968)

By 1795, the government had passed into the hands of the five-man Directory. They tried to preserve the revolution. They opposed the reinstitution of past regimes. They were against Jacobins and sans- culottes’ extreme radicalism. Under their leadership, French revolution ended and the French tried to return to normalcy in their businesses. Despite end of the revolution, France remained at war with the rest of Europe. Leadership passed in the hands of generals. General napoleon Bonaparte seized government control in November 1799 and declared himself emperor in December 2, 1804. Apart from ending the revolution, he implemented significant civil reforms. He completely re-wrote the legal code in a span of few years. The code enabled the restoration of financial stability, centralized the government system, reformed the system of education and implemented an extensive public works program. The dispute that existed in the Catholic Church was also settled.

Napoleon Bonaparte managed to implement the French revolution ideals by promoting and advancing people from all ranks of the society including nobles. The Légion d’honneur was an order of merit that admitted men of any class. They were judged by scientific, military or artistic prowess rather by ancestry and wealth. The implementation of the code eventually led to the fall of monarchies, and legitimate government replaced the system. It freed the Jews, reorganized civil administrations and did away with discriminatory trade guilds. Under napoleons administration, the first seed of nationalism was sowed which served the original goal of the declaration of war in 1792. (Frank, 2011)


Frank McLynn (2011) Napoleon: A Biography. Arcade Publishers

Noah Shusterman (2013) The French Revolution: Faith, Desire, and Politics: Faith, Desire and Politics Routledge publishers

Thomas Carlyle (1837). The French Revolution: A History Harvard University

Francois Furet (1981) Interpreting the French Revolution Cambridge University Press

Richard Thomas Bienvenu (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor: the Fall of Robespierre New York

Gregory Fremont Barnes (2007) Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815 Greenwood Publishing Group

William Hamilton Sewell (1980) Revolution in France The Language from the Old Regime to 1848 Cambridge University Press

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers free research papers online. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting

Wednesday, 27 December 2017 09:12

Data analysis

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Data analysis

Data analysis refers to the approach of inspecting data that has been sampled and collected in a research with the aim of retrieving useful information to help in making conclusion enabling decision making. In qualitative data analysis,  the data being analyzed is in most cases texts and not numbers. It does not involve variables and hypothesis as most of the data is in words. Qualitative data analysis has several features that differentiate it from other forms of data analysis. One of the main features of this mode of data analysis is that it only focuses on the text in the data. The text can be used to explain different phenomenon and one cannot say if it’s true or wrong.  In this form of analysis, the people who responded and produced data are described, and the setting involved in the data collection. The second feature of qualitative data analysis is that it does not break the information into separate parts rather it explains the setting and the relationship between a person being investigated. With qualitative data analysis, the analysis begins with the collection of data and not after the data has been collected. In most cases, qualitative analysis involves trying to find out how people would react if challenged with difficult situations and circumstances. It entails on finding out the set assumptions, truth or even reality about people’s circumstances.  In most cases, qualitative data analysis involves either a set of questions, interviews or even questionnaires.

Factors that contribute to re-imprisonment of ex-convicts upon their release

  1. Unemployment and accommodation.

The research conducted indicated that lack of employment after imprisonment was the major cause of ex-convicts being rearrested. When one gets out of the prison, no organization wants to absorb them into their workstations therefore they find themselves engaging in crime such as drug use and sale to sustain their livelihood and their families. It is noted that almost half of ex-convicts who were rearrested could not find a job to sustain them in the society (Richie, 2001). When released from prison, women ex-convicts have very hopes and expectations of employment that are turned into frustrations by the employers who demand certificates of good conduct which they cannot access. Out of the desperation, they find themselves engaging in prostitution among other crimes to be able to sustain themselves and their children. They want to remain as normal mothers to their children by making sure they can feed and clothe them as other mothers do. In order to attain their goals, they need a source of income. It was noted that the ex-convicts who were not employed before imprisonment are likely to get back into prison for reoffending as compared to those who were in employment before going to prison. Ex-convicts who had a decent accommodation after imprisonment were unlikely to get back to offending.

  1. Education level

Education is the ability to acquire information and knowledge through a systematic and organized manner. From the study, it was found that ex-prisoners who had the basic education were unlikely to get back to crime after imprisonment (Padgett, 2004). As the study was carried for women between the age of 18 and 50, those who were below the age of 30 constituted a small percentage as compared to those who were above the age of 30. It can be attributed to the level of education they had. Those above the age of 30, majority have not acquired the basic education. Those below the age of 30, the majority had the basic education. For instance, there was no case of an ex-convict who had a higher education that had been rearrested.

III.       Drug and substance abuse

Drug abuse is the continuous use of substances once taken alters the working ability of the body and brings psychological changes to the user, without the user being capable of controlling the usage. Drug abuse is the major cause of people getting into crime as the user is unable to make right decision while under influence (Jones, 2011). Drug use can be associated to irritability, aggressiveness and addiction. It is also associated with sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS. On average, (30%) of the ex-convicts who were interviewed; had a history of drug use before the imprisonment. Drug addicts are at an increased risk of being re-imprisoned as they find themselves with the urge of wanting to engage in the practice again after prison. They need money to get drugs and since most of them are not in employment; they cannot maintain a steady supply. They end up finding other means of acquiring the drugs such as engaging in robbery, prostitution and other vices (Padgett, 2004). They, therefore, find

 themselves being rearrested for engaging in drugs and other crimes.

  1. Criminal history

From the interviewed sample, 70% of the prisoners who had a criminal history were re-imprisoned as compared to those who had no criminal history before imprisonment. Prisoners who were imprisoned for crimes such as drug abuse and peddling, robbery and car-jacking were likely to be re-imprisoned after one year of release from the prison (Jones, 2011). Those who had a history of offences in school were also likely to find themselves in prison and were at a higher rate of re-offending. During the interview, the prisoners who said that they were worried being imprisoned at a lower rate of re-offending as compared to those who were okay by being in the prison. 

The perception of ex-convict, in the society

The life of ex-convicts returning from prison mainly relies on the support and accommodation they get from the community and the extended family. Individuals who receive strong family support are at a lower risk of re-offending (Corbin, 2008). On the other hand, individual who gets no or minimal family and societal support are at a higher risk of re-offending. Most of them get engaged in drugs to hide their feelings in the addiction as they feel rejected, unaccommodated and have no place in the society. From the research, majority argued that if the family supports the ex-convict in the first 2 months of release from prison; providing food, accommodation and emotional support, the rate of re-offending would be minimal (Richie, 2001). In most cases, the society views he ex-convicts who are released from prison as if they will cause an increase in crime. They brand them names that demoralize them and turn them to crime again as they are stigmatized by the society. While in prison, the convict gets used to the customs and culture of the prison of isolation and finds it hard to cope with the free societal environment. Most prisons are involved with violence that may influence a convict’s way of life (Padgett, 2004). After release, they find it hard to mingle with the society without conflicts. When women are arrested and put in prison, most of them leave their children under the care of their father. The father may find it hard to bring up the children on their own and many opt to move on and get another wife (Appelrouth, 2011). When the ex-convict is released from prison, finds it relatively hard to cope with the situation and may find themselves engaging in activities that may get back to prison. They may also find it difficult relating with the children whom she left behind leading to depression, drug abuse and are rearrested. A child whose mother has been put in prison goes through social discrimination and stigma from other children and society members that may make them embarrassed of their mothers. When these mothers are released from prison, these children do not relate well with them.


The research was able to identify several factors that lead to re-offending and re-arrestment of women ex-convicts. The research involved a sample of prisoners in two prisons and majority of them were ex-convicts who had been re-arrested and put back into the prison. The findings show that how the family and the society affect the life of ex-convicts and how they determine the number of re-offenders. It is due these highlights that the society has to learn the importance of accepting and accommodating ex-convicts to reduce the cases of re-offending. The research also confirmed the importance of creating employment for the ex-convicts that would ensure they get a source of living after life in prison. It is found that there are other factors that indirectly affects the rate of re-offending.


Appelrouth, Scott A. and Laura, D. (2011).  Text and Readings. 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand oaks publishers

Jones, M. (2011).  International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 6: 95-114.

Padgett, D. K. (2004). The qualitative research experience, Revised printing (1st ed.)

Richie, B. (2001). Challenges incarcerated women face when they return to their communities. Crime and delinquency journal. Vo. 47(3): 368-389

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Wednesday, 27 December 2017 09:06


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The beginning of global economic crisis in year 2007-2008 had a vast impact on unemployment around the world. The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that unemployment increased from 197 million in 2012 from 178 million in 2007, hitting its peak of 212 million in the year 2009. Director General Guy Ryder when presenting the ILO Global Employment Trends 2013 report said that "An uncertain economic outlook, and the inadequacy of policy to counter this, has weakened aggregate demand, holding back investment and hiring." (IMF, 2012) "

According to Dixon, Unemployment is an economic condition whereby individuals of working age are available and willing, but unable to secure jobs. These individuals seek jobs but remain unemployed. Unemployment rate is a percentage of the available workforce. The level of unemployment is dependent on economic conditions and other circumstances (Dixon, 1992)

Types of unemployment

Structural unemployment

             Structural unemployment is a result of dynamic changes in the economy. It comes about due to lack of demand for the available skills. Absence of demand is a result of a change in technology that renders the available skills obsolete. Example, the introduction of personal computers to replaced typewriters. The typewriter factories were forced to shut down. Workers in the typewriter industry became unemployed and had to acquire new skills to become employed. Structural unemployment can also occur as a result of changes in taste and preferences. When certain products or services become unpopular, companies go bankrupt. As a result, workers become unemployed

Frictional unemployment

It occurs as a result of temporary transitions made by employers and workers. It is a result of people moving between locations, jobs and careers. Sources of frictional unemployment include people entering workforce from school, people reentering the workforce after raising children and people changing employers. It also includes changing careers due to changing interests and people moving to new towns and being unemployed when they arrive. Frictional unemployment can be described as the transaction cost of finding a new job. An example of this kind of unemployment would be a college student who quits a food restaurant job to get ready to search for a job after graduation

Cyclical unemployment

Cyclical unemployment mostly occurs when the rate of unemployment moves in opposite directions as the growth rate. A growing economy can create jobs. So when growth of the economy is small or negative, unemployment is high. In periods of recession, higher rates of unemployment are expected. From this relationship, a high rate of unemployment can be regarded to as a bad indicator of the economy.

Classical unemployment

Real wage employment occurs when the real wage is above the market level creating disequilibrium that results to excess supply of labor. Trade unions that advocate for increases in wages result to this type of unemployment. Another cause can be the setting of minimum wages for employees.

Hidden unemployment

             Hidden unemployment occurs when people who are unemployed are not classified as unemployed. An example concerns a person who does not apply for jobs because he has lost the motivation and skills as a result of being out of work for long. Also, a jobless person may restrain from applying for jobs because of the financial disincentives brought by the interaction of income tax and state benefits system.

Voluntary and involuntary Unemployment

Unemployment can be broken down into voluntary and involuntary unemployment. Voluntary unemployment can be due to people willingly leaving previous jobs and searching for new ones. Involuntary unemployment can be as a result of people getting laid off from jobs and needing to find work elsewhere.

Causes of unemployment

Labor immobility

 Labor immobility increases rate of unemployment. There are several types of labor immobility. Geographical immobility occurs when workers lack ability to move region to region or from town to town. Several factors contribute to geographical immobility, such as cost of moving or difficulty in finding accommodation, lack of information and strong personal ties. Industrial immobility occurs when workers find difficulty in moving between industries example moving from employment in the motor industry to employment in the insurance industry. Occupational immobility occurs due to workers finding it difficult to change jobs within the industry. For example, it may be difficult for a dentist to retrain to be a doctor.

Trade Cycle:

When economies expand, businesses grow, hence more willing to hire workers. When economies are contracting, businesses revenues reduce and may lay off workers. Even if particular businesses have not experienced decreases in revenue, the analyst’s projects decrease in future revenue. As a result of an economic slump, they may start laying off workers or at least halt all the hiring process.

Technological Advance

Technological advancement contributes positively to economic development. But unplanned and uncontrolled growth in technology effect on employment adversely. Since firms are interested in maximizing production and reducing costs, they prefer to introduce labor-saving technology.  Computerized machines replace employees, therefore, causing unemployment

Slow Rate of Economic Growth

Employment opportunities depend almost entirely on economic growth. If there is negative economic growth unemployment rates rise. Unemployment occurs as a result of less demand for goods that cause firms to produce less with fewer workers. During the recession, some firms go bankrupt making many people redundant. Firms become reluctant to hire workers due to uncertainty and negative growth.

Lack of capital and technical knowhow

Many unemployed people face the problem of capital shortage. For a person to start a business there is need for capital .lack of capital is, therefore, a major cause of high unemployment rates.

Seasonal Variations

There are many industries that produce goods seasonally like ice factory. These work only few months and remain closed for the remaining period. Consequently, large numbers of people who engaged within these industries become unemployed.

Effects of unemployment

Economic cost of unemployment

  According to White, Economy wise, unemployment leads to loss of income and consequently a fall in the living standards of people. Unemployment leads to loss of output from people being out of work.  It leads to loss of marketable skills or human capital. Unemployment also leads to falling in gross domestic products. Unemployment leads to falling demand of goods and services. Fall of demand has a negative multiplier effect from the closure of many businesses. It leads to increase in income inequality which causes a rise in relative poverty (White, 1991)

Cost to the government

Unemployment hinders growth. The government has no choice but to increase spending on unemployment benefits. Unemployment also results to fall in revenue from income taxes and taxes on consumer spending. Due to unemployment, companies record low profits or losses that reduce revenue from corporate tax. The cost of unemployment also causes a rise in government borrowing.

Social cost of unemployment

According to Smith, Unemployment is linked to rising crimes and other social problems such as divorces. Unemployment could also lead to problems with mental health such as depression. Unemployment could also lead to drug abuse. Unemployed people are also prone to poverty and social exclusion (Smith, 1987)

Solutions to the problem of unemployment

Fiscal Policy

 Fiscal policy can decrease unemployment by increasing rate of economic growth and aggregate demand. The government should pursue expansionary fiscal policy which involves increasing government spending and cutting taxes. Lower rates of taxes increase disposable income and help to increase consumption that leads to higher aggregate demand. The government can also attempt to achieve a more competitive exchange rate in order to boost the export sector. The government can also use subsidies to increase employment. It may also offer incentives to increase foreign investment (Michael et al., 2009)

Monetary Policy

Monetary policy involves cutting interest rates. Lower rates are in important in that they decrease the borrowing cost and encourage to spending and investing. It increases Aggregate demand and also helps to increase Gross Domestic Product, therefore, reducing demand deficient unemployment. Also lower interest rates reduce the monetary exchange rate and make exports cheaper. In several cases; lower rates of interest may be ineffective in increasing aggregate demand. In the case, lower interest rates have been ineffective; Central Banks may resort to other policies such as an attempt to increase the money supply to boost aggregate demand

Supply Side Policies for Reducing Unemployment

Education and Training

The government should increase spending on education and training. The aim is to give long-term unemployed new technical skills that enable them to secure jobs in developing industries. Commercial and Technical centers should be established to help in training and Skills which helps them find work in the service sector. It becomes very useful in curbing the unemployment.

Reduce Power of trades unions

With unions bargaining for wages above the market price level, they eventually cause real wage unemployment. Therefore, reducing Minimum wages and reducing influence of trades unions helps solve the problem of real wage unemployment.

Employment Subsidies

The government could consider giving subsidies and tax breaks to companies for engaging their employees on term unemployment. It helps give employees new confidence and on the job training. However, can be quite expensive, and it may encourage firms to replace current workers with long-term unemployment in order to take advantage from the tax breaks.

Improve Labor Market Flexibility

It is important to note that higher structural rates of unemployment due to restrictive labor markets discourage companies from employing workers. For example, making it easier to employ and dismiss workers and abolishing maximum working days and weeks encourage job creation. However, increased labor market flexibility could be the cause of the rise in casual employment and r job insecurity.

Stricter Benefits requirements

 Governments should formulate strategies in making the unemployed take up a job or risk losing benefits. Subsequent to a certain period, the government could guarantee some public sector jobs. It could make a great impact in reducing unemployment. However, it may translate to government employing many people in un-productive tasks that are very uneconomical.

Improved Geographical Mobility

Often unemployment is more concentrated in certain areas. In order to curb geographical unemployment, the government should give tax reliefs to firms that set up in rural areas. Alternatively, they can assist financially the unemployed workers to move to areas with high employment (Bradford 2009)

Increase in Capital Formation

Government should be actively involved in establishing the labor intensive industries to increase levels of employment.

Incentive for Private Sector

 Government should provide incentives to private investors like the liberal concessions and tax holiday, to increase the rate of employment.

Establishment of Small Scale Industries

In the rural areas small scale industries should be established to remove the disguise type of unemployment.


Unemployment is a serious issue, and its effects are both long lasting and subtle. Apart from the disgruntlement and social problems that unemployment can produce, high unemployment has self-perpetuating negative effect on businesses and the economy. The workers need to put their skills into use so as to grow the economy. Unemployment is a dangerous state for any country. The productions of unemployed workers leave the economy leading to a reduction in the Gross Domestic Product. Unemployment moves a country away from efficient allocation of resource.

Work cited.

  1. Dixon Unemployment social and economic costs Melbourne 2nd edition Brotherhood of St Laurence Research for Action No.1 (1992) pg 13- 15

DeLong J. Bradford Productivity and Growth in 2000 National Bureau of Economic Macroeconomics volume 17 (2000) pg 145-147

 IMF, World Economic Outlook, October 2012

Susan Fleck John Glaser and Michael Chernousov Productivity Trend in Business Cycle Monthly Labor Review June (2009) pg 47

  1. Smith Unemployment and health disaster and challenge London Oxford University Press (1987) pg 1-12

M .White, unemployment Policy London Study Institute (1991) print pg 22


What changed?

First paragraph

In order to engage the reader from the beginning Also, the first paragraph seemed jumbled and difficult to follow.


In order to introduce the source informally

Works cited

Changed to reflect final the proper MLA format

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Wednesday, 27 December 2017 08:15

Running head: Wall street journal

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Running head: Wall street journal

As reported in The Wall Street Journal by Juliet Chung and Jenny Strasburg, Point72 has in effect closed its Boston office amidst employee losses. Steven Rosen left last week. He was a fundraiser and recruiter in the Boston office. Chandler Bocklage was a portfolio manager at Point72 Asset Management Company. He was a veteran manager of SAC capital advisor LP the company that preceded Point72. SAC capital had grown to be one of the industry’s largest hedge fund referred as to one successful investment record. Previously he had been Mr. Cohen’s trading assistant and self-proclaimed right-hand man. He left the company along with three other portfolio managers; Anthony Chedid, Ted Orenstein and Tom Rabolli. Orenstein was supposedly the company's biggest portfolio manager, with roughly $800 million under his directorship. Chedid was a top tech trader In addition to recent departures; Tim Schneider, Pete Avellone and Shoney Katz have quit joining Citadel Investment Group. Bocklage had been in the firm for a decade.

All of these five men were veterans of SAC Capital. They pleaded guilty to insider-trading charges. Collectively, they managed a worth of $2 billion. They include Anthony Chedid, Tom Rabolli and Ted Orenstein. The four managed a total of roughly $2 billion at Point72 in recent months, a firm based in Stamford, Conn.

 Hedge fund SAC Capital's 2008 sold a significant investment in two pharmacy firms, a deal executed with unusually tight security. Bocklage's testimony majored on transactions in which SAC Capital dumped roughly $700 million stake in Elan and Wyeth companies. These two companies involved in developing a drug intended to treat Alzheimer's disease. The pharmaceutical firms reported disappointing results in a clinical trial of drugs shortly after purchase. This announcement sent the stock prices sharply lower.

Bocklage was on trial based on allegations that he triggered sales based on illegal insider information. He testified that he had initially figured out a great loss in terms of money by SAC Capital when the Elan and Wyeth stock prices went down sharply. He said that he later learned the hedge fund had unloaded the shares prior to the drop in prices, but testified he was never given a reason as to why. Bocklage testified that he helped Cohen to keep up to date on market developments. Jeffrey Miller, a SAC Capital execution trader, testified that he took trading instructions from Cohen through an electronic headset in which confirmed the orders and then executed the trades. The dealing was so secret that Chandler Bocklage testified he did not learn about the sale until later. He said he could not bring to mind any similar experience during his 12 years tenure at the hedge fund.

Federal prosecutors alleged that the hedge fund gained approximately $276 million in sales, and avoided incurring losses by selling the shares prior to the announcement by the pharmaceutical firms. SAC Capital also increased its gain on the trade deals by placing bets that shares of the pharmaceutical firms would drop. Testimony by Bocklage and another SAC Capital trader showed that some financial information was carefully arranged at the hedge fund. It also provided a glance at operations inside the Conn.-based company.

Point72 stopped managing outside capital after pleading guilty to insider-trading. Since the settlement of $1.8 billion SAC changed its name, altered its regulatory structure and no longer offered investments to the public. According to Point 72, the departures were part of the natural flow to people leaving. As alleged, the firm has made strenuous efforts to retain talent since the plea deal by offering incentives to stay


The departure of Chandler Bocklage, who was the portfolio manager at Point72, cannot be termed as the natural flow of people. Point 72 should have taken a step immediately the manager pleaded guilty to insider dealing charges. The point 72 company is headed for closure. The company has been forced to realign its managers and traders, majority of whom have left for other firms. Cohen still faces civil charges against him for failing to supervise employees found guilty of insider trading.


Juliet Chung and Jenny Strasburg (2014) The Wall Street Journal   September 20 edition retrieved from

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