Economics (75)

Thursday, 22 February 2018 09:17


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As an Oxford University graduate with the degree in economics, politic and Philosophy, Ed Crooks has managed to contribute his personal knowledge to current political and economic issues facing America. Crooks also worked as an editor for New York-based Financial Times. In January 2011, he wrote an article entitled, “ America: Riveting Prospects” that he discusses a wide range of reasons on why most American corporations are not involving in the exportation of their goods and services like other businesses which are engaging in exportation to other nations (Crooks, 2011).

 The common believe that most have is the overvalue of the dollar as the central reasons for corporations not involving themselves in the exportation of goods and services. However, there is the suggestion that the main reasons for American corporations not making use of their exporting opportunities do have little relations with the overvalued dollar of the US. Crooks suggest other more essential factors that hinder the exportation of services and goods manufactured by US corporations. Crooks outlines five fundamental reasons as the factors that mainly contribute to the failure of US corporations from exporting their goods:

  1. One of the reasons is that these corporations are not accustomed to matters of international trading. It means that the US corporations are not familiar with matters of international trade. In fact according to the US Chambers of Commerce only 1% of the US corporations are participating in the exportation of their services and goods. Furthermore, only 58% of these corporations are exporting to only one other nation.
  2. The US government has not been aggressive in pursuing agreements on international trade as compared to other countries. The US government has only signed 17 among the 262 agreements and 100 negotiations that exist all around the world. The US is also affected severely by tariff barriers at the eighth position among 121 of tariff faced exporting nations.
  3. The U.S. manufacturers lack skilled and qualified laborers who are a factor that is threatening the industry in falling into the lack of job opportunities, disrepair, and production lines closure. These factors will continue to deteriorate the US industrial base.
  4. The developing nations are out producing the manufacturers of the US and also increasing their capacity.
  5. The US manufacturers prefer to have facilities based on the markets they are serving (Crooks, 2011).

            Though Mr. Crooks provides reasons for the failure of U.S manufacturers to export some disagree with these reasons. The currently existing debate is between the industrialists and economists regarding manufacturing and its importance in exportation.

Opinion –economists or Industrialist

 Manufacturing according to the industrialist’s opinion is the most crucial economic sector while the economists claim that all sectors are equally important and none is more important than the other (Crooks 2014). If the Great Recession had not taken place, I would have agreed that manufacturing is an essential element as claimed by the industrialists. The great recession contributed to the auto industry bailout followed by the crash of the housing market. Many people lost their jobs in the manufacturing industry as most companies decided to shift their businesses to other nations. The reason for shifting to other nations was that other nations like China and Mexico provide a much cheaper means of manufacturing auto parts and importing these parts to the US for assembling.

From that experience, I learn that every sector is essential for the nation's growth to be it the hospitality, retails or the manufacturing sectors which are dependent on one another. A decline in one sector affects all other sectors as we witnessed in 2007 to 2008. Thus I believe it is crucial that all the sectors work in increasing their jobs and that the US government has incentives for us corporations to keep their manufacturing aspects in the US. The government can also be more involved in trade negotiations to improve the U.S trade agreements with other nations. In conclusion, the economist viewpoint is one that is agreeing with than that of the industrialists.



Crooks, E (2011). America: Riveting Prospects. Financial Times. Retrieved, from    

Ed Crooks. (2014). Retrieved from


Friday, 22 December 2017 12:01

Case Study In Marketing Strategy

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Marketing 1 mix consists of 4ps; place , price , promotion and product . In 2 ( a , the ) place 3 ( \ )
we look at the point where the product is being displayed and sold to the customer . The price is
how much is the customer supposed to pay for the product and is the price proportional to the value
of that product . Promotion is the process of making the product known to the potential customers .
And the product is what you are selling it can be a good or a service , its satisfaction to the client is
what makes it be bought 4 .
Writing issues in this paragraph:
2 MissingArt
3 NoCommaWithIntrPhrase
4 Misuse
In the strategy of Lisa, she is out to attract seniors by starting with providing what they want .
Seniors need a quite place to take their meals . The need that has been achieved 1 is one
without forgetting that the other needs are equally important to the customer . The provision for a
friendly meeting place is a good strategy especially in meeting her clients . The seniors need such
environment to hold meetings with their business associates or family members . The social needs
are part of the needs that the customer requires . The customer needs a group to join and share
some information that is so personal , therefore , to such feeling of being cared and loved is hard to
be achieved by the restaurant . What are these benefits to be provided by the Mac Donald’s; here
the manager should specify these needs so that we can analyze them effectively .
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 Misuse
The young members who are hooked to the restaurant are going to be frustrated as they will not
be able to blend with the old generation . The young people mode of living is quite different to
the older group , so the manager will take into consideration the process of retaining current
customers and the expenses of acquiring new customers . 1 In the real world acquiring new
customers to the process of making them loyal requires a lot of finance and commitment , while
retaining the current customer is good for profits and assurance . The manager should come up
with a strategy of accommodating the two groups in order to maintain their position and attract more
customers . It is cheaper to retain customers than to gain new ones (Neff, 2005).
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 InformalSo
On gaining competitive advantage , we should see what factors they consider to favor them from
competitions . The advantages on fast food business ranges from; a clean environment , timely
services , professional staff , embracing technology, quality products and best customer services for
all guests . The standard of Mac Donald’s is big compared to other restaurants from the fact that it is
a worldwide known name , so it has the potential .
In sustainable revenue and profits , she is in the right direction . The culture with the seniors
once they have selected a place for their meals , they develop a personal relationship with the
establishment . This strategy will work well but after providing sufficient factors to beat your
competitors in the market . The seniors are big spenders compare to other groups in the population
as they have already invested a lot and other are using their pensions . So this group once attracted
and become loyal customers the restaurant will be able to achieve this point (Powers & Loyka
1 ( Lock, Look, Loyola, Loyal, Soya ) , 2010).
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 General
The Mac Donald’s image is top the business is not bad as they have already established their target
market . The restaurant is in a position to attract this big group through its services and products .
The seniors are associated 1 with certain types of meals that can be used as a bait to attract
them and become royal customers . The image of the company is achieved 2 through customer
satisfaction . The satisfied customers help the company to make more profits , and they act as
agents for promoting and boosting the company name . The image of attracting the old part of the
population will not affect the business , but the seniors will get a friend who is ready to listen to their
needs and satisfy them.
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 Misuse
2 Misuse
The manager has established a market and the target clients she should employee all the available
strategies in maintaining and attracting more clients to the company . The managers should
encourage the senior citizens because she has established a target of meeting their needs . In
the case study we see that she has the ability of meeting the level of customer satisfaction the
seniors need . Therefore , they have to devote their time to in provision of the services and products
needed by this group . The manager should develop unique services and products from the nearby
competitions so that she can create a good relationship with her clients . Increase of the customer
lifetime is important as the customers the feeling of being part of the restaurant team . The clients
will provide good information on how their products and can be improved to meet their needs .
In promotion offering , bingo games are fine ; however , the time and season should be selected
well so that it will be at the time when many seniors are available . Bingo should be done 1 on
specific time , or special occasions . During this special occasion like when many people are on
holiday so that most clients are out of pressure the experience at workplace. For a monthly
breakfast for 55 old and above is good but the time should be fixed and known . 2 Because
it can be difficult to do it when we have a full house due to resources and overcrowding which can
force customers to leave . The free breakfast should be a day when we do not have high turnover
as the history tell us, also ; the time should be limited 3 not a whole day but may be two or three
hours .
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 Misuse
2 NoSubject
3 Misuse
In the marketing mix, I will touch on promotion . I will recommend through their database they see
the customers who frequent the restaurant on almost daily basis we over them some discount and
a free family dinner once in two months . This 1 will make them feel highly regarded as part of the
team . In another promotion activity is the happy hour which should be offered mostly on Fridays
when the seniors are out of offices going home . The seniors will frequent the restaurant on this day
knowing what they are expecting . The manager should take into consideration days like valentine
should provide something special for couples . Also , we will need to know some special occasions
of our customers like marriage anniversaries , birthday and other important days in their live so that
we can share with them. We can send flowers and cards .
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 UnclearAntecedent
Neff, J. (2005). Rockin' and rolling in it : marketing-mix masters . Advertising Age, 76(48), 3-41. 1
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 Fragment
Powers , T. L., & Loyka 1 ( Lock, Look, Loyal, Loyola, Soya ) , J. J. (2010). Adaptation of
Marketing Mix Elements in International Markets. 2 3 Journal Of Global Marketing, 23(1),
65-79. 4
Writing issues in this paragraph:
1 General
2 Citation audit
3 Fragment
4 Fragment

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Friday, 22 December 2017 11:55

Technology and White Collar Crimes

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Corporate Espionage

Corporate espionage is of the common white collar crimes. This crime entails theft of trade secrets through the recording, copying or removal or valuable and confidential information from a company. Corporate espionage is mainly driven by commercial reasons. Development in the technological field has increased the opportunity to commit corporate espionage. A significant development that has propagated the crime of corporate espionage is the production of mobile computing devices. 

The past few years have been typified by rapid development in the field of mobile and portable computing devices. Mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, SD cards and laptops have become common in modern day corporations. These devices have the capacity to transfer and store large amount of data. The portable nature of these devices has made it effortless for persons to enter and exit corporate premises without raising suspicion. Smart phones are the most challenging of these technologies are organizations cannot prevent their workers from coming to work their cell phones.

Networks have also increased the opportunity for committing corporate espionage. Many modern corporations have well-developed computer networks that are linked to the internet. Companies use these networks to transfer and retrieve information. The existence of these networks has increased the threat of unauthorized access to company information. It is now easy for cyber criminals to gain access to organization’s systems from remote locations. The threat created by networks was highlighted in hacking case involving a Chinese businessman, Bin, and the Boeing Company. Bin was able to hack Boeing systems from remote location and access organization documents (Tiezzi, 2014).

Corporate espionage has a destructive effect on organizations, the economy and members of society. This crime affects organization by diminishing its goodwill, affecting it competitive advantage and reducing its profitability (Danielson, 2009). Trade secrets represent the intellectual property of an organization, which is part of the firm’s intangible assets. Theft of these secrets leads to loss of good will. Similarly, trade secrets give organization a competitive advantage. Theft of these secrets erodes the advantage that the organization enjoyed leading to reduced profitability. Corporate espionage affects the economy and members of society by discouraging corporations from innovating. Companies are likely to reduce their investment in research and development when they cannot benefit from their innovation due to corporate espionage. Reduced innovation is likely to have a negative effect on the economy. It will also affect the quality and quantity of products available to members of society.

Law enforcement agencies can use technologies such as social media to monitor activities of corporate espionage suspects. The police can also track suspects’ activities by scrutinizing the emails and phone records.  The CCTV technology can be used to provide evidence where data is stolen from a physical location.

Internet Fraud Schemes

Internet fraud schemes are plots made by criminals so as to obtain property or money fraudulently over the internet. There are different types of internet fraud schemes. The most common fraud scheme is the action fraud. Action fraud is where a person misrepresents a product in an internet auction site or fails to delivers a product that was exhibited in auction site despite receiving money from customers (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014).  Another common fraud scheme is the counterfeit cashier’s check. This schemes target traders who use the internet to sell their merchandise. The architects of these schemes use fake checks to obtain property or goods in fraudulent manner. Credit card fraud is also a common fraud scheme. Credit card fraud entails the use of fraudulent credit cards to obtain goods from online traders. There also numerous fraud schemes involving employment or business opportunities.

Advancement in the internet and network technologies has increased the opportunities for internet fraud scheme. The internet has become a significant trade platform in recent years (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014). Thousands of business transactions are conducted over the internet every day. This trend has increased the numbers of target for internet fraud stars. The prevalent of network technologies has also made it easy for criminals to steal debit/ credit card information from unsecured websites and systems. Many banks and credit card companies have experienced breaches in the networks and systems leading to loss of information and clients’ money. Home Depot is the latest firm to be affected by credit card fraud schemes (NBC News, 2014).

Internet fraud schemes also have destructive effects on companies, individuals and the economy. The fraud schemes affect individuals by causing loss of property and finances. Many individual fall victims to these fraud stars leading to the loss of money (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014). Companies also suffer financial losses, litigation, and damaged reputation as results of these fraud schemes. Companies that experience security breaches get negative publicity. Internet fraud schemes also hurt the economy as it discourages online trade. The prevalence of internet fraud schemes has made people distrustful of internet transactions. Police can make use of technologies such as social media to track internet fraud stars.


Danielson, M. (2009). Economic espionage. A framework for a workable solution. Minn J.L. Sci & Tech. 10 (2), 503- 548

NBC News (2014). 56 million credit cards involved in home depot breach. Retrieved from

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (2014). Internet fraud. Retrieved from

Tiezzi, S. (2014). The new U.S. court case against Chinese hacking. The Diplomat. Retrieved from

Janet Peter is an academic writer and an editor and she offers best dissertation writing services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting MeldaResearch.Com.

Friday, 22 December 2017 11:20

Reference List

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Hall, B. Hawkinberry, D. & Moyers-Scott, P. (2010). Prescription drug abuse and addiction: Past, present and future. West Virginia Medical Journal. 106 (2010), 24- 30

Jozaghi, E. Reid, A. Andresen, M. & Juneau, A. (2014). A cost-benefit analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Canada. Substance Abuse Treatment and Prevention. 9 (31), 154- 163

Matheson, L. & McGrath, T. (2012). Adolescent alcohol and other substances abuse. Consumer Series. 10 (216), 80- 89

Osilla, K. Pedersen, E. Ewing, B. & Ramchand, R. (2014). The effects of buying alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use. Substance Abuse Treatment and Prevention. 9 (38), 56-63

Rowan, M. et al. (2014). Cultural approaches for treating addictions in indigenous populations. Substance Abuse Treatment and Prevention. 9 (34), 414- 422

Stevenson, B. (2011). Drug policy, justice system and mass imprisonment. Global Commission on Drug Policies. Retrieved from

Wanat, M. Willuhn, I. Clark, J. & Phillips, P. (2009). Phasic dopamine discharge in appetitive behaviors and drug addiction. Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 2 (2009), 299- 308

Janet Peter is an academic writer and an editor and she offers best dissertation writing services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting MeldaResearch.Com.

Friday, 22 December 2017 11:01

Paying Dividend

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The statement suggests that paying dividends is not a matter of ethical issues but a matter of choice, and that it all boils down to cash flow. The argument that paying dividends is not an ethical issue is valid. There are numerous profitable corporations that do not pay dividends. However, these companies cannot be considered unethical because failing to pay dividends does not eliminate shareholders’ benefits. Shareholders of profitable companies that do not pay dividends do benefit from capital gains as the corporation reinvests most of the profits in acquiring assets and financing growth (Blanzeko & Fu, 2012). This implies that the worth of the shares held by the investor increases leading to an increase in wealth. In addition, companies cannot refuse to pay dividends forever. Most profitable non-dividend paying companies begin to pay dividends after the growth of the company slows down.

The argument that paying dividends boils down to cash flow is also valid. Many corporations refuse to pay dividends because they are their business are at the growth stage (El-Ansary & Gomaa, 2012). At the growth stage, companies need to invest a lot of resources in developing capacity and strengthening their position in the market. Therefore, such companies require substantial amounts of money to invest in the company’s growth. Paying dividends while a company is still investing in growth can create cash flow problems. However, when a company reaches the maturity stage, they reduce the amount of money channeled to investment activities. Similarly, at companies at the maturity stage have stable flow of income hence are least likely to experience cash flow problems.



Blanzeko, G. & Fu, Y. (2010). Non-dividend paying stock and the negative value premium. Social Science Network.

El-Ansary, O. & Gomaa, T. (2012). The life cycle theory of dividends. Journal of Finance and Economics. 97, 72-79

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Friday, 22 December 2017 10:47

Observation of Trends

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Entrepreneurship involves tapping into opportunities or filling gaps, in a market. There are numerous strategies that an entrepreneur can adopt so as to establish a successful business venture. A prospective entrepreneur can opt to observe trends as a strategy of identifying a pathway to entrepreneurship. An entrepreneur can observe trends and establish how the trends can be manipulated to create opportunities. The observation of trends involves conducting an analysis on the economic forces. Economic forces affect the consumer’s level of disposable income thus influencing the consumers buying patterns. An entrepreneur can establish the overall effect on economic forces and tap into arising opportunities (Barringer, & Ireland, 2010). An entrepreneur can also observe trends from the social forces and establish opportunities. An entrepreneur can observe the population and establish a social need that lacks within the market, for instance, the increasing number of people using mobile phones can motivate an entrepreneur to establishing his telecommunication company. Observations can also be made by analyzing technological trends.

Rapid developments in technology create current and future opportunities. An entrepreneur can use the new technological invention to enhance a product or to create a new product for the public. Entrepreneurs can also observe political and regulatory trends and establish their overall effect on the market. The establishments of new laws, for instance, can create opportunities for entrepreneurs to start consultation services to assist existing companies to adhere to the rules. Observation of trends can also entail the observation of existing problems and determining effective strategies to resolve the problems. Entrepreneurs can observe a trend and establish the existence of a problem, a shortage of, or a lack of a vital commodity that customers need. The entrepreneur then establishes a business idea based on the problem, shortage or absence of the commodity observed (Barringer, & Ireland, 2010).


Barringer, B. A., & Ireland, R. D. (2010). Entrepreneurship: Successfully launching new ventures (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

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Friday, 22 December 2017 10:25

Market gap analysis

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     Market Gap Analysis is the use of a systematic research approach to discover sales opportunities where the market demand exceeds supply in the business. It helps a firm in identifying, quantifying and selecting business market segments that are under-serviced. Through use of Market Gap Analysis, a firm is in a position to make logical strategic and tactical decisions with the available market facts, not necessarily relying on subjective opinion. Market Gap Analysis is a practical approach to meet unfulfilled market demand.

Cosmetic industry

     The cosmetics industry comprises of skincare, hair care and color cosmetics The Cosmetics Industry is within Beauty and Personal Care industry which falls under the Household and Personal Goods Industry. Cosmetics firms deal in skin and sun care products, fragrances makeup or color cosmetics, toiletries, and various other products. Cosmetics companies produce personal care products using natural, herbal and chemical materials.

Target market

    The target market comprises of female cosmetic users. The users can easily access the products through department stores, salons, pharmacies, spas, specialty retailers, freestanding stores and travel retail outlets.

Problems faced by the target market.

     There are several problems faced by the target market such as; reaction to products such as allergies, high cost of products, inaccessibility of the product and counterfeit products. Problems of inadequate information concerning use, misleading advertisements and problems of delivery of goods are also prevalent. Incorrect information concerning product, false weights and measures, expired products and malpractices by suppliers are also problems to consumers.

Solutions to problems

Counterfeit products

     There are several ways to curb the problem of counterfeit products such as inspecting the market to prevent sale and distribution of any counterfeit products. Secondly, it is important to inform the buyers about the problem of counterfeit products by proper advertising so as to differentiate the two products. Thirdly, educate and advise consumers to buy products from authorized sources. Lastly, ensure that product manufacturing, importation, distribution and exportation activities are carried out in premises that the manufacturer has approved and that individuals and companies engaged are licensed to operate such activities.

Inadequate information

    In order to solve the problem of inadequate information, there is a need to print manuals that contain information the product and usage. Another method is by offering training programmes to customers or individual consultation platforms. Suppliers and distributors should also be able to assist consumers concerning any information pertaining to product.

Reaction to products

     Cosmetic products can cause serious reactions depending on the components and use of the product. Consumer safety should be a priority for firms dealing with cosmetic products.  There is a need to work with and employ chemists, biologists, toxicologists, environmental scientists and other experts in evaluation of the safety of cosmetic products prior to their released to the market. There should be proper guidelines on the use of the product. Also, warning should be provided in case of any possible reactions. Lastly, products should contain correct information of the ingredients used in product manufacture

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Friday, 22 December 2017 08:34

Information synthesis

Written by

Olufunmilola Dada (2010)

Syed Tarid  (2011)

Gillis W & Gary J (2010)

  Purpose of study to understand franchiser’s perception of the role of innovative, risk taking, and proactive actions. 

 Describes reasons for franchising

Explores theories of franchising

Investigates franchise categories and trends in the franchising industries.

Describes franchising issues and processes

Explores theories used in franchising

Identifies the top five categories of franchises as food-related, automobile, maintenance, construction and business services.

Reviews the reasons for franchising

Franchises affect performance

 Provides an insight into the persistent and growing number of franchises in the market


What are main types of franchises in the current market?

What are some of the reasons entrepreneurs engage in franchising business model?

Highlight some of the advantages of franchises

What are the main challenges facing franchises?

Which are the main economic theories used to justify franchising?

Janet Peter is an academic writer and an editor and she offers best dissertation writing services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting MeldaResearch.Com.

Friday, 22 December 2017 08:12

BI Business Case for Eastman Kodak

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Eastman Kodak is an American corporation that manufactures and sells imaging technology solutions. The firm also provides business services such as graphic communications, functional printing and packaging.  However, in the past ten years, Kodak has recorded dismal financial performance. In 2012, the firm had to file for bankruptcy protection so as to avoid liquidation. Although the firm has emerged from bankruptcy, it is still making huge losses. Investing in business intelligence (BI) can help Kodak to change its economic fortunes and return to profitability. This paper presents a business case for BI for Kodak. Specifically, the report highlights the focal point of the proposed BI and benefits that Kodak will get from the BI      

Business Case

Business Need/ Focal Point

             Kodak needs BI tools and solutions that will enable it to understand the market and customers so as it can develop profitable products. Kodak was once a blue chip company. A significant factor that has brought down the once prosperous organization is it inability to evolve its product along with changes in customer preferences and environment factors (Mui, 2012). In its peak years, Kodak was popular for the production of film printing products, especially film photography. Development in the technological environment gave rise to digital printing. Digital camera streamed into the market making the film printing technology absolute. However, Kodak stayed in denial as it failed to recognize the effect of digital technology on its products.

            Kodak continued to produce film based products. It remained unaware of customers’ adoption of the digital technology and, therefore, chose to stick to the film technology (Probst & Raisch, 2005). With time, Kodak lost its grip on the imaging market to competitors such as Sony, HP and other organizations that had adopted the digital imaging technology.  Kodak is still struggling in terms of finding the right products for its customers. In 2012, the firm announced the decision to halt the production of digital picture frames, pocket video cameras, and digital cameras so as to focus on the corporate digital imaging market (Mui, 2012). The corporate imaging business is yet to take off.

Kodak needs an effective mechanism for conducting an accurate market assessment so as to identify opportunities and threats that match its capabilities. The proposed business solution will provide Kodak with information concerning the characteristic of imaging customers, what these customers buy, and the value that is of interest to these customers. This information will assist the company to come up with products that will appeal to this market. The proposed business intelligence tool will focus on utilizing market data so as to come up with a truthful analysis of the desires of the market.

            Kodak also needs BI tools and solutions that will boost the firm operating efficiency and reduce costs. The decline in the company’s revenues has made the management of operations a difficult task. The company has to enhance the efficiency of its operation so as to avoid getting into cash problems. Kodak needs to develop a BI infrastructure and capabilities that will enable it to realize superior insight into product development costs and operating costs. The proposed I project seek to integrate company data such as employee, purchasing, manufacturing, R&D, administration, facilities, and other areas so as to produce insights on how to manage costs. The BI solution will also help Kodak to reduce enhance efficiency and reduce operating costs.  


            This paper recommends the establishment of a strategic BI infrastructure. The proposed BI infrastructure seeks to integrate customer data analytic capabilities and operations analytic capabilities. The customer data analytics feature is designed to capture data concerning the customers’ needs and requirements. For instance, the customer data analytics feature will have an application that captures and process customers request and concerns when they call the company’s representatives. The customer data analytics will also tap into external data such as social networks in order to establish information concerning the wishes of consumers. The operations analytic feature will focus on capturing data concerning the operations of the organization. This feature seeks to establish Kodak key costs centers so as to address these areas. The BI solution will also provide each business center with data that is relevant to them so as each center can initiate strategy for minimizing costs. The BI architecture will also be utilized to provide key performance indicators for each business center.  The performance indicators will motivate each center to put more efforts towards increasing revenues and reducing costs.


Developing the BI infrastructure is going to benefit Kodak in various ways. The first benefit is that the company will enhance it intelligence capabilities. This capability will give the company better market information and superior understanding of the market. The explicitness of project benefits varies. Some project benefits are only observable in that they can only be measured through judgment and opinion while others are quantifiable (Ward, Daniel & Peppard, 2007). This benefit is qualitative and subjective in nature but, nevertheless acceptable as it is through the improved intelligence capabilities that will deliver other benefits.

Another benefit is the development of new and innovative products. Bi plays the critical role of informing companies about the needs of the market (Davenport & Dyche, 2013). Gaining knowledge of the technological trends and the needs of the market will enable Kodak to develop new and innovative products. It will boost the organization’s capacity to respond to opportunities and threats created by changes in the market. This benefit can be measured using the number of new products that the company manages to launch in the market successfully within a given period. 

Effective customer service is another benefit that Kodak will get by implementing the proposed BI infrastructure. BI has the potential of enhancing customer satisfaction by proving data about customers (Hocevar & Jaklic, 2010). Provision of corporate digital imaging services is one of Kodak’s core businesses. Therefore, the quality of customer services is a vital factor in this organization. Knowledge of the customers need, preferences and wishes will enable the firm to develop ways of serving the customers effectively. This benefit can be measured using customer satisfaction scores. The company can use customer satisfaction surveys as the means of verifying this benefit.

Kodak will also benefit from an increase in revenues when they implement the proposed BI infrastructure. BI has the potential of improving the competitiveness of a given firm (Hocevar & Jaklic, 2010). Kodak revenues have been affected significantly by the firm inability to develop products that are responsive to market needs. The BI infrastructure will change this situation ensuring Kodak product development decisions are guided by accurate market information. Similarly, the BI solutions will enhance customer service; hence, it will promote repeat purchases, strong customer relationship, customer loyalty and referrals. This outcome is likely to increase the revenues of the organization. This benefit can be measured by examining the percentage change in Kodak’s revenues over a given periods. The company financial statements can serve as effective means of verification.

The final benefit that the organization will accrue from this project is reduced costs (Davenport & Dyche, 2013). The BI infrastructure will provide solutions concerning the organization R&D, manufacturing and operating activities; hence, it will increase the efficiency of the firm. The information will also help the organization to identify priority areas for cost reduction initiatives. This benefit can be measured by examining the percentage change in the total costs of the organization within a given period. The financial statements can also be used as the means of verification.  

ROI for the Proposal

It is feasible to work out the ROI of the proposed BI project. The ROI can be computed by approximating the amount that Kodak will obtain in terms of revenue increases during the lifespan of the BI infrastructure. This means that the project team must establish the lifespan BI infrastructure and forecast the amount of revenue increment that the technology will bring. The project team also needs to obtain estimates of the amount of money that Kodak will save by implementing the project during the lifespan of the infrastructure. The revenue increment and cost savings are the main financial benefits associated with this project. The ROI is obtained by computing the present value of revenue increment and cost savings, and dividing this value with the initial cost of understanding the project (Ward, Daniel & Peppard, 2007).   


            In the represent past, Kodak Company has struggled financial because of the firm inability to develop winning products. The firm escaped bankruptcy narrowly, in 2012. Kodak needs to enhance its BI capabilities so as to overcome this financial difficulty. The BI project should focus on helping the organization to identify the needs of the market and develop responsive products. The BI project should also focus on creating an infrastructure that will help the organization to minimize costs so as to avoid debt problems. This paper proposes the development of BI infrastructure that integrates customer analytic capabilities and operations analytic capabilities. Implementing this system is going to benefit Kodak by increasing its access to information, helping the firm to develop innovative products, enhancing customer services, increasing revenues, and reducing costs.


Davenport, T. & Dyche, J. (2013). Big data in big companies. International Institutes for Analytics. Retrieved from

Hocevar, B. & Jaklic, J. (2010). Evaluating the benefits of BI systems. Management. 15 (1): 87- 119

Mui, C. (2012). How Kodak Failed. Forbes. Retrieved from

Probst, G. & Raisch, S. (2005). Organizational Crisis: The Logic of Failure. Academy of Management Executive. 19 (1): 90- 105

Ward, J. Daniel, E. & Peppard, J. (2007). Building better Business Cases for IT Investments. California Management Review: 1-20

Janet Peter is an academic writer and an editor and she offers best dissertation writing services. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting MeldaResearch.Com.

Friday, 22 December 2017 06:53

Entrepreneurial Process

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The process of starting a new business plan is embodied in the entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneurial involves more that solving the merging problems. An entrepreneur must determine, evaluate and develop opportunities by establishing effective ways to eliminate the negative forces that may affect the creation process. The entrepreneurial process is procedural hence the need for an entrepreneur to establish and follow the following five processes: discovery, concept development, resourcing, actualization, and harvesting.


Entrepreneurial process

The discovery step is the stage when the entrepreneur generates potential ideas that can be turned to business opportunities. The entrepreneur must analyze the current market and establish the existence of gaps within the market. The identification of the gaps, establishes the market opportunities that an entrepreneur can tap. An entrepreneur must first have an idea i.e. the concept of a commodity that is non-existent in the market. The entrepreneur can establish a new brand or venture into a commodity that exists, but has not reached the market, as the need. An idea gives rise to an opportunity especially if there is a willing market (Fayolle, 2007). An opportunity can turn into a profitable business venture if it is attractive, timely, and durable, and it is established with the purpose of serving the immediate needs of the end-user. The second step in the entrepreneurial process is the development of the concept. Concept development involves the development of a business plan that details the business idea. A comprehensive business plan highlight the overall company overview, the mission the of company, the market, the marketing plan, the risks and opportunities involved, the capital requirements as well as the competitors involved.

The entrepreneur must also determine the business location. The business location must be ideal so as to attract the target market. The third stage is the resourcing stage. The resourcing stage requires the entrepreneur to identify the resources that he will need to start and run a business. The entrepreneur requires financial, human and capital resources. Whereas an entrepreneur may have saved some money for the business, he may seek to find alternative sources of financial and human support (Carrud, & Brannback, 2009). The entrepreneur can seek loan services as well as hire employees so as support his business venture. Actualization is the fourth step in the entrepreneurial process. In the actualization stage, the entrepreneur establishes the business and uses the human, financial and capital resources to attain his target goals. The final stage is the harvesting phase that entails the determination of the future growth of the business. The entrepreneur must make short and long-term plans for the business. Similarly, the entrepreneur must be prepared to close the business if it has not turned out to be a profitable venture. It is the integral duty of the entrepreneur to sustain the business and ascertain that it remains competitive amid the challenges and hurdles that might be faced. A sustainable business thrives and can pay its expenses such as bills (Carrud, & Brannback, 2009). Moreover, a sustainable business can handle its competitors and make profits where necessary.


The ranking of the entrepreneurial processes is as follows:

  1. Discovery
  2. Concept development,
  3. Resourcing,
  4. Actualization
  5. Harvesting

The ranking is according to the implementation step. The entrepreneur must first analyze the market and discover a gap within the market before developing the concepts, resourcing, and establishing a business. An entrepreneur who desires to succeed must create a comprehensive business plan that outline the business he intends to open. The entrepreneur will then use the business plan to actualize the business. A business that is established without a comprehensive business plan is susceptible to collapse as the entrepreneur may fail to consider essential aspects such as financial resources and the strength of the competitors.

Important elements: Individual and Corporate Perspective

Personally, the discovery stage is the most critical stage for me. With the discovery, an entrepreneur must conduct extensive market research and establish the gaps that exist in the market. The entrepreneur must then determine the gap that he is likely to fill, in terms of establishing a business. An entrepreneur can opt to tap establish a novel idea or he may choose to tap into an opportunity. I believe than an entrepreneur must have an idea or opportunity before he begins his business venture. The second element that I deem as important is the business plan (Fayolle, 2007). I believe it is important for an entrepreneur to establish an effective business plan. The business plan enables an entrepreneur to make a clear outline of the business venture he intends to open. The entrepreneur will thus foresee pitfall and undertake corrective or preventive measures.

From a corporate perspective, the stage involving concept development is the most important. Concept development entails having a comprehensive business plan. An organization must ascertain that they analyze the viability of the project before establishing it (Carrud, & Brannback, 2009). The organization must also establish the risk and opportunities that the business venture presents. Moreover, the company must establish the overall cost of a business venture. The determination of the cost of the business enables the organization to determine their ability to fund the project to success.

The entrepreneurial process in healthcare

The delivery of healthcare services and products has been enhanced through the entrepreneurial process. Entrepreneurs with the desire to venture in the healthcare industry have managed to analyze the healthcare market and establish existing gaps. The analysis of the healthcare industry has led to the improvement of services as entrepreneurs establish healthcare facilities that offer cheaper services than before (Hezlinger, 2008). There has also been an emphasis on improving the quality of health services offered. In the arena of health insurance, the increased presence of government participation has enhanced the accessibility of healthcare services. Entrepreneurs in the healthcare industry have been able to embrace the entrepreneurial processes of creation, discovery and exploitation of opportunities.


An entrepreneur is a person who strives to address market inefficiencies by generating innovations and mobilizing resources. An entrepreneur expects to tap into gaps that exist in the market and establish viable businesses. The success of a business venture, however depends on the ability of the entrepreneur to engage in an elaborate entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneurial process provides entrepreneurs with a step-by-step analysis of the entrepreneurial venture that the individual intends to establish. The process enables the entrepreneur to have a clear outline of the process of establishing the entrepreneurship.


Carrud, A. & Brannback, M. (2009). Understanding the entrepreneurial mind. Springer publishers

Fayolle, A. (2007). Entrepreneurship and new value creation. Cambridge university press

Hezlinger, R. (2008). Impact of entrepreneurs on consumer-driven healthcare. Harvard business school.

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