Social Sciences

Social Sciences (349)

Thursday, 22 February 2018 12:03

Alternatives to Replacing Oil Use

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Describe at least two alternatives to oil that are currently available and discuss the barriers that keep these alternatives from replacing oil as our primary means of energy?

One of an alternative source of energy that may replace oil is a biochemical gas such as biogas. However, natural has not yet been used in place of oil since natural gas contains a small amount of energy compared to fuel like gasoline. Biochemical gas has been criticized due to the presence of weak infrastructure that requires expensive equipment for transportation. Leaking problems, invisibility, and high explosive characteristics make biochemical gas dangerous to be applied in daily operations (www.filmsforaction.org).  Electricity is another alternative that can be applied on behave of oil. However, there is large and expensive technology required in the development of high power rechargeable batteries. Size and weight of machines required to store electric energy are directly proportional to the amount of energy required. Manufacturers require making electric vehicles which are very heavy due to huge batteries required (Turk, & Bensel, 2011).  Shocking and electrocution problems associated with electric energy reduce its direct implementation in daily lives.     

Additionally, utilizing at least two scholarly sources, discuss the role that government plays in ensuring a transition to such alternatives in a post peak-oil world?

Most government agencies are investing in researchers that can promote and improve electric and natural gas sources of energy to make them effective and efficient in providing energy. Funding and support combination of energies are being implemented to facilitate continuation of business operation

 

Response 2

The highest problem associated with natural gas is the presence of environmental complications such ground destruction through mining. Coal, on the other hand, is characterized by getting exhausted within a short period thus become unreliable for commercial use.  The US government is using strategies that ensure industries and business balances the application and utilization of energies (www.stwr.org). 

Response 3

To prevent exhausting available energy sources such as coal and natural gas, other available sources of energy such as electric energy should be encouraged. Electric energy provides high level of reliability since it can be tapped from naturally occurring resources such as sunlight, the wind, running water, and recycling of materials. Hence electric energy provides the friendly human environment and environment-friendly (www.filmsforaction.org).

 

References

Tom K. (2010). The Best Peak Oil Investments, Part VI: Barriers to Substitution. Retrived from: http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2010/04/peakoil6.html

Turk, J., & Bensel, T. (2011). Contemporary environmental issues. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint

www.filmsforaction.org/lawrence/news/climate_vhange_peak_oil_business_as_usual_or_transition

www.stwr.org/land-energy-water/peak-oil-and-the-end-of-growth.html

 

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:52

Article Critique

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The article on the impact of the background television of the parent-child interaction involves the investigation of the hypothesis asserting that the background television has an impact on the interactions that exist between the parents and the very young children. According to the article, very young children are frequently present at the time their parents or the other family members are watching programs that are intended for the adults. The basis of the assessment is that although the infants pay minimal attention to the adult programs, there is a huge likelihood that the programs can exert a developmentally significant influence. The assessments of the issue further follow the assertion that more than a third of the children below three years are living in homes whereby caretakers characterize as having the television on always most or most of the time (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009).

The assessment of the article from the onset establishes the fact that the problem is no simple issues with the abstract clearly establishing that the background television was having a significant impact on the quality of interactions that parents have with the young children. The author intends to elucidate on the issue of television exposure to children at the young age and the impact it has on their overall development (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009). In this assessment, the author of the article takes a time to different the study with the other common studies whose focus has been on time children watch TV without taking the time to differentiate between the watching of children programmed TV and that of the adults. The overall assessment of the topic is the assertion that the early exposure to television has a repugnant impact on the development of children, with the exposure greatly associated with negative outcomes (Vangelisti, 2012). The author’s intended audience in the development of this article is to all the stakeholders who are in direct contact with toddlers as the parents and social service agencies.

The argument that the author presents is logical and vital to the assessment of the development issues of children. The most common attribute about the growth and personal development of an individual follows that their formative years are the most significant to the quality of life they will lead as adults. It is true that when a parent has a TV on is most focused on what is being presented than what is happening with their children (Kirkorian, Pempek, Murphy, Schmidt, & Anderson, 2009). In this case, the assessment of the topic by the author establishes that the background TV interferes with the parent’s focus on the child. The author supports the position with evidence from an earlier experiment that established having a TV on reduces the play episodes of the children along with the fact that they were less focused compared to when the TV was off.

I support the position that the author takes in drafting this article as a parent’s sole focus in a child’s formative years should be in ensuring that the child gets all the attention they want. In this case, having the TV on inhibits this concentration as the parent has divided attention regarding following the TV and paying attention to the child. The most significant period of a child’s growth encompasses the first three years of their life, with the brain tripling in mass in a mere 12 months. These interactions are engraved within the social spheres with their immediate family members. The stimuli that the infant will get during this period of fast development affect their lives profoundly, mainly regarding their brain development (Vangelisti, 2012). The attribute is similar to the author’s assertion that the most significant issues that affect the development of a child encompass the social interactions with their family, peers, and teachers among others.

I further agree with the author that majority of the available research on the formative development of children relates to just the parent-child interaction. Among the most significant issues is the fact that the verbal simulation that a parent elicits on a child is vital to their development, with core significance being in the cognitive development of the children. It is in light of this assessment that I agree with the author’s position that the mere availability of a parent does not play the ultimate role in the effective development of the child (Vangelisti, 2012). The chief focus should be on the active involvement of the parent on the child’s active play, which plays a huge role in enhancing the overall cognitive development of the infant.

I, however, do not support the author’s position on the assertion that the exposure to violent behavior of children via the TV is one of the attributes that lead to them being violent in older ages. In this case, the violent nature that people develop is as a result of numerous elements in their lives, with socialization being the main contributing factor and not the background television. I, however, concur with the evidence from the study that the background TV inhibits a child verbal development as the parents who are watching barely engages the children in verbal interactions, delaying their development (Vangelisti, 2012). Overall, the study is right in positing that background television has the effect of disrupting the interactions that parents have with their children, with the early exposure leading to negative impacts on a child’s subsequent development.

 

 References

Kirkorian, H., Pempek, T., Murphy, L., Schmidt, M. & Anderson, D. (2009). The impact of background television on parent–child interaction. Child Development, 80 (5), 1350-1359.

Vangelisti, A. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Family Communication. Routledge.

The debate concerning nature versus nurture has been a persistent issue in psychology while focusing on genetic and environmental concerns. Nature gets defined as all the genetic and hereditary aspects that affect our physical appearance and personality features. Nurture, on the other hand, gets defined as the environmental factors that influence our personality and appearance, as well as the experiences of our tender age, social relations, culture and how we got raised (Hardy & Heyes, 1999).The debate will enable us to understand the way our behaviors and personalities get developed by genetics and biological processes, and their effect on the environment, peers, culture, and parents. For example, the debate tries to show why biological children usually behave like the parents. Is due to genetic similarity or environmental factors and what do children obtain from parents?

What are your own thoughts on nature versus nurture? Did they change at all after reading your text, your classmate responses or from completing this assignment?

I think the differences in human nature get realized by genetic changes within our bodies and that our mental and biological behaviors differ due to the influences that our culture and environment has upon us. My thoughts on the debate did not change after the responses from classmates, reading the text and completing the assignments, because I compared both discussion and related to my personal experiences.

Include recent research (2005-present) on at least two specific behavioral traits that have to be studied. If you find non-scholarly sources (e.g., newspaper articles, magazines, etc.) feel free to include them in addition to your scholarly sources. Describe the research (e.g., what they studied and found).

The specific behavioral traits include the language spoken, the political party supported by an individual, musical aptitude, and religion practiced. The research claims that the traits depend on the environment, residence or tradition, but there are still other traits which relate to talent and temperaments which mainly concerns with the degree. The research compares sibling trait collaboration, whereby each trait gets measured and compared using identical (monozygotic) twins, genetically unrelated adopted siblings and biological siblings (not twins) (Slater, 2004). The researchers have analyzed groups’ behavior, while focusing on families to try to relate genetics and behavior; however they were unable to eliminate the behaviors that could not get affected by environmental factors.

Give your thoughts on the research. Was it surprising? Controversial? Consistent with your beliefs? Did you find contradictory evidence for the role of nature and nurture for the traits you chose?

The research about nature versus nurture seemed a controversial debate to me. The reason is that many psychologists, theologians, philosophers, and theorists have brought different meanings that appear true as far as the relationship between human genetics and behaviors are concerned. As from my personal thinking, it is not easy to understand whether human personality gets developed from our environment (nurture) or biology (nature).

Contradictory evidence: The story of a boy who got raised as a girl brings about contradictory evidence. The boy medically got given woman features such as breast and artificial vagina due to circumcision complications, but he was not acceptable in the company of girls. When he grew up, he noted the differences and did not accept being a woman. When he got given male hormones and mastectomy to be changed to male, he became comfortable with himself (Ember & Ember, 2003).

 

 References

Ember, C. R., & Ember, M. (2003). Encyclopedia of sex and gender: : men and women in the world's cultures. New York: Springer.

Hardy, M., & Heyes, S. (1999). Beginning psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Slater, P. J. B. (2004). Advances in the Study of Behavior: Volume 34. London, UK: Elsevier Science & Technology.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:42

Reflection # 3

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Reflection # 3 – Teaching the Children about “I am”

 Activity Summary

            The third mentoring was about teaching the children about “I am”. The mentoring was a visit to a kindergarten level children school in Mueller Elementary School. The activity I was to carry out was teaching these children about the “I am” by drawing, painting, singing, and dancing. Additionally, we had another activity where we learned about rockets and how they fly. We demonstrated this by building some rockets using papers and straws.  First, I went to the elementary school on Monday 06/27/2016 from 9am to 11am and met the children I was going to mentor. I talked to the children and let them know what we were going to learn on that day of mentoring. When I was talking to the children, I got to know about them and their capabilities. The children were very much interested in drawing, painting, singing, and dancing. The children were also interested in learning about rockets and how they fly.

 Evaluative Thinking

            As the tea break came close, I started thinking about the shortcomings of this mentoring program. One of the shortcomings is about the time I was able to spend with each of the mentees at the school. Although meeting once a week for an hour was a good thing, it was not good enough, and I thought it would not make any difference. The best way I was going to overcome the shortcoming was referring the children to a person who had engaged in such as activity. I was also limited by the fact that I would not talk to the mentee outside the school setting. This means that I was not going to exercise anything we had learned outside the classroom. Additionally, we could not see how rockets are made in the real life because of the limitation.

 Divergent Thinking

            The main goal of the mentoring session was teaching the children about “I am” by way of painting, drawing, singing, and dancing as a way of improving their way of thinking and reasoning. I accomplished this by talking to the mentees using the language at their level and ensuring that they understood. Additionally, I was accounting for the different personalities of the children while I was doing this. I had also gathered useful information about how I was to approach the mentoring and ensure I was succeeded in doing so.

Convergent Thinking

            I have improved many things after the completion of the mentoring program. Some of the improvements are communication skills as well as developing a comprehensive understanding of kindergarten level children. I would not have achieved this if I had not participated in the mentoring of the kindergarten children. I also learned something about how such young children think. I also noticed they had become active which was a show of my success in the program.

 Cognitive Memory

            I had an opportunity to validate previous theories on how one should talk and mentor kindergarten level children. I did this by being funny and attentive to the details which eased the tension in the children. Although there were many other strategies, I found this to be very effective because they soon became accustomed to my methods. I could tell how powerful it was to their level of understanding and how they liked me. I am planning on using this strategy in my future mentoring programs. I also validated my theories of encouraging and mentoring kindergarten level children.

The implementation of the survey followed the assertion that generalized anxiety disorder has a tendency of being chronic following the early onset of along with the resistance to change, an attribute that leads to the suggestion that GAD could be the basic disorder from which additional disorders come up. The additional issue that has informed the study encompasses the assertion that its core worry normally relates to the significant health challenges that encompass the cardiovascular disease. Thus the study attempts to develop effective psychological treatments for GAD as they try to assess the above issues. The evidence that is in support of this study follows that assessment of the previous research results that have provided the indication that cognitive behavioral therapy is efficacious, leading to the yielding of improvements that are superior to the waiting list of the no-treatment conditions. It additionally serves to assess the conditions that manipulate the nonspecific or the common factors that support the use of CBT as an empirically effective treatment for GAD.

In the assessment of the effective of cognitive behavioral therapy in treating generalized anxiety disorder, the researchers begin by ruling out 459 people who have been contacted for the project, with 320 of them being ruled out via phone screening. The additional use of diagnostic interviews assisted in ruling out additional 63 individuals who failed to meet the criteria for admission. The treatment was thus completed by 69 clients who have an average age of 37.14 years.

The clients were enrolled over a period of 5 years, with the clinical assessors implementing a 30-minute phone interview that was meant to determine the possible suitability of the candidates. The consequently administered in person an improved version of anxiety disorders interview schedule-III- that entailed the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the assessor severity of GAD anxiety symptoms ratings, the Hamilton depression rating scale along with supplementary questions in the GAD section.

The clients were supposed to complete a daily diary for four times on a daily basis over the two week period before the therapy, during the therapy as well as for one week before the follow-up.  The clients additionally completed a three-item credibility scale when they completed the therapy session. There was the implementation of two measures as they tried to ensure that the results did not differ and encompassed the relationship inventory that assessed the perceptions of the clients and the working alliance relationship that assessed the agreement on the diverse goals and tasks of therapy as well as strength. The case of the therapists entailed the implementation by three doctoral-level therapists, using two females and one male along with one advanced clinical graduate student who was female in conducting the therapy.

The assessment of the therapy conditions followed the administration of 14 weekly sessions, with one fading sessions after the pre-assessment. The first 30 minutes of every CT and SCD session entailed just supportive listening whereby clients were informed of the fact that the therapy would partly encompass the explanation of the life experiences in an atmosphere that promoted relaxation, with the objective of promoting facilitation as well as deepening comprehension of self and anxiety.

Integrity checking involved the use of audio tapes in 20% of all the sessions, with three tapes randomly selected from sessions 1-5, 6-10 as well as 11-14. These involved checking of protocol adherence by the trained clinical students who would listen to the entire sessions and consequently make each therapist utterance against the checklist of allowed and not allowed interventions. The quality checking, on the other hand, entailed the use of Jeremy Safran as the position checker for the CT lots of the trial conditions.

From the implementation of this research, it was evident that the prediction of CBT as being superior to the components was not reaffirmed, along with the failure to increase the therapeutic effectiveness of CBT. Conversely, preliminary evidence from, the correlation assessment of the subset of clients tentatively suggested that the possible role of interpersonal problems in maintaining GAD. Even through the use of supportive, active listening attributes in the present studies aids in the reduction of the external validity of outcomes for the CBT components, their employment is vital for the assessment of the external validity. Thus the findings support the assertion that brief component treatment is insufficient in the treatment of compared to the lengthy behavioral therapy that produces eventual, widespread indirect change in the other response systems and is similar to the one provided directly via the employment of combined CBT.

The overall implication of this study is the emphasis on the fact that there is the need to develop additional studies that will encompass the assessment of the ways of incrementing the effectiveness of the psychological treatment for the GAD disorder. The findings of the study were unable to establish whether an increase of therapy duration had an effect on the effectiveness of the CBT, thus implying additional studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of the physiological treatment.

My assessment of the study is that it was vital in assessing the effectiveness of behavioral therapy for the generalized anxiety disorder and informing the shortcomings of the current study that would offer greater depth and information on what additional studies on the subject should

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:19

Family of Origin

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Family of Origin Profile

  • Family Narrative - What does family dynamics mean?

            Family dynamics is the way in which different members of the family interact together with the way in which different relationships can exist within members of the family. Different families have different dynamics which also manifest in different ways. Family dynamics manifest themselves in the form of relationship patterns and interactions between members of the family. Although different families have different and unique dynamics, there are some common patterns of relationship. Families have both helpful and unhelpful dynamics. Even in the situations where there is a lack of family dynamics, a young person will have been influenced by the dynamics in the past years.

  • Family Roles - What are some various roles that family members have?

            Families are not the place where democracy is practiced. However, in most of the current family setups, parents are expected to lead or act as the executives of the family. On the other hand, children should follow the leadership of the parents without questioning. As children grow and gain more experience, they will ask for autonomy where they are expected to be allowed to have some autonomy. Therefore, parents should consider their opinions when they are making decisions. However, the final authorities rest with the parents. The father is the main provider and breadwinner in the family while the mother acts as the manager and treasurer at home. The female children may help the mother in some household chores while the male children are assigned manual works. Children roles change as they grow old. Older siblings are expected to lead their younger counterparts. However, the roles keep on changing as time moves by (Carter & McGoldrick, 1988).

  • Stages of Family Life Cycle - Explore the fundamentals of the Life Cycle perspective. Which cycle applies to a functional family of origin and why. Give your rationale for your choice.

            People sharing a history and future together are the ones who shape the family. Therefore, families are a living system which moves through time. Families grow and undergo significant changes over time in predictable ways. Therefore, these families cannot be understood without examining each of the developmental stages. It may be unpredictable how some events may affect a family. However, types of crises that may be experienced by a family may be identified easily. Families have different reactions to life events although many of them encounter similar ranges of developmental crises like the death of a member of the family. Contemporary families are pulsing with plural and multicultural patterns. Therefore, there is no normative sequence through which families develop over some time. Some of the main transitions in the family life cycle are marked by significant changes in the family system instead of the rearrangements within the family system. New couples joining the family by marriage is the cycle applying to the functional family of origin because marriage is the stage where families begin. There would be no families without a man and a woman coming together where they get marriage and start a family. Therefore, is the stage where everything starts meaning that there would be no families without marriage (Aldous, 1990).

 

  • Developmental Stages - Define and discuss the developmental stages of family experiences.
  1. Leaving home for young single adults: The stage of disconnecting and reconnecting with a person’s family while the person is still on his own.
  2. Starting a family through marriage: The stage is characterized by adjustments and adaptation of both man and woman to new family settings.
  • Families have young children: This is the stage where the newly married couples have to accept new members of the family in the system.
  1. Families with adolescents: It involves the expansion of the boundaries for the independence of the children and the frailties of the parents becoming new grandparents.
  2. Launching of the children and moving on: Involves exits of the older children and entries of the grandchildren in the family. It also involves realigning the relationships in the family as well as dealing with deaths because of the various reasons and possible disabilities.
  3. Families in later life: Family members have to accept a shift in generational roles between people. It also involves dealing with the loss of a member of the family and offering support for more central roles and responsibilities of the middle generation.

 

Genogram - What is a genogram? Create a genogram and overall theme for a family

            A genogram is a family tree represented graphically. It displays comprehensive data on how individuals are related. It traverses traditional family tree since it allows the users to analyze some forms of hereditary patterns and psychological factors in which relationships are punctuated.

 

References

Carter, E. A., & McGoldrick, M. (1988). The changing family cycle: A framework for       family therapy. 2nd edition. New York: Gardner Press.

Aldous, J. (1990). "Family development and the lifecourse: Two perspectives." Journal     of Marriage and the Family 52:571–583.

 

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:16

How has family counseling changed?

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The change in focus from the individual to a family system has changed family counseling. This means that counseling has moved from focusing on an individual to an entire family. The reason for this shift is that families play a key role in helping its members to fair on well. Addressing counseling needs of a person without building the capacity of the family can lead to a relapse of problems.  Hence, the shift to family helps to address counseling needs from multidimensional approach (Winek, 2010).

            This has made the practice of treating psychological problems in the family context to expand. The developmental of family counseling have become social as well as theoretical changes and developments in psychology. Family counseling, as opposed to individual counseling, evolved out of the current paradigm of psychoanalysis as well as the medical, psychiatric model. The reason is that individual treatment needs do go beyond the psychoanalytic workroom. As a result, more contemporary cultural influences including managed health care have continued to favor the usually quicker way of treating the whole family as opposed to one individual member. The start of family counseling brought a whole new way of understanding as well as explaining human behavior. Family counseling asserts that psychological issues are developed and maintained in the family social context. This modern contextual perspective shifted the responsibility for the issues and the focus of counseling from internal world of an person to the whole family (Brown, 1981). This move in the understanding of human events in interactional pattern terms of behavior has led to a new way of explaining of emotional distress. The biological as well as psychoanalytic views advocate a causal, linear model of knowing human problems, which emphasizes on the internal dysfunction as well as failure to take into account some reciprocal nature of family relations. Therefore, family counseling proposes that psychological issues are best explained in circular and recursive terms that focus on mutually influential as well as the interpersonal context of where they develop.

            The shift of family counseling is in a family as well as its members’ interactions and relationships.   This type of counseling always involves the interventions that alter the way the whole family system operates. Family counselor uses a circular causality diagnosis which considers roles of each person plays in a problem situation. Family counseling has been the most effective intervention from the fact that it takes a family of an organizational structure characterized by levels of cohesiveness, love, loyalty, purpose and high levels of shared values, interests, activities as well as attention to members’ needs. Families are, therefore, systems, organized wholes or units with several interdependent as well as interacting parts. Each member possesses significant influence on all members. For healthy change in an identified member, therefore, members of the family have to alter their ways of interaction.  Family counseling works with the current relationships as compared to the past ones.  Counselors become interested in the equilibrium that families maintain between counseling need extremes that describe dysfunctional families.   Family counseling focuses on the way family members can maintain a healthy balance between being enmeshed and being disengaged. Self-differentiation remains the principal goal of family counseling from the fact that it focuses on ways of assisting families to develop individual identities for all members while keeping a sense of closeness as well as togetherness in families. Relationships, emotional systems, de-triangulation as well differentiation get emphasized in family counseling.

 

References

Brown, K. (1981). Family Counseling

Winek, J. L. (2010). Systemic family therapy: From theory to practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif:       Sage.

 

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:12

Stages of grief

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Introduction

Grief is the response process that an individual usually encounters when losing a close person to death. Grief tends to entail different stages that a person undergoes as they confront the idea of losing a very close person up to that time they accept the reality. When considering Wolterstorff  reflection, it is an indication that grief tends to be a process as he indicates how he dealt with the unexpected loss of his son and provided a voice to other people who are mourning. In this paper, it discusses the five stages involved in grief as evident with Wolterstorff after his son’s death. The paper also discusses how Wolterstorff found joy following the loss, provides a description of the meaning and significance of death in the case of a Christian narrative and also explain the role of the hope of resurrection in comforting Wolterstorff.

Stages of grief

Denial is the first stage where the affected people tend to be unwilling in accepting they lost a close person to death (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2005). In most cases, people tend to think that they are in a dream, and they hope that they will get good news. Wolterstorff demonstrated denial when he had thoughts of what would happen if his son did not go to climb the mountain. The second stage is anger whereby people tend to come to terms of accepting that they did lose someone to death. In this case, the grieving people are usually angry with the death or other people. Wolterstorff was very angry and started asking many questions in anger regarding the death of his son (Wolterstorff 2009). He did wonder why his son would climb the mountain alone, why he preferred such a carrier that had so many risks, and whether he did make a mistake for the failure of directing him to select the right profession.

The third stage is bargaining where the main question involved “what if” (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2005). In Wolterstorff, the bargaining stage was challenging for him as he always wished that his son would return; however, he realized that he was gone and would not come back anymore. The bargaining stage is normally involved with the feeling of the quilt and thinking about how things would be done differently (Kubler-Ross & Kessler 2005). Depression is the fourth stage where it feels as though it will last forever. In depression, people tend to realize that bargaining and anger do nothing in reversing the loss of the person. During this stage, most people usually go deep in crying, and they also withdraw from others. In the case of Wolterstorff, he displayed depression in the form of dislike from his normal activities and hindered his social life (Wolterstorff 2009). The final stage is acceptance which normally involves people learning to accept and also cope with the occurrence of the death. The acceptance stage is very important, and Wolterstorff started accepting the loss, and he hoped to see him in the resurrection. He did accept the loss and promised that he would not forget him and also urged other members of the family to keep memories of him and also move on with life.

Wolterstorff finds joy

Religion played a major role in Wolterstorff finding joy after the loss of his son. Wolterstorff believed in the resurrection that helped in consoling him as he knew that he would meet his son again. Wolterstorff believed that he would get in touch with his son when the will of God reign on earth.  He also had the belief that God grieves with his people, and Jesus made a promise to mourners that they would receive consolation. Wolterstorff  meditated with Psalms 126 that those that sow in tears will reap the songs of joy. The death of his son contributed a lot in strengthening his relationship he had with his wife and other children and it also brought joy.

Meaning and significance of death

Christians tend to view death as being a transition point from the earthly life to an internal life with God (Miller & Shelley 2009). Therefore, in Christianity, death tends to death to signify the stage in which the eternal soul with the human body and the optimal gift to the Christians is eternal life with God. Hence, death tends to be a symbol of a way to the definitive gift of perpetual life. Death tends to be the final stage of life that all humans are bound to experience, and it brings us close to God’s presence us where we will enjoy him forever.

Hope of resurrection comfort Wolterstorff

The hope of resurrection helped in healing Wolterstorff from the grief. In the understanding resurrection, he realized that he would be able to be together with his son again in resurrection with Christ. Every time he thought of his son, he remembered that he is in the hands of God, and he did not see death as the end of his son’s life. Resurrection provided Wolterstorff with a chance of meeting with his son again; thus raising his hope of being with his son.

Conclusion

Grieving is very important after the loss of a loved one as it helps a lot than suppressing your feelings. Understanding the five stages of grief tend to help us make up our learning to live with the loss of a loved person.

Reference

Kubler-Ross, E & Kessler, D (2005). On grief and grieving. Simon and Schuster

Miller, A & Shelley, J (2009). Called to care: a Christian worldview for the nursing. InterVarsity Press

Wolterstorff N (2009). Lament for a son. Grand Rapids

 

 

 

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:09

Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity

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Abstract

The workforce in the health care industry encounters people from walks of life with differing worldviews and religious beliefs. Having a basic understanding of the basic components of a worldview can help the health care provider to meet better and serve the patient population that they serve. A person’s worldview is affected by their religious beliefs and personal experiences; it will affect how they choose to make their health care decisions.  Religious beliefs are a part of everyone’s worldview, and there are common components in which one can relate to their religious beliefs, not to forget that “there are genuine and important differences among religions (GCU, 2015). Facilities and providers should accommodate the diverse needs of their community members to have a holistic approach to healthcare. This paper will aim to do a comparative analysis of the philosophies of Christianity and that of Buddhism in the context of health care.

Healthcare Provider and Faith Diversity

Health care providers have the same common goal of caring for the ailing, but each provider has their worldview that shapes how they view the world around them. A person’s worldview can also be described as “one's philosophy, philosophy of life, mindset, and outlook on life, the formula for life, ideology, faith, or even religion” (Funk, 2001).  It is important that health care providers be reminded that just as their worldviews differ from their coworkers, so do their worldviews differ from that of their patients. To be able to provide the holistic care that is needed to heal the patient, not only must their physical ailments be addressed, but their spiritual ailments need to be addressed as well. The research paper provides a comparative analysis of Christianity and Buddhism worldviews by addressing the seven basic worldview questions; also to be addressed are the needs of each faith regarding healing.

Christianity

Prime reality

It is the most fundamental question that one needs to answer to develop their worldview. Christian Theism is a worldview based on teachings of God. Christians view prime reality as based on a God that is infinite, personal, transcendent, omniscient, sovereign, and good (Sire, 2009, p. 28-30). Christian believes that God created and continued to sustain all things (Shelly, 2009, p. 34). This belief system will affect how some Christians view health care in the fact that they instill great faith in God and his power to heal versus current medical advances.

 Nature of the World around us

Christians believe that the universe and our world were created by God, for us. Sire (2009) explains that “the external reality is the cosmos of created ex-nihilo to operate with a uniformity of cause and effect in an open system” (Sire, 2009, p. 31). The Holy Bible is what Christian believers follow and in Genesis 1:2 it states that “the earth was formless and void, and darkness were upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters (Genesis 1:2 King James Version). Versus four to10 continue describing God in designing and creating Earth and the heavens for a man to inhabit and thrive. To have an environment that enhances a healing approach to health care, facilities and workers need to design and create a sanctuary in which the human body can be void of external stressors.

Personhood

Personhood is a question of what a human being is and when does one become human. God created man in his image and instructed man to “be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28). “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). From this verse, some would believe that a created being becomes human when they breathe their first breath. Many Christians believe that all human life is sacred, whether born or unborn. Humans are blessed in that they are created in the image of God and have been given feelings and emotions that bind them as one.

Death and the afterlife

Christians perceive death as a natural part of life.  Death does not mean an end to life, but a transition into eternal life. Based on actions in life, the Christian believe that they will either enter an existence with God and his people or they will enter an existence that separates them from God forever (Sire, 2009, p. 41). This statement is best described in Romans, “For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Romans 6:23). If God is accepted into one’s heart and true forgiveness is sought after, then the sins of this life may be forgiven and through the atonement of Jesus Christ, man can be saved.

Possession of knowledge

The ability to acquire knowledge is based on the idea that humans are created in the image of God. He is omniscient (all knowing), therefore being created in his image, humans have the ability to understand and obtain intelligence. John chapter 1:3 states, “All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made” (John 1:3). It forms the basis for the belief that the grace of God acquires knowledge. Another belief about how a human gains knowledge is in the many stories from the Bible in which God converses with and educates man as seen when Moses is given the Ten Commandments.

Ethics of right and wrong

Ethics need not be related to religion; most people have views and beliefs of what is right and wrong. Ethics explains what a person ought to do. For instance, in the society, it would be following the law. In Christianity, ethics is following what God has put forth in the teachings of the Bible. Jesus Christ teaches Christians what is right and wrong in the life that he lived, he obeyed the will of God in all that he did, even regarding his death. Christians strive to do what is right in the eyes of God to obtain eternal life with him.

 Properties of History

History is the story of human existence. Everyone and everything has a history; this history is what people base their worldviews. In Christianity, history is taught from the Bible, it is taught that “history is linear, a meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God’s purposes for humanity” (Sire, 2009, p. 43). God has created a story, in which man knows his history. God is the foreteller of this story as evident in the statement, “Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, my counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure” (Isaiah 46:10).

Buddhism

Prime reality

Buddhism is a faith that is non-theistic and also not atheistic. Buddha never rejected the idea of a God but just felt that God is a temporary being that was a part of the birth and rebirth process, trying to obtain enlightenment (Buddhism, 2016). There is no one supreme God, who has divine power over creation or humanity. Buddha does not refer to themselves as the savior, but they encourage their followers to have self-reliance to achieve enlightenment, that Buddha only provides the example of his life (Mahathera, n.d.).

Nature of the World around us

His Holiness, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, states that when one “talk[s] about nature, the ultimate nature is emptiness” (A Buddhist Concept of Nature, 1992). This is to say that nature does not exist independently, but it exists dependent on other factors (A Buddhist Concept of Nature, 1992). Buddhism teaches that the universe is created and destroyed over and over again, just like people are born, they die, and are reborn. It is believed that existence is endless and always in a temporary state (Hardy, n.d.).

Personhood

Buddhism is known for their belief in no self in human life. It does not mean that the concept of person is void; Buddha never gave a clear definition of when a personhood begins. In an article by Somparn Promta, a story is told about a monk performing an abortion and receiving the same punishment as if he had killed an adult (Promta, n.d.).Buddhists believe that the human life is made up of “five aggregates namely materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation, and consciousness; and the aggregates are not substances”(Promta, n.d.). Anything that has all five of these aggregates is considered a person (Promta, n.d.).

Death and the afterlife

In Buddhism, there is no soul or afterlife. A person undergoes a birth and rebirth until they can obtain nirvana, at which point they cease to exist. “Salvation in early Buddhism was nirvana, the extinguishing of the all karma that constitutes the self” (Hardy, n.d.). Karma is believed to determine “one’s species, beauty, intelligence, longevity, wealth, and social status” Panday, 2004, p. 133). Therefore the deeds that are done while in human existence can lead to differing rebirths such as: “human, an animal, a hungry ghost, a denizen of hell, or even one of the Hindu gods” (Panday, 2004, p. 133). Only a birth into a human existence can individuals achieve nirvana and is a desirable rebirth.

Acquisition of knowledge

Buddhism does not specify on how one can know; just that knowledge is needed to obtain enlightenment. It is believed that by obtaining the pure knowledge about the true nature of the physical world, will the path to enlightenment be opened to them (Numrich, 2008, p. 32). To obtain enlightenment, one must obtain a comprehension of the way things appear to be and the true nature of these same appearances. This knowledge alone is not enough; one must have compassion with the knowledge to fully be enlightened (Numrich, 2008, p. 32).

Ethics of right and wrong

Buddhist has a basic moral code of ethics; they are naturalistic in that natural facts justify them. Morals are known as the Five Precepts, which indicate that “killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying or taking intoxicant is wrong” (Promta, n.d.). Killing and taking intoxicant is wrong in the sense that it violates one’s self-love, the psychological aspect. Stealing, sexual misconduct and lying all violate a person’s belongings. (Promta, n.d.). Karma and ethics are closely related to that one’s ethical choices are their karma which can lead to either a better rebirth or a lesser rebirth.

Effects of History

History is not relevant to the Buddhist, as it does nothing to help achieve Nirvana. Man’s task is to free himself from the Samsara, a cycle of births and rebirths. It is noted in Buddhism that the origin of the universe in not a religious matter and it does not help one obtain spiritual wisdom (Dhammanada, 2002, p. 398-399). To the Buddhist, there is no beginning of history or end until one obtains nirvana.

Common Components of religious healing

Both of the religions believe in preventative health measures, such as dietary habits and lifestyle choices. Medicine and physical treatments are accepted by both Christians and Buddhist alike. Another commonality between these religions is that both have been “contaminated with other local beliefs and global knowledge” (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 104), this falling away from basic teachings has lead to a decline in health for both religious sects.

Important to Religious Followers regarding care

            As with any religion, these groups value their beliefs and hope to have their beliefs respected. As Christianity encompasses many smaller sects, the main thing to remember is that prayer is important, as their belief is that God is the creator and can heal. As for the traditional Buddhist, “the Buddha indicated that a preceptor has a responsibility to tend the one who shares a cell, and a teacher has a responsibility to tend his pupils” (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 102). The modern Buddhist has no objection to attending a hospital. The health care providers need to be aware that many follow a vegetarian diet as not to kill or harm any living being. They may also require an image of Buddha remain in their presence and care should be taken when the staff needs to clean around or move the image. The last thing that the Buddhist may need is when death occurs, there may be a certain period that the body may not be disturbed before it can be moved (Buddhist Health, n.d.).

Conclusion

Just as everyone looks different, so are their worldviews and religious beliefs differ. A person’s spiritual state plays an important role in the healing process, whether it is attributed to religion, prayer, meditation, or karma.  The mind and the body have a very close connection, and if the mind is not well, then the body will, in turn, suffer (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 99). When people are in harmony with their self and with nature, they will have less illness and a better recovery when they do get ill. As health care workers strive to achieve better physical results for their patient, it would do them well to incorporate a spiritual aspect to their daily routines.  

References

A Buddhist concept of nature. (1992, February 14). Retrieved from http://www.dalailama.com/messages/environment/buddhist-concept-of-nature

Buddhism. (2016). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=96c31939-9d6b-4daa-aab9-0d366c9b75a9%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4211&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=BU197000&db=funk

Buddhist Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thebuddhistsociety.org/page/buddhist-health

Dhammapada, K. S. (2002). What Buddhist Believe (4th ed.). Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society Malaysia.

Funk, K. (2001, March 21). What is a worldview? Retrieved from http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~funkk/Personal/worldview.html

Grand Canyon University (GCU). (2015). The Christian narrative and spiritual diversity. Retrieved from HLT-310V Introduction 3 Notes.

Hardy, J. (n.d.). Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings. Retrieved from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Ultimate-Reality-and-Divine-Beings

Johnson, J. M. (2015). Buddhism. Salem Press Encyclopedia Retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?sid=4373bebe-c088-4a6e-8540-285b2541b77c%40sessionmgr4005&vid=2&hid=4211&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=86179268&db=ers

Mahathera, V.N. (n.d.). The Buddha and his teachings. Retrieved fromhttp://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/buddha-teachingsurw6.pdf

Numrich, P. D. (2008). The boundaries of knowledge in Buddhism, Christianity, and science: Paul D. Numrich (ed.). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Panday, K. N. (2004). Tagore's Chitra and Aurobindo's Savitri: A comparative study. New Delhi: Atlantic.

Paonil, W., & Sringernyuang, L. (2002). Buddhist Perspectives on Health and Healing:The Chulalongkorn Journal of Buddhist Studies, 1(2), 93-105.

Promta, S. (n.d.). A concept of person in Buddhism. Retrieved from http://www.stc.arts.chula.ac.th/A Concept of Person.pdf

Shelly, J. A., & Miller, A. B. (2006). Called to care: A Christian worldview for nursing. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic/InterVarsity Press.

Sire, J. W. (2009). The Universe next door: A basic worldview catalog (5th ed.). Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:07

Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity

Written by

Abstract

The workforce in the health care industry encounters people from walks of life with differing worldviews and religious beliefs. Having a basic understanding of the basic components of a worldview can help the health care provider to meet better and serve the patient population that they serve. A person’s worldview is affected by their religious beliefs and personal experiences; it will affect how they choose to make their health care decisions.  Religious beliefs are a part of everyone’s worldview, and there are common components in which one can relate to their religious beliefs, not to forget that “there are genuine and important differences among religions (GCU, 2015). Facilities and providers should accommodate the diverse needs of their community members to have a holistic approach to healthcare. This paper will aim to do a comparative analysis of the philosophies of Christianity and that of Buddhism in the context of health care.

Healthcare Provider and Faith Diversity

Health care providers have the same common goal of caring for the ailing, but each provider has their worldview that shapes how they view the world around them. A person’s worldview can also be described as “one's philosophy, philosophy of life, mindset, and outlook on life, the formula for life, ideology, faith, or even religion” (Funk, 2001).  It is important that health care providers be reminded that just as their worldviews differ from their coworkers, so do their worldviews differ from that of their patients. To be able to provide the holistic care that is needed to heal the patient, not only must their physical ailments be addressed, but their spiritual ailments need to be addressed as well. The research paper provides a comparative analysis of Christianity and Buddhism worldviews by addressing the seven basic worldview questions; also to be addressed are the needs of each faith regarding healing.

Christianity

Prime reality

It is the most fundamental question that one needs to answer to develop their worldview. Christian Theism is a worldview based on teachings of God. Christians view prime reality as based on a God that is infinite, personal, transcendent, omniscient, sovereign, and good (Sire, 2009, p. 28-30). Christian believes that God created and continued to sustain all things (Shelly, 2009, p. 34). This belief system will affect how some Christians view health care in the fact that they instill great faith in God and his power to heal versus current medical advances.

 Nature of the World around us

Christians believe that the universe and our world were created by God, for us. Sire (2009) explains that “the external reality is the cosmos of created ex-nihilo to operate with a uniformity of cause and effect in an open system” (Sire, 2009, p. 31). The Holy Bible is what Christian believers follow and in Genesis 1:2 it states that “the earth was formless and void, and darkness were upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters (Genesis 1:2 King James Version). Versus four to10 continue describing God in designing and creating Earth and the heavens for a man to inhabit and thrive. To have an environment that enhances a healing approach to health care, facilities and workers need to design and create a sanctuary in which the human body can be void of external stressors.

Personhood

Personhood is a question of what a human being is and when does one become human. God created man in his image and instructed man to “be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28). “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). From this verse, some would believe that a created being becomes human when they breathe their first breath. Many Christians believe that all human life is sacred, whether born or unborn. Humans are blessed in that they are created in the image of God and have been given feelings and emotions that bind them as one.

Death and the afterlife

Christians perceive death as a natural part of life.  Death does not mean an end to life, but a transition into eternal life. Based on actions in life, the Christian believe that they will either enter an existence with God and his people or they will enter an existence that separates them from God forever (Sire, 2009, p. 41). This statement is best described in Romans, “For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Romans 6:23). If God is accepted into one’s heart and true forgiveness is sought after, then the sins of this life may be forgiven and through the atonement of Jesus Christ, man can be saved.

Possession of knowledge

The ability to acquire knowledge is based on the idea that humans are created in the image of God. He is omniscient (all knowing), therefore being created in his image, humans have the ability to understand and obtain intelligence. John chapter 1:3 states, “All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made” (John 1:3). It forms the basis for the belief that the grace of God acquires knowledge. Another belief about how a human gains knowledge is in the many stories from the Bible in which God converses with and educates man as seen when Moses is given the Ten Commandments.

Ethics of right and wrong

Ethics need not be related to religion; most people have views and beliefs of what is right and wrong. Ethics explains what a person ought to do. For instance, in the society, it would be following the law. In Christianity, ethics is following what God has put forth in the teachings of the Bible. Jesus Christ teaches Christians what is right and wrong in the life that he lived, he obeyed the will of God in all that he did, even regarding his death. Christians strive to do what is right in the eyes of God to obtain eternal life with him.

 Properties of History

History is the story of human existence. Everyone and everything has a history; this history is what people base their worldviews. In Christianity, history is taught from the Bible, it is taught that “history is linear, a meaningful sequence of events leading to the fulfillment of God’s purposes for humanity” (Sire, 2009, p. 43). God has created a story, in which man knows his history. God is the foreteller of this story as evident in the statement, “Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, my counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure” (Isaiah 46:10).

Buddhism

Prime reality

Buddhism is a faith that is non-theistic and also not atheistic. Buddha never rejected the idea of a God but just felt that God is a temporary being that was a part of the birth and rebirth process, trying to obtain enlightenment (Buddhism, 2016). There is no one supreme God, who has divine power over creation or humanity. Buddha does not refer to themselves as the savior, but they encourage their followers to have self-reliance to achieve enlightenment, that Buddha only provides the example of his life (Mahathera, n.d.).

Nature of the World around us

His Holiness, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet, states that when one “talk[s] about nature, the ultimate nature is emptiness” (A Buddhist Concept of Nature, 1992). This is to say that nature does not exist independently, but it exists dependent on other factors (A Buddhist Concept of Nature, 1992). Buddhism teaches that the universe is created and destroyed over and over again, just like people are born, they die, and are reborn. It is believed that existence is endless and always in a temporary state (Hardy, n.d.).

Personhood

Buddhism is known for their belief in no self in human life. It does not mean that the concept of person is void; Buddha never gave a clear definition of when a personhood begins. In an article by Somparn Promta, a story is told about a monk performing an abortion and receiving the same punishment as if he had killed an adult (Promta, n.d.).Buddhists believe that the human life is made up of “five aggregates namely materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation, and consciousness; and the aggregates are not substances”(Promta, n.d.). Anything that has all five of these aggregates is considered a person (Promta, n.d.).

Death and the afterlife

In Buddhism, there is no soul or afterlife. A person undergoes a birth and rebirth until they can obtain nirvana, at which point they cease to exist. “Salvation in early Buddhism was nirvana, the extinguishing of the all karma that constitutes the self” (Hardy, n.d.). Karma is believed to determine “one’s species, beauty, intelligence, longevity, wealth, and social status” Panday, 2004, p. 133). Therefore the deeds that are done while in human existence can lead to differing rebirths such as: “human, an animal, a hungry ghost, a denizen of hell, or even one of the Hindu gods” (Panday, 2004, p. 133). Only a birth into a human existence can individuals achieve nirvana and is a desirable rebirth.

Acquisition of knowledge

Buddhism does not specify on how one can know; just that knowledge is needed to obtain enlightenment. It is believed that by obtaining the pure knowledge about the true nature of the physical world, will the path to enlightenment be opened to them (Numrich, 2008, p. 32). To obtain enlightenment, one must obtain a comprehension of the way things appear to be and the true nature of these same appearances. This knowledge alone is not enough; one must have compassion with the knowledge to fully be enlightened (Numrich, 2008, p. 32).

Ethics of right and wrong

Buddhist has a basic moral code of ethics; they are naturalistic in that natural facts justify them. Morals are known as the Five Precepts, which indicate that “killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying or taking intoxicant is wrong” (Promta, n.d.). Killing and taking intoxicant is wrong in the sense that it violates one’s self-love, the psychological aspect. Stealing, sexual misconduct and lying all violate a person’s belongings. (Promta, n.d.). Karma and ethics are closely related to that one’s ethical choices are their karma which can lead to either a better rebirth or a lesser rebirth.

Effects of History

History is not relevant to the Buddhist, as it does nothing to help achieve Nirvana. Man’s task is to free himself from the Samsara, a cycle of births and rebirths. It is noted in Buddhism that the origin of the universe in not a religious matter and it does not help one obtain spiritual wisdom (Dhammanada, 2002, p. 398-399). To the Buddhist, there is no beginning of history or end until one obtains nirvana.

Common Components of religious healing

Both of the religions believe in preventative health measures, such as dietary habits and lifestyle choices. Medicine and physical treatments are accepted by both Christians and Buddhist alike. Another commonality between these religions is that both have been “contaminated with other local beliefs and global knowledge” (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 104), this falling away from basic teachings has lead to a decline in health for both religious sects.

Important to Religious Followers regarding care

            As with any religion, these groups value their beliefs and hope to have their beliefs respected. As Christianity encompasses many smaller sects, the main thing to remember is that prayer is important, as their belief is that God is the creator and can heal. As for the traditional Buddhist, “the Buddha indicated that a preceptor has a responsibility to tend the one who shares a cell, and a teacher has a responsibility to tend his pupils” (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 102). The modern Buddhist has no objection to attending a hospital. The health care providers need to be aware that many follow a vegetarian diet as not to kill or harm any living being. They may also require an image of Buddha remain in their presence and care should be taken when the staff needs to clean around or move the image. The last thing that the Buddhist may need is when death occurs, there may be a certain period that the body may not be disturbed before it can be moved (Buddhist Health, n.d.).

Conclusion

Just as everyone looks different, so are their worldviews and religious beliefs differ. A person’s spiritual state plays an important role in the healing process, whether it is attributed to religion, prayer, meditation, or karma.  The mind and the body have a very close connection, and if the mind is not well, then the body will, in turn, suffer (Paonil, & Sringernyuang, 2002, p. 99). When people are in harmony with their self and with nature, they will have less illness and a better recovery when they do get ill. As health care workers strive to achieve better physical results for their patient, it would do them well to incorporate a spiritual aspect to their daily routines.  

References

A Buddhist concept of nature. (1992, February 14). Retrieved from http://www.dalailama.com/messages/environment/buddhist-concept-of-nature

Buddhism. (2016). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=9&sid=96c31939-9d6b-4daa-aab9-0d366c9b75a9%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4211&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=BU197000&db=funk

Buddhist Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thebuddhistsociety.org/page/buddhist-health

Dhammapada, K. S. (2002). What Buddhist Believe (4th ed.). Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia: Buddhist Missionary Society Malaysia.

Funk, K. (2001, March 21). What is a worldview? Retrieved from http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~funkk/Personal/worldview.html

Grand Canyon University (GCU). (2015). The Christian narrative and spiritual diversity. Retrieved from HLT-310V Introduction 3 Notes.

Hardy, J. (n.d.). Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings. Retrieved from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Ultimate-Reality-and-Divine-Beings

Johnson, J. M. (2015). Buddhism. Salem Press Encyclopedia Retrieved fromhttp://eds.a.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?sid=4373bebe-c088-4a6e-8540-285b2541b77c%40sessionmgr4005&vid=2&hid=4211&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=86179268&db=ers

Mahathera, V.N. (n.d.). The Buddha and his teachings. Retrieved fromhttp://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/buddha-teachingsurw6.pdf

Numrich, P. D. (2008). The boundaries of knowledge in Buddhism, Christianity, and science: Paul D. Numrich (ed.). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Panday, K. N. (2004). Tagore's Chitra and Aurobindo's Savitri: A comparative study. New Delhi: Atlantic.

Paonil, W., & Sringernyuang, L. (2002). Buddhist Perspectives on Health and Healing:The Chulalongkorn Journal of Buddhist Studies, 1(2), 93-105.

Promta, S. (n.d.). A concept of person in Buddhism. Retrieved from http://www.stc.arts.chula.ac.th/A Concept of Person.pdf

Shelly, J. A., & Miller, A. B. (2006). Called to care: A Christian worldview for nursing. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic/InterVarsity Press.

Sire, J. W. (2009). The Universe next door: A basic worldview catalog (5th ed.). Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.

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