History (154)

Wednesday, 21 February 2018 07:46

A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

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Philosophy by (Norman Melchert) (7th ed): The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

 On chapter 2, Melchert book focuses on Philosophy before Socrates. This has continued to become a standard sourcebook in the Pre-Socratic philosophy. The best aspect of it  is that  It gives  a wider survey of, metaphysics, Greek science as well as  moral and political philosophy, from the  roots of  the  myth to the philosophers and  the Sophists of the 5th  century

            When it comes to chapter three, Melchert exerted great emphasis on Sophism. This is the philosophical technique.  The best aspect of this chapter is that in ancient Greece, sophists presented a  teaching category with specialization in using philosophy as well as rhetoric techniques in teaching excellence" or virtue particularly to young statesmen and the nobility.

            On chapter four, Melchert‘s focus shifted to Knowing Oneself. The issue, however, is that people’s self-knowledge I remain not the rightful knowledge. That is, it is sometimes incorrect. Fortunately, this is not 100%.  The main aim is to inform people that it can lead to problems if people base critical decisions on the beliefs about themselves. One of the best aspects of this chapter is that second self-knowledge is beneficial to human emotional lives. For instance, knowing what one can do to motivate himself to achieve a particular goal can help the person in actual achievement of the individual goal.

            When it comes to chapter six, Melchert’s book focused on Plato’s view of knowing the Real as well as the good. This remains true to form the fact that Plato believed that forms are interrelated, and arranged hierarchically. One of the highest Forms is the   Good, which becomes the ultimate principle. This is vital to me from the fact that through Plato’s logic, real knowledge exists and as a result, knowledge of goodness emerges. To me, this becomes the reason why philosophers continue to have the best position to be rulers.


Wednesday, 21 February 2018 07:43

A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

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           Philosophy by (Norman Melchert) (7th ed): The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy

On chapter 2, Melchert book focuses on Philosophy before Socrates. This has continued to become a standard sourcebook in the Pre-Socratic philosophy. The best aspect of it  is that  It gives  a wider survey of, metaphysics, Greek science as well as  moral and political philosophy, from the  roots of  the  myth to the philosophers and  the Sophists of the 5th  century

            When it comes to chapter three, Melchert exerted great emphasis on Sophism. This is the philosophical technique.  The best aspect of this chapter is that in ancient Greece, sophists presented a  teaching category with specialization in using philosophy as well as rhetoric techniques in teaching excellence" or virtue particularly to young statesmen and the nobility.

            On chapter four, Melchert‘s focus shifted to Knowing Oneself. The issue, however, is that people’s self-knowledge I remain not the rightful knowledge. That is, it is sometimes incorrect. Fortunately, this is not 100%.  The main aim is to inform people that it can lead to problems if people base critical decisions on the beliefs about themselves. One of the best aspects of this chapter is that second self-knowledge is beneficial to human emotional lives. For instance, knowing what one can do to motivate himself to achieve a particular goal can help the person in actual achievement of the individual goal.

            When it comes to chapter six, Melchert’s book focused on Plato’s view of knowing the Real as well as the good. This remains true to form the fact that Plato believed that forms are interrelated, and arranged hierarchically. One of the highest Forms is the   Good, which becomes the ultimate principle. This is vital to me from the fact that through Plato’s logic, real knowledge exists and as a result, knowledge of goodness emerges. To me, this becomes the reason why philosophers continue to have the best position to be rulers.


Friday, 29 December 2017 08:01

Design for change

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Design for change


A major issue recognized in the institution is regarding dissatisfaction, medication error, and lack of communication from shift to shift, and patient feeling not involved in their care. Because of nurse shift change, there must be a successful transfer of information between the nurses in order to prevent adverse medical errors. This problem needs to be addressed through the implementation of bedside report that will help to improve patient care and satisfaction. With the use of bedside report, it helps in ensuring safe handoff of the care between the nurses. In every shift change, a shift report will happen at the bedside of the patient, and the nurse can even invite the patient and the family to be involved in the report. The management should consider the implementation of this plan in order to change how care is offered in the hospital and to ensure patient satisfaction. This is a reporting process that will improve patient satisfaction and care.

Contribution to future healthcare

According to literature and research, the changes in the social and economic climate demand for reform down in the level of nursing workflow. The health care workers should adapt and be innovative so as to provide patients with relevant care and also improve patient satisfaction (Johnson et al. 2009). The aim of this change plan is to enhance the experience of the patients during the shift change through allowing the family’s patient and the patient to be part of the process. Therefore, the contribution of the change to the future of healthcare is that it will ensure that patients are satisfied with the care they receive.

Research has shown that a form of bedside shift report can improve the perception of the patient of communication and also involvement in care (Johnson et al. 2009). Ensuring satisfaction, communication, and proper medical care are not only the responsibility of nurses, but also the duty of the entire hospital personnel. With this change, the hospital management will be able to offer a conducive environment for patient-centered care. It will also increase time spent in nursing direct care in the bedside during change of shift.

Change plan overview

Rosswurm and Larrabee (1999) proposed a model that can guide nurses through the process for change to the evidence-based practice. This is a process that recognizes the translation of research in practice need a solid grounding in principles of research utilization, change theory, and use of standardized nomenclature. Change in the practice of nursing is essential for increasing the probability of success.

Assess the need for change

This step involves the need to evaluate the internal data and benchmarks against the external data. This is the step where the stakeholders gather together so as to brainstorm and to identify the problem. When considering improving patient care and satisfaction, it is necessary to determine the factors that lead to non-satisfaction. Factors that lead to patient non-satisfaction and lack of quality care are the lack of communication between nurses, patients, and families, uninvolved in care plan, unable to reach the nurse (Baker 2010). When these factors have been identified and addressed, it will be possible to develop the bedside reporting system that offers patient care and satisfaction. The identified problem is that there is a lack of patient care and satisfaction from nurse practices in the institution.

Link problem with intervention and outcome

Lack of patient satisfaction and care may have significant consequence. Ensuring care and satisfaction will help the patient to have confidence in the health care staff and facility. The best intervention to ensure care and satisfaction is with the consideration of bedside report. The consideration of bedside report will be able to improve patient’s care and ensure satisfaction. Engaging the patient and family in bedside reporting is important because it helps in decrease the patient and family anxiety; it decreases the feeling of abandonment during the shift change, and also increases the accountability of nurses. When the hospital considers this change plan, it will help in ensuring that all shift hand-offs include up-to-date information regarding care, treatment, and the anticipated changes in the patient. The consideration of bedside reporting is a safety strategy that is aimed at encouraging the active involvement of the patient in the care. According to Baker (2010) the consideration of bedside reporting results to immediate patient satisfaction because it tends to increase positive patient outcome and decreases the length of stay in the hospital.

Synthesize best evidence

Lack of patient satisfaction and care needs to be addressed very first. Before an intervention is implemented, it is necessary first to identify what factors are causing non-satisfaction. Baker (2010) state that, the reason for the lack of patient satisfaction is because of poor handover. Therefore, in order to ensure that patients feel good with the care being offered, there is a need to implement bedside reporting that will guarantee patient's safety. According to Anderson & Mangino (2006), the outcome of bedside reporting is that it results to increased patient satisfaction as the nurses keep patients informed and also it results to increased staff satisfaction. Anderson & Mangino (2006) recommend the standardizing patient hand-off communication with the aim of providing safe patient care through the use of bedside report process.

Based on the findings of Griffin (2010), he found that during handoffs, there are few miscommunications and omission regarding data; thus, reducing medical errors. Therefore, through standardizing handoffs, the healthcare institution will be able to reduce medication errors reaching patients. According to researchers, when nurses involve patients in nursing handover, it goes a long way in reducing medical errors and also improves outcomes. This is a change plan that will also enhance the experience of the patient.

Design practice change

Nurses and managers need to work together in order to transform how health care is provided. A change to evidence-based practice needs strong staff champions and strong management. Team collaboration is required in order to ensure successful implementation of this intervention. The key players and stakeholders who will be involved in the change design will include nurses, the administration, managers, department heads, and chief nurse. The institution will develop a strategy that the health care staff will use so as to implement the intervention. The management will also develop a post-evaluation tool that will be used in order to assess the effectiveness of the change design.

Implement and evaluate change

The implementation of this intervention will be effective if the management monitors the process and is always available to the staff to answer any questions. This change will take place in all the hospital units where staff will be shown how to take patients reports and how to involve patients in the bedside reporting. It will also be necessary for the management to consider a follow-up of the intervention in order to determine its effectiveness. After the two weeks use of bedside reports, patient and staff survey will be conducted. This data will then be analyzed and displayed in graphs so as to facilitate its interpretation. Interpretation will be done by deciding if there is any difference before and after the use of the bedside reports.

Integrate and maintain change

Change is likely to be accepted when people are allowed to participate in making the change. This intervention requires the participation of stakeholders in every step of the model. Staff meetings will be conducted after two weeks so as to make sure every person is updated about the change. The graphs established after the interpretation of data will be placed on bulletin board in order to inform the staff about the intervention progress. If the intervention is successful, the institution should ensure that they adopt the protocol.

Evaluation plan

When evaluating the proposed plan, the hospital will ensure that nurses have the necessary support for conducting bedside reports. There will be a nurse manager or staff leader observing the shift report and providing feedback to the individual nurses. Periodic observations will be done continuously so as to ensure the implementation is consistent among staff. Feedback will also be collected from patients, family members, and nurses through asking how the report can be improved and what worked well. The feedback will be collected from the patient, staff, and family surveys. With the feedback that will be collected from the survey, the hospital management will refine the tools and process before they can implement them in other units.

Next steps to maintain the change

In order to maintain change, the hospital management should focus attention on educating the nursing staff. Without the collaboration of all stakeholders, this change plan will not result to any positive results. Therefore, maintaining this change can be very difficult. Nurses should be provided with reports indicating how bedside reporting will benefit the hospital and also improve the way care is offered to patients. The hospital should be conducting meeting with health care professionals so as to educate them regarding the important of bedside reporting.

Communication and education regarding bedside reporting should be done. There should be dependable and consistent communication with the care team, patient, and patient family. This is critical in ensuring that patient receive satisfaction, are involved in care, and also reduce medical errors. Health care personnel should know that having handover occurring at the bedside of the patient is good for everyone and mostly the patient. This means that the patient can voice their claims, understand their treatment better, and also be engaged in their care (Johnson et al. 2009). In order to standardize the process, staff training will be done so as to address the concerns of nurses.  


The intervention to ensure patient care and satisfaction is the duty of every health care staff so as to make sure patients get the best care. The implementation of the bedside report system will not only result to patient satisfaction, but it will also increase physician satisfaction. The bedside reporting process is an essential change that is needed in the hospital. This intervention will benefit all parties that are involved. When considering a change, it is essential to know that change is normally hard for everyone; thus, involving all parties in the process is significant in ensuring successful change process.


Anderson, D & Mangino, R (2006). Nurse shift report Nursing administration Quarterly 30 (2), 112-122 

Baker, J (2010). Bedside shift report improves patient safety and nurse accountability Evidence-based practice 36 (4), 355-358

Larrabee, J & Rosswurm, M (1999). A model for change to evidence-based practice Journal of Nursing scholarship 31 (4), 317-322

Griffin, T (2010). Bringing change-of-shift report to the bedside Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 24 (4), 348-353

Fawcett, J & Garity, J. (2009). Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing practice Philadelphia F.A. Davis

McMurray, M Chaboyer, W & Johnson, J (2009). Bedside handover Journal of nursing care quality 24 (2), 136-142

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting essaywritingsite.org.

Friday, 29 December 2017 07:38

Terrorist strategies and target selection.

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Terrorist strategies and target selection.


Terrorism has no definite definition, but the common definition of terrorism is the act of violence whose main aim is to kill or create fear among the targeted group(s). They use criminal force in an effort to get the attention of the world. Terrorists argue that they fight for people who have been segregated and treated unfairly by political, religious or social injustices. Terrorism does not use the combative method to drive their agenda. In most cases, terrorism is linked with religion or political alienations and uses this tactic to achieve their political agenda by creating fear and gaining publicity.

Today there are different types of terrorism depending on the mode of attack they use on civilians. The most common type is the cyber terrorism. Terrorists use the technology to wage war on unsuspecting people. They also use the existing platforms of social media such as twitter and face book. The most recent case of cyber terrorism is the use of videos by ISIS to cause fear to people. They send images and messages may be beheading their hostages or torture. They are also able to hack into systems and stalling services such as health services. They also use the technology to enhance money laundering thus sustaining their acts. The other common type of terrorism is the ecoterrorism. This is the use of tactics of harming the environment and the ecosystem just to hurt innocent civilians. Recently, they have been using this tactic to affect the economies of countries that depends on tourism to injure their economies (Criado, 2011). They may directly attack the tourists or even kill animals and destroy sites that attract these tourists. The other method these terror groups are using is the use of nuclear weapons. They attack nuclear plants or even buy nuclear weapons that they use to unleash fear.

Most terrorists are drawn into these heinous acts by use of ideologies. These ideologies are preached through religion. The most dangerous terrorism is the one that base their ideologies on religion. These groups justify their terror actions on religion grounds such as Islam. In most cases, the terror groups are indiscriminate on waging their attacks. They cause harm to anyone including young children and women (Eminue, 2011). They justify their acts using these religious ideologies in that they argue that they are fighting for their religion’s rights.

There are several factors that may lead a person or a group to turn into terror acts. The main factor that leads to terrorism is politics. People who face political injustices may turn into terrorism in order to revenge on the government of the day. Other groups may take the same line just because they don’t like the government policies or mode of Governing. A good example of politically instigated terrorism is what is happening in Syria (Asal, 2009). They wage war on civilians and attacking government building to pass their grievances. An individual may be led into terrorism by socio-economic factors. The terrorist's organization take advantage of the social problems that people are going through such as poverty or lack of education to recruit youths into terrorism. They promise them good life and put into the ideologies that the government does not care about them. In simple terms, they play with their psychology to lure them into joining these groups.

Before understanding the strategies used by the terrorists, one has first to have an overview of their goals. Their main aim is to cause terror and fear in people so that they can push them to their demands. Once the civilians live in fear, they are able to control them psychologically. They make people see the government as unable to guard and protect them. The other goal is to destabilize the government and turn people against the governments by preaching ideologies to them (Criado, 2011). Once they have toppled the government, they are able to control the people through intimidation. They also want to create their territories where they have full control as it is the case with ISIS in Syria and Iraq. They want to control resources in these states so as to obtain funding to sustain their activities.

The tactics commonly used by terrorists include the use of intimidation and provocation to their targets. They use several strategies such as bombings. They do these using self-made improvised explosive devices due to the readily available materials to assemble them. The information on the internet also allows them to assemble them anywhere in the world (Eminue, 2011). They implant these devices on vehicles that they detonate on their targets. They also implant them on vests that are worn and the bomber goes to detonate them on their targets. The terrorists also go with the suicide attack strategy. These suicide bombers give up their lives to kill. They implant bombs on their bodies and are ready to die to achieve their goals. Some do this to get monetary rewards for their descendants. Others are to revenge on their family member who has been killed by the government and others are to get rewards in the life after death as their religious ideologies.

Most terror groups are using chemical and nuclear weapons to achieve their agenda. Though to date no nuclear weapon has been used by terrorists, intelligence reports indicate that terror groups are working round the clock to acquire and use them on civilians (Asal, 2009). An interrogation on terror suspect Khalid Mohamed in Guantanamo bay indicated that Al-Qaeda intended to use nuclear weapons in Europe if Osama was killed. Though the attack may have been thwarted, it may cause a major harm on civilian if used. Terrorism has been associated with suicide bombs and explosives. Today, terrorists are using conventional firearms such as guns. This is evidenced by the killings in Mumbai where the group used guns to wage the attack.

The terrorist have taken advantage of the media to popularize their acts and their ideologies. Without media, no one would be wary of their activities or any attack they undertake. The latest incident where the terror groups have used the media to cause fear is the beheading of journalist in Syria and Iraq by ISIS. Once the media cover the activities of these groups, they draw the world to be attentive on them. The terror groups also have revolutionized their mode of communications. They have turned into new forms of communication such as emails and mobile phones (Eminue, 2011). It becomes very easy to organize the recruitments and attacks without being noticed by the authorities. Terror groups have devised so many illegal ways to enhance their funding. They use such ways as drug trafficking, money laundering, sympathizers and asking for ransoms from kidnappings and piracy.

Today, terrorism in no longer local, it has gone international (Berger, 2010). Most terror groups have gone out of their country of origin and were causing mayhem in other areas of jurisdiction. Objectives based on ideologies drive them. Some of the objectives are to get the public attention and sympathizers. They want to get the public eye and spread their grievances that may get support from the civilians. It is from these sympathizers that they get field marshals and funding. Once they stage several attacks on the people and government institutions, their aim is to depict the government as a failure in protecting its people. Through these strategies, they want to send a message to the people that the government has failed them and it is illegitimate. After the attacks, they want the government to react by arresting people thus provoking them into taking revenge. They finally join these groups to wage revenge to the government not knowing that their psychology has been played with. They also want to sabotage the economy of the land thus weakening the government (Asal, 2009). After the economy has collapsed, most youths are unemployed. They lure them into the terror activities by promising them goodies and success. Terrorists want to encourage people into uprising in order to topple the government by posing as the people fighting the rights of the common man.

When it comes to target selection, ideology plays a major role. Ideology is what gives the terrorists the motive and energy to take the actions of hating other people’s actions and thoughts that they aim at harming them. They want people to conform to their way of thought and doing things failure to which they fall victims of terrorism. Ideology makes the terrorists justify their actions with the victims being the ones to blame for these actions. In all cases of terrorism, they don’t take any precautions when attacking as their attacks are indiscriminate. They go to an extent of even harming children. It is the ideology that helps terrorists select targets thus they get it easy to justify their actions by attacking non-reformists who don’t want to conform to their line of thought.

The main factor that leads to terrorists selecting their target is politically influenced. They want to cause psychological fear to people or aim at making the political government of such country or state look like they don’t care for its people. In return, they gain support from these citizens as they depict themselves as fighting for human rights. If the group(s,) fails to attain their agenda in a non-violent manner, they turn to use of force to drive their motive and agenda. The ideology of a certain group influences how it members view the outside world. If they see them as against their way of thinking, they justify he reason to attack them.  It is through these ideologies that they are able to secure legitimate targets. It is through these ideologies that they are able to label their targets as enemies who deserve to be treated harshly (Criado, 2011).  Most terror groups do not view their targets as humans but as figures that do not deserve to be treated as humans. In most cases, they view them as animals such as dogs or even bastards. Some terrorists have confirmed having attacked their victims that they hated them so much to a point that they didn’t think they were humans. As discussed earlier, terrorists always put the blame on the target for the outcome of their actions. For instance, the kidnapping of the Israeli athletes in 1972, the responsible group turned to blame the Olympics committee for not recognizing the Palestinians in the competition. After the death of the nine hostages, they also put the blame on the German forces who had tried to save them. In short, they are trying to show the world that it’s not their faults their faults that the attack happened but the faults of other people. They always want to play with people’s psychology so that they get their support either financially or recruit more members to their actions.

Terrorists have gone ahead to widen their targets in order to achieve their goals. For instance, previously they only targeted government buildings and the military. Lately, they have widened the targets to include the personnel that work for the governments as they see them as traitors. The target of terrorism in most cases depends on the aim of that terrorist group. For instance, National terrorists want to attack government facilities and the military in order to have the control of the state. They employ this method without attacking the civilians so that they get their support. They use this technique so as to convince the civilians of how the government has neglected them and how they can seek their salvation by supporting the terror group. A good example is the ISIS. They have worked their strategy right and they are depicting the governments of Syria, Iraq and currently Turkey as dictatorial. BY doing so, they have go support from locals and have been able to amass large numbers of recruits to help in the fight. They have also got the support of sympathizers who fund them and give them supplies in form of food and weapons. They have been able to control the population in the said areas and thus they can feed them with their ideologies. Since most terror groups are clandestine, they fight a psychological and economical war (De la Calle, 2007). They want to wage attacks and blame the government for not protecting its people. They also aim at crippling the economy of a state so that the government is not able to provide to its citizens thus taking advantage in controlling the psychology of the hopeless civilians. They want to cause frustration and hopelessness and then depict themselves as the real solution for these people. In most cases, they come with goodies to entice people such as large sums of money or supply commodities to hunger-stricken people to change their minds in order to control them. A good example of this strategy is the one used by the Alshabaab of Somali.


The more the resources a terror group can access the more challenging they become to the ruling governments. In most cases, they get material support from sympathizers and illegal trade such as money laundering and smuggling. With enough resources, terror groups become so powerful since they can fund their activities and acquire such services as intelligence and manpower. All terror groups are against competition may it be from the state or individuals. They do anything possible to get rid of these competitions as they hinder their activities. They do this by either changing the tactics and strategies or by eliminating the source of competition.


Asal, V. H., Rethemeyer, R., Anderson, I., Stein, A., Rizzo, J., & Rozea, M. (2009). The Softest of Targets: A Study on Terrorist Target Selection. 4(3), 258-278.

Berger, M. A. (2010). Interdicting Terrorist Financing with Coercion. Defence Studies, 10(3), 387-404

Criado, H. (2011).  Terrorist strategies. Journal Of Peace Research, 48(4), 497-508.

De la Calle, L., & Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2007). Target Selection in Nationalist Terrorist Organizations. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-44.

Eminue, O. E., & Ufomba, H. U. (2011). Modeling Terrorist Target Selection. Defense & Security Analysis, 27(4), 375-382.

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting essaywritingsite.org.

Friday, 29 December 2017 06:59

Target market for Mercedes-Benz C-class

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Target market for Mercedes-Benz C class

Mercedes- Benz manufacturing company considers reaching a wide market through better advertisements, road shows and redesigning of their products than before. The company targets the young audience of age between 25 to 44 years. It is a group that is professionally successful and will afford to buy the high-class model. Its major purpose is to widen the market base through reaching the young population. This product has a modern luxury and allure of the c- class. The target market is those with high-quality consciousness, independent and ambitious. They are also described as people who set time to do special things in their life. For the new model to sell easily, the company has come up with products that entice the young people. 

It’s designed in such a stylish way that the target market will easily be attracted to buy. It has a distinctive bonnet- mounted standing star for the exclusive type and also with a grille- inset star for the Avant-garde version directed to the young buyers. The other version is for those interested with the sporty cars. All the versions are fitted with safety features having the exterior and interior designs being classy. It’s fitted with a turbocharged four-cylinder engine, and the interior design has an auto-show floor. In the interior design, it has a color that dominates half of the dashboard and below it are stylish circular air holes and an efficient switchgear layout. It’s fitted with stitched leather seats that are soft. This model has pelvis bags for the passenger and the driver with others on the window and side for the back seat passengers. The wheelbase is long for extra backseat passenger room. It has a 360-degree camera together with front and rear parking sensors with safety packages. Other features include climate control system that prevents pollution in congested areas. All these features in the C-class are needed against the close competitors like the BMW 3 Series.

The new model comprises of four petrol engines and five diesels with affordable prices. There is also a diesel hybrid model in this class. These features enable the model to be unique in its kind.  The different varieties are to attract the target market. Their main concern is quality and value for their money. The target group is people interested in speed, and these engines are good for that. In fact, they have a seven- speed automatic transmission which boosts its performance. The transmission is precise having timed shifts and well-spaced ratios. Their wheel base area is wide, and this enhances stability even at high speed.

The target population wants to buy this new model because of its elegance in style. It’s unique in this model and does not compare with others. Since it’s a concern for many buyers, fuel consumption is very efficient. Being a classy vehicle, the developers had in mind perfection, and this makes it more special. Value for money is another concern. Once purchased, maintenance costs are low since it stays long without wearing. For the young people, shape is also a concern. The company has designed it using the best state of the art available.

The young people are targeted because they ambitious and independent. The company has a strategy for connecting with the young audience through providing the fans with a chance to race with the FI driver. This to an extent will entice them to buy the new models easily. When doing the test drive, many features are checked by the potential buyers. These include; braking systems, lighting systems, clicking sounds when negotiating corners and acceleration drag time. To the buyers, decision making is easy after being satisfied with these features.


In order to sell this new model, the company has to have good marketing skills. In most instances, advertisements are used, and they have popular music to attract the young people. Mercedes uses social media to drive their campaign. They have to be appealing to the target population. The company needs to highlight the features that make Mercedes-Benz better than other models using the words like prestigious, convenience, effectiveness and value for money. They also need to fit in the target group’s routine. It is done by evaluating how much effort the potential buyers will use to change their mindset and decide to concentrate on that model. In the marketing process, the benefits of one having that vehicle should be easy to spot. It means that all features of that new model should be easily identified without straining. Moreover, the customers should be given a chance to try out the model and have a practical touch to it. In this way, they will have a direct connection with it and decision making is fast. In connection to this, the company’s website has to be updated with all the elegant features of the new model. They need to have a customer support site that directly responds to the queries of the potential buyers. The company needs to have incentives like discounts for the young people to encourage them to buy.


Baker, R (2011). Mercedes hopes to attract younger fans Retrieved from http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/mercedes-hopes-to-attract-younger-fans/3029833.article

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting essaywritingsite.org.

An Interview With River Oaks and Grande Villas

The aim of the interview was to gain insight into the contemporary management functions and issues. The interview also served as a reflection of the content learnt in class. A guided interview was conducted with the manager of River Oaks and Grande Villas. River Oaks and Grande Villas is a Myrtle Beach hotel that is located intra-coastal waterway in South Carolina. A list of questions and points to guide the interview was prepared and organized. Responses were summarized in a notebook. The following is a synopsis of the interview questions and responses from the manager.
Summary of the questions and answers
ME: Hello Mr. Peterson, I am jubilant for giving your audience.
Manager: you are much welcome
Me: I am management student and am seeking to understand the general functions of a manager. And issues affecting day to day management function.
Manager: That is okay, now what specifically do you want to know?
Me: How you long have you been the manager at this resort and what academic qualifications to you hold.
Manager: Well, I joined the resort last year after serving in another hotel in LA for two years. In terms of education, I have a master degree in hospitality management.
Me: As the manager of the resort, what are your day to day functions?
Manager: I have a very huge job description, but to cut it short I am the one in charge of the overall activities in the resort. My main function is to ensure everything is work okay by ensuring the supervisor and managers in charge of various departments ensure the departments are working efficiently.
Me: Specifically your daily routine involves……..
Manager: When I report in the office in the morning, I go through my emails, reply and act on other urgent issues. Then I visit the manager in charge of operations or summon him in office to ensure she is in touch of everything else. Our industry is very sensitive; you have to understand processes in almost all the departments, especially the final service delivery. Therefore, I often go to the dining tables once in a while, and I visit the pool and also go to the kitchen to see how foods are being prepared.
Me: it seems like you, usually, have a busy day every day.
Manager: yes, management is not about sitting in the office, signing invoices and delegating jobs. For an efficient running of the business, you have to participate, know people who are working for you and understand them.
Me: according to you, what are the main competencies a manager should have?

Manager: An effective manager is one that does not stop learning; learning from other people, learning from written and electronic materials and most important learning from mistakes.
Me: Are you referring to career development.
Manager: career development is one thing, but knowing what is happening in your industry is another thing. So you must have the two: the right education and the need to know and understand.
Me: any other competence that is critical in your role as a manager?
Manager: Yes, management is about making decisions; making decision that activity to prioritize, the employee to delegate jobs, the area to renovate and how to solve conflicts within the organization.
Me: what are the major challenges you face as a manager?
Managers: challenges are many especially in our industry. For example, you might come here during a winter and think we have closed. The business is, usually, too low. Secondly, maintain employees are a great challenge. If you do not treat them the right way they, usually, walk away. We are competing against the best in the market, so if our services deteriorate in terms of quality then, we lose our customers.
Me: how do you overcome these challenges?
Manager: As I have said, it is about learning. Learning from the best and books and applying the new knowledge into the practice.
Me: Thank a lot for your time and your information has been very educative.
Lesson learn

The interview with Rivers Oak & Grande Villas was very informative. The manager helped understand the daily function of the manager in the hospitality industry. The objectives of the interview were to gain insight into the competencies of a manager, daily functions of a manager and challenges affecting the management function.

According to the information and answers provided by the manager, the key competencies of a manager include the necessary academic qualifications and continuous learning. The manager also outlined the ability to make effective decisions as an integral to the function of a manager. The manager emphasized on the need to keep abreast with information. He noted that through continuous learning, a manager can incorporate evidence-based practices in the business and improve the performance of the business. The manager described the need to be able to make decisions. He explained that a simple decision like hiring the wrong person may adversely affect the business.

The manager stated that, unlike the convention assumption the daily routine of a manager involve sitting in the office and signing document, the manager adapt a participative function. His daily activities involve sitting various departments to ensure processes and functions are proceeding as planned. The manager also relies on delegating job to department managers. A lot of emphases is paid to the operation manager. This can be due to the fact; he is in the service industry.

The manager highlighted business fluctuation as the main challenge. During the winter, the numbers of patrons visiting the villa decreases and the resort have to lay off some employees at this time. Secondly, the manager noted the complexity of maintaining a productive workforce. Employees are sensitive to market and internal factors. Therefore, the manager has to ensure employees are motivated and satisfied. The intense competition to attract and retain employees has increased the mobility of productive workforce.


The interview provided firsthand information on the daily functions of a manager. It enables me to reflect on various concepts I have learnt. In addition, it enabled me create the network with professionals in the field. The positive attitude portrayed by the manager was thrilling and the attention he was paying to employees very critical in the service industry.

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting essaywritingsite.org.

Friday, 29 December 2017 06:17

Diary of Joseph Plum Martin

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Diary of Joseph Plum Martin

According to" In My own Words" Joseph plumb martin was born in 1760 in western Massachusetts in 1760. His father who was a pastor often got into trouble or freely speaking his mind. Joseph lived with his affluent grandfather from the age of seven. In 1775, when the war started, he enlisted as a soldier. In June 1776, martin enlisted as a private soldier. He enlisted in 1977 with the Washington continental army and served during the war at a number of major battles. He kept a diary recording his experiences for seven years. He published some of the dangers, suffering and adventure of a revolutionary soldier at the age of 70, from his own observation. (In My Own Words, 2011)

The first difficulty he encountered was the differences between colonists. In his regiment, there were half soldiers from England and the other half from Pennsylvanians. The foreigners could hardly speak English, and they did not like him either.  Secondly, were the dangers of the battle. He narrates his experience on how a fellow sergeant of the artillery was cut into two by a cannon shot. The fire from the opponents was incessant. In order to call for assistance from some of their gallery that lay above them, it was desirable to signal to them by hoisting a signal flag. He was about to offer his services when the sergeant of the artillery offered himself. The sergeant ascended to the round top to pull down the flag to affix the signal flag. The enemies thought that they had surrendered and ceased the fire in jubilation. The flags were then hoisted, and the fire renewed immediately. As the sergeant came down, halfway, fired cannon shot cut him into two. The incident caused him serious reflection, thinking of what would have happened if he had been the one hoisting the flags. He had also witnessed five artillerists cut down by a single shot. He also encountered men who were not stooping low enough “split like fish to be boiled”.

He also narrates of the hardships of being a soldier. It was a difficult surviving in the cold month of September without clothing, provisions, shoes or not even stockings despite being in places within high degrees. He had been sent to reinforce those who were in the fort. He also reencountered on how a house used for accommodation of the soldiers and the barracks were often targets of the enemies. When the enemies’ shells fell on them, they would sink so low that only a tremulous motion of the earth would be felt. At other times, they would burst and throw mud fifty feet in the air.

He recalls of a British sixty-four gunship named Augustain. The ship got on the cheaveau-de-frise that had been sunk in the rivers channels. They discovered it in the morning and set it up in flames. Boats that had been sent to assist the ship were obliged to leave it to its fate owing to shots that proved too intense. The ship blew up with an explosion that left volumes of smoke and seemed to have shaken the earth at its centre.  A twenty gun ship named the Merlin that had gone to assist Augustain suffered the same fate.

He encounters his experience with Fleury an engineer who kept vigilance of the soldiers. They would escape from his vigilance and gather to light some fire. When the engineer found out, he would run down the other side with a stroke in his hand. It was difficult to sleep owing to the mud although shots from the enemies warranted them to lie down. Sometimes, some soldiers overcome by want of sleep and fatigue would slip away to the barracks to catch a nap of sleep but rarely come out alive. It was difficult to sleep not even for a minute.

Until the fourteenth day of November, while still suffering cold and miseries, they discovered six ships in a line below the cheveau-de-frise. They immediately opened their batteries to them, but they took very little notice of them. The enemy began firing at them. The enemy began firing at them. Their cannonade was severe with six sixty four gun ship, a twenty four gun ship, a thirty six gun frigate, a gallery, a sloop of six guns, six batteries of six guns each and a bomb battery of three mortars all directing their shots to the little poor fort. Many men were killed and wounded as a result. He lost a close friend whom he described as having the most intimate association with in the army. In the fort, they left one man who had deserted from the German forces in the British service. He had been trained by the British service but had gone back to them.

The experience of the Continental Army that coincided with his writings

The Augusta and Merlin the Joseph refers to were part of land sea assault on October 22 upon Fort Mercer but not on Fort Mifflin. They were not entangled on the cheveau-de-frise rather had become stranded in the shoals after prior attempts to fall the river. On 23rd Augusta was heavily bombarded. British attempt to refloat the ship were hampered by the Americans naval. A fire was seen at the deck of the ship at around 10.30 am. At noon, the ship blew up and the explosion was heard 18 miles away.

In his writing, martin does not show some understanding on why he was on the army or what he fought for. he joined the army as  teenager on what may seem as peer pressure.

EvensomanyyearsitremainedclearcloserelationshipshehadrecollectionthesoldierseachparticularcircleacquaintancewerefaithfuleachotherandstrictbandbrotherhoodThey enlisted and volunteered in the Continental Army while enduring much together throughout the American Revolution. Martin and other soldiers regarded of themselves as part of a community

Works cited

 "In My Own Words (Book Review) " Book Report 20.1 (2001): 71.

Rosemary Charles is an academic writer and an editor and she offers dissertation writing help. Thus, people that doubt their own writing abilities can use the best custom paper writing service and forget about their fears and unconfidence by visiting essaywritingsite.org.

Friday, 29 December 2017 05:52

Customer Focus

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Customer Focus


Customer focus is among Baldrige criteria for performance excellence. The criterion is concerned with how an organization engages with its customers so as to ensure long-term success. Customer focus includes listening to the voice of customers, building customer relationship and using customer information to improve. This paper focuses on developing a product for customers.


The address in this paper is a tablet for personal use. Identifying the key customers is a vital step in product development. Businesses need to target its product on the most valuable customers (Cespedes, Dougherty & Skinner, 2013). Various decisive factors can be used to classify the value of a given set of customers. These factors include the purchasing power of consumers, loyalty, the size of the market, switching costs relative ease of managing the group of customers. These factors enable the organization to profile customers.  After considering these factors, customers were divided into two segments; high-end and low-end consumers. The company chose to focus on the high-end consumers.

The organization also needs to identify the requirement of the customer segment that it has selected. Companies must agree on what the needs of their customers are so as to better satisfy the customers’ needs. High-end customers are interested in the functionality and quality of the product rather than the price of the product (Godwin, Nelson, Ackerman & Weisskopf, 2008). This segment is not sensitive to prices. However, they demand the highest quality. These customers are willing to incur additional cost in order to enhance their perceptions and experiences. Consequently, the firm must focus on the differentiation strategy rather than cost-leadership. It is not sufficient for an organization to develop knowledge of customer requirements. This knowledge only becomes useful when a given company sets up a link between the product offer and the client’s requirements. Collins must ensure it produces innovative designs of tablets that meet the needs of high-end consumers. This means investing additional resources in product design. High-end consumers also want personalized services and customized commodities.

Businesses operate in a dynamic environment. Therefore, organizations must examine the implication of changes on both the product design and the requirements of customers (Treece, 2010). Organization can capture changing customers’ needs by establishing verification methods. The method of verification should have a baseline and establish traceability of consumers’ requirements. Collin’s customers are satisfied. Customer satisfaction is the disparity between the customer’s anticipations and the perceived performance of the product. It the perceived performance of the product exceeds expectations, the customer is satisfied. Organization can determine whether their customers are satisfied by conducted customer survey and collecting feedbacks from their clients. Developing strong relationships with consumers is best strategy for obtaining data concerning their level of satisfaction. Organizations can also determine the level of satisfaction of their customers by examining customers’ behaviors such as repeat purchases and customer referrals.


Identifying the right customers is critical to the success of a new product. Businesses need to clarify their key customers and focus on understanding and addressing their needs. Understanding customers enabled an organization to sell more commodities. Organizations find it easy to identify opportunities when they understand the needs of consumers. It also enables companies to develop superior customer service.


Cespedes, F. Dougherty, J. & Skinner, B. (2013). How to make out the best consumer segment for your business. Sloan Management Review. 54 (2), 53- 59

Godwin, N. Nelson, J. Ackerman, F. & Weisskopf, T. (2008). Consumption and the consumer society. Retrieved from http://www.ase.tufts.edu/Gdae/education_materials/modules/Consumption_and_the_Consumer_Society.pdf

Treece, D. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning. 43 (1), 172- 194

Rosemary Charles is the Managing Director of EsssayWritingSite.org a globally competitive essay services which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Women and Minority Discrimination in the Armed Forces: Literature Review

Diversity in the militaries all over the world is an intricate subject both conceptually and applicability, managerial implications. It is one of the utmost critical and difficult challenges for human resource management in military leadership. The need for greater diversity in recruitment, development and employment challenges the traditional military norms, values, beliefs and attitudes (Rand, 2013). Militaries continue to adapt and revise human resource policies, philosophies, program and practices to embrace the change. The purpose of the literature review is to explore women and minority discrimination in the military.
Women history in military

Women continue to be underrepresented in the army. Although they constitute 50% of the national population, statistics from the department of defense report that they constitute 14% of active-duty military. The role of women in war and military activities can be traced to evolutionary times. As back as 1775, women used to accompany men in war serving support duties such as nursing, cooking, and laundry. Deborah Sampson, although distinguished as a man, was the first woman to serve in the military (1782-1783). She was later discharged honorable after she was wounded in combat. In 1812, Mary Marshall and Mary Allen served as nurses aboard the USS United States. During the Mexican War (1886-1865), Elizabeth Newcom enlisted in the Missouri Volunteer Infantry but she was later discharged. The civil war saw many women enlisted as cooks and nurses. They also served as spies. One of the periods that show the largest enrollment of women into the service is during the First World War. During the final two years of the war, it is estimated that 33,000 women served as nurses and support officers. It is estimated that 400 nurses died during the war. During the Second World War, 400,000 women served at different positions in the army. They served as pilots, ambulance drivers, nurses and other non-combat positions. Until the 1948 integration of the military Act, the army accepted few African American nurses, all of whom served it segregated units and treated only African Americans (Dixon, 2010).

In 1948, the Congress passed the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act that gave women permanent status in the army subject to military authority. The purpose of the Act was to set up the Women’s Army Corps in the Regular Army. The act also authorized the enlistment and appointment of women in the Regular Air force, Marine Corps and reserves components of the navy and army. However, the Act did little to increase women representation in the military. It limited the number of women in services to 2% of the services’ authorized strength and prohibited the promotion of women above the rank of lieutenant colonel or commander. In addition, the act barred women from serving in the navy ships, except hospital and transport ships, and from serving on navy and air force aircraft while such aircraft were engaged in active combats. However, the Act did not prohibit women from serving in active combat role but as a matter of military policy, women were not assigned such roles.

Before 1973, women in USA were prohibited from enlisting in the army. The late 1960s and 1970s show a great change for women in the military. In 1967, the congress removed the 2% ceiling on regular line officers and enlisted strength and eliminated the promotion restrictions (). The Air force opened its reserves officers’ training corps program in 1969 and by 1972, and the other services had opened their services. However, since 1973, the government changed the military system from all-male conscription to a volunteer force and women were allowed to enlist in the armed forces. During the Vietnam War, the number of women in the army almost doubled. The place and number of women in the army remained relatively the same. In 1978, the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act was amended to permit women to serve on ships that were not expected to be assigned combat missions and to serve up to six months on other naval ships. The congress abolished the Women’s Army Corp in 1978, and women were incorporated into the regular army. The 1981 Supreme Court decision, Roster V. Goldberg, maintained that the exclusion of requiring women to register with the draft was not a violation of the due process clause (fifth Amendment) of the U.S constitution (Moore, & Webb, 2000). The Selective Service Law still does not require women to register for the draft because of the Department of Defense’s policy of restricting women from direct ground combat. In 1988, the Department of defense adopted the “risk rule” as a policy. The risk rule excluded females from non-combat units or missions if the risk in the combat, hostile fire,were equal to or more than the risk in the combat units they support. The aim of the policy was to standardize the criteria for determining which positions and units would be closed to women in the service.

The Shannon Faulkner case is one of the landmark case that transformed enrollment of women in military academies. After the prolonged court case, Faulkner was admitted to the Citadel military academy in 1995. The Supreme Court stated that discrimination against women was illegal in state-supported military schools. In 1996, another four women enrolled as cadets. Although the ruling marked a positive way toward women enlist in the army, military institutions were slow to adjust to the new requirement and the number of women in the military remained the same. In 1991, a convention of the Tailhook scandal changed the policy of enrolling women into the army. At the convention, a group of 83 female officers were physically assaulted by 117 naval officers. The consequent lawsuit led to the dismissal of 14 admirals and 300 aviators and instigated a zero-tolerance policy on discrimination and harassment of women in the navy (Stiehm, 1998).

The debates continue as to what the role women should play in the U.S military. A pentagon mandate prohibiting women from serving in ground combat units was loosened in 1994 to allow women to take on “supporting” combat roles. Although women have been involved as allied professionals, they are increasingly needed to supplement the shortages of men in active militarized zones. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, 33 women were killed in Iraq, five in Afghanistan and more than 250 wounded in action. In 2006, the number of female who died in Iraq increased to 48, representing 2% of the total USA soldiers who died in Iraq. Captain Kathleen McGrath commandeered a U.S navy warship while Colonel Linda McTauge became the first woman commander of US air force squadron in 2004. During the war on terror Sergeant, Leigh Hester was the first woman to be awarded the Silver Star for combat. According to the Department of defense, women constitute 17.3% of the selected reserves contributing only a quarter of the army and air force reserves and 4.7% of the marines.

Sexual harassment

The integration of women into the army and their increasing role in male-dominated field have increased the issue of sexual harassment. Numerous studies have reported the wide spread sexual harassment in the army. A study ordered by DOD in 1988 indicated that 56 of active duty women and 12% of men had experienced sexual harassment. In 1991, a similar report indicated that 62% of female officers enlisted in the army had experienced sexual harassment in the previous year (Faley, Knapp, Kustis, & Dubois, 1999). Scholars have also explored predictors of sexual harassment in the army. Factors such as, women working and performing nontraditional role increase the risk. In addition, studies have explored the interaction of ethnic group, gender pioneering, and rank as possible factors. Claims of sexual harassment in the services continued with different sections of the army being accused of tolerating sexual harassment. In 2003, the US air force started an inquiry concerning claims of sexual harassment of females. In 2004, the air force report confirmed the fear of sexual harassment. The report highlighted a number of issues including facilitating women to report cases of harassment, training personnel to handle such cases. A decade ago (2004), 37% of the permanent workforce in the army were women.

Hampf (2004) explores the concept of sexuality in the force. He noted that, although there have been changes on the perception of female soldiers; women continue to be subjects of rumors and hostility. The rumors stereotyping “feminine” nature is viewed irreconcilable with masculinity. Records from military archive indicate that women sexuality was controlled by discourses of desexsualizzation and hypersexualization by policies and programs based on assumptions about the social class and race nature of sexual morality. In 2005, survey was conducted among West Point cadets to seek the opinion of students on how women should be assigned roles. According to the study, 67% of the respondents agree that women should be assigned different roles regardless of their gender. A sample of male army officers was asked whether the presence of women would compromise their functions. 51% of men agreed that the presence of women in combat would influence how they react. They held that they would act to protect the female colleague in combat (Stiehm, 1998). In 2014, a group of women congress representative petitioned the Department of defense to reconsider regulation 670-1. The regulation governs grooming of soldiers especially female soldiers. The legislators feel the law is discriminatory against women of color in uniform. The regulation bans three hair styles, dreadlocks, twists and large cornrows. The legislatures argued that the styles are predominantly worn by women of color and terming them as “unkempt” and matted” is offensive and culturally insensitive (Military Times, 2014). Although army officials insist the regulation is aimed at uniformity of the force, such perceived or real grievances persist.


It is estimated that by 2050, 50% of the USA population will consist of the minority groups. The need to integrate these groups in the USA systems and institution cannot be overstated. Over the year, minorities have been recruited into the USA army. However, a review of the literature indicates a strong by most groups to achieve the desired percentages. The table below indicates the proportion of active-duty personnel on race bases. Regardless of efforts to increase diversity, it is evident that minority groups and Blacks continue to be underrepresented.

Race Profile of Active Duty Force

Race Profile of Active Duty Force


% White

% Minorities

% Black

% Other


73.9 %

26.1 %

21.5 %

4.6 %


66.2 %

33.8 %

19.3 %

14.4 %

Marine Corps

83.7 %

16.3 %

11.1 %

5.2 %

Air Force

78.1 %

21.9 %

15.6 %

6.3 %

Coast Guard

82 %

18 %

6.1 %

11.9 %


74.6 %

25.4 %

17.8 %

7.6 %

Department of defense
According to the USA Military Demographic report (2012), less than one-third (30.3%) or 420,395 of active duty members are minorities (Blacks, Asians, American Indians, pacific Islanders and other races). Although the percentage of minorities has increased from 21.9% in 1995, the minorities are still underrepresented in the army.

The National Defense Research Institute (2014) noted black high-quality recruitment is decreasing. On the contrary, Hispanic recruitment is increasing. The institute explored factors that influence the recruitment. They noted that Blacks respond positively to recruitment incentives and bonuses instead of military pay. On the other hand, Hispanics are responsive to military salary rather that recruitment bonuses.

The first half of the 20th century was characterized by agitation for equality from minority groups, especially the African Americans. The society was separated among racial lines, and societal institutions were a replica of the separation. Discrimination against the black minority was evident and the policy “policy of separate and unequal treatment of blacks” was common. Regardless of the discrimination, injustices and prejudice, many African American were willing to serve in the army. After World War I, many military policies and regulations changed. Most of the new policies were formulated based on reports and testimonies from soldiers. These reports came from commanders of the 92 and 93 Divisions, which were large African American divisions. The unfair statements, such as “Negro combat troops failed to come up to army standards,” and “if you need combat soldiers, and especially in a hurry, don’t put your time on negroes’ skewed the achievement the people of color (White, 2012). The preceding years were characterized with plans and programs to try and use “effectively” black manpower. Some of the strategies put in place included defining the role of African American soldier and restricting the number of Blacks in the service. According to the policy, black representation in the army should be equal to the proportion of African in the society (10% at the time). However, between the first and the second world wars, the proportion of African Americans in the army remained below 2%. In addition, the army devised a different training program for the blacks, and their roles were restricted to services rather than combat. The 1937 mobilization Act formed the foundation on how African American could be mobilized and utilized. Regardless of the military policy prohibiting racial discrimination, statistics during and after the war indicates that discrimination is evident. For example, in 1945, there were 653,563 or 9% blacks in the army. According to Brets (2011), the war Department sabotaged the enrolment of blacks in different ways. He noted that the use of the literacy test targeted the blacks because of their low education level. Secondly, African trained in segregated facilities and they lived in segregated housing. Thirdly, there were some “secret orders to draft boards to exclude blacks in the first draft. The persisted discretionary of Blacks through the Selective training service Act and the general discrimination of African Americans in the society increased black activism.

Finally, the USA army was desegregated in 1948 after President Truman signed the executive order 9381. The executive order and the Fahy committee oversaw the desegregation of the military and the integration of African Americans began. The long-held notion that Africa American soldiers were inferior started to dissipate. However, several incidences of discrimination are the service still evident.

Hispanics, Latinos, and Mexicans

According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) directives, Hispanic should not considered a minority race but an ethnicity. However, for the purpose of this paper, Hispanic will be considered as a minority group because most of the previous literature document Hispanic as a minority group. The civil of 1861 divided the allegiance of Mexican Americans living in Texas. A large number of Mexican American initially supported the confederacy while others supported the Union Army. By the end of the war, Colonel Santos Benavides became the highest Mexican American in the condefarate army. However, it was the achievement of David G. Farragut (1801-1870) that marked the history of Hispania’s in the war. The colonel commandeered the federal naval ships and played a strategic role in the capture of New Orleans and the battle of mobile bay in Alabama. Farragut received the highest honor in the military (Medal of Honor).

Hispanics also played an instrumental role in the Second World War. The 158th Regimental Combat team was recognized as one of the best combat during the war. During the Vietnam war, approximately 80,000 Hispanic Americans served in the army. Although they constituted about 4.5% of the total U.S population a t the time, they incurred approximately 19% of casualties during the war. It is estimated that 20,000 Hispanic servicemen participated in the Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Regardless of their contribution in the army, Hispanic and Latino Americans experience various forms of discrimination in the army.
One of the earliest studies to explore Hispanic discrimination in the arm was conducted in 1978. The study reported discriminations and issues that affect Hispanic servicemen to include biased testing, culture shock, lack of minority officers, and blatant discrimination in promotion. In addition, Gutierrez also noted Hispanic feel a lot of pressure to anglicize their name to avoid harassment from Anglo officers (Gutierrez, 1978). A survey of active-duty service members in the U.S army in 2004 focused on the experiences of Hispanic and examined the views on discrimination among all races. Military personnel in all racial groups expressed faith in the faith in the fairness of army leaders and opportunities for all racial groups in the army. Study also reported the persistent racial divide in the army. Only 3% of the white officers had experienced discrimination compared to 27% of blacks and Hispanics. Among the enlisted ranks, 22 % of whites, 19% of Hispanics and 24% of blacks reported that they had been discriminated. In the last decade, several lawsuits brought by minority workers against their employer has earned large settlements

Moore & Webb (2000) explored the perceptions of equal opportunity among women and minority army personnel. They noted that military service in the USA is viewed as an avenue of upward mobility for minority men. According to Bulter (1996), the military provides “bridging environment” for racial minorities offering them skills they need to improve their socio-economic status.

Dempsey and Shapiro (2005) conducted a survey with 1190 active-duty members in the USA. The study reports that Hispanics in the American army face a unique set of challenges. Dempsey and Shapiro report that discrimination on the basis of race is prevalent that convention wisdom about military. They noted that there is a great disparity on how minority view inclusiveness in the army and the military programs designed to help them. The lack of minority representation in the rank causes dissatisfaction among the Hispanic soldiers.


Military, just like any other institution, is faced with the issue of diversity in its daily operations. The once minority groups currently represent a large portion of the population and they representation in the army is critical. In order to increase women and minority representation in military leadership, the Military Leadership Diversity Commission was established. The commission gave five reasons for the underrepresentation of women and minorities in the army. The commission noted that the lack of representation is caused by the low representation of women and minorities in initial officers’ accession. Low women and minorities officers in career fields associated with high risks and low retention of midlevel female service members. The low rate of career advancement among female and minority officers is also a key factor. These factors should be addressed to represent the diversity of the country in each level. The recent inclusion policy by the USA army has helped dispel of the greatest myth about women in the military. The notion that women erode the effectiveness of combat is not supported by literature. Women are not shown to affect the task cohesiveness and social cohesiveness. The second argument used to discriminate women in the force is that they are not strong enough, and they put men at risk during combat. A decade of women participation in combat has proven the notion wrong and the role of women in the success of the squadron has been recorded. Women also continue to contribute vital and critical thinking and decision making in national security. Their capacity in the military unit is not fully exploited. Incidences of discrimination and exclusion are still evident in deployment and promotion. Although the military institution has established policies to govern discrimination issues in the forces, cases of sexual harassment exist.



Brett P (2011). Discrimination against African American soldiers in World War II: Racial policies and the march to desegregation. Retrieved from legacy.usfsm.edu/academics/cas/capstone/2010-2011/history/pike-discrimination%20against%20african%20american%20soldiers%20in%20wwii.pdf     

Dempsey, J. K., & Shapiro, R. Y. (2005). Citizenship and Service: The Attitudes and Experiences of Hispanic Soldiers in the United States Army. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-58

Department of Defense (2012). 2012 demographics profile of the military community. Retrieved from www.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2012_Demographics_Report.pdf on 10/6/2014.

Faley, R. H., Knapp, D., Kustis, G. A., & Dubois, C. Z. (1999). ESTIMATING THE ORGANIZATIONAL COSTS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT: THE CASE OF THE U.S. ARMY. Journal Of Business & Psychology13(4), 461-484.

Hampf, M. (2004). “Dykes” or “whores”: Sexuality and the Women's Army Corps in the United States during World War II. Women's Studies International Forum27(1), 13. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2003.12.007

Kara Dixon (2010). The nurse army corps in the Vietnam. The Johns Hopkins University Press, USA.

McNulty, S. S. (2012). MYTH BUSTED: WOMEN ARE SERVING IN GROUND COMBAT POSITIONS. Air Force Law Review68119-165.

McNulty, S. S. (2012). MYTH BUSTED: WOMEN ARE SERVING IN GROUND COMBAT POSITIONS. Air Force Law Review68119-165.

Military Times (2014). Black lawmakers appeal to Pentagon over hairstyle ban. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/article/20140410/NEWS07/304100065/Black-lawmakers-appeal-Pentagon-over-hairstyle-ban on 10/6/2014.

Moore, B. L., & Webb, S. C. (2000). Perceptions of Equal Opportunity among Women and Minority Army Personnel. Sociological Inquiry70(2), 215-239.

RAND (2014). Explaining Recent Army and Navy Minority Recruiting Trends. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_briefs/2009/RAND_RB9463.pdf o 10/6/2014.

Rosen, L. N., & Martin, L. (1997). Sexual Harassment, Cohesion, and Combat Readiness in U.S. Army Support Units. Armed Forces & Society (0095327X)24(2), 221-244.

Stiehm, J. (1998). Army opinions about women in the army. Gender Issues16(3), 88-98. doi:10.1007/s12147-998-0023-z

White Jr., G. (2012). "I Am Teaching Some of The Boys:" Chaplain Robert Boston Dokes and Army Testing of Black Soldiers in World War II. Journal Of Negro Education81(3), 200-217.

Rosemary Charles is the Managing Director of EsssayWritingSite.org a globally competitive essay services which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

Thursday, 28 December 2017 07:31

Media Monitoring Report on ISIS

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Media Monitoring Report on ISIS

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is a terror group that has emerged to be the most perilous terrorist group in the globe.  ISIS is supported by well-trained militia groups. The terror group is ruthless and barbaric. The group engages in acts including kidnapping and beheading of hostages (Masi, 2014; Tran, 2014).    ISIS has become popular because of its increasing presence in the mainstream and social media.  The media coverage given to the terror group is attributed to its increasing popularity.  The terror group has taken advantage of its increasing popularity to worsen their heinous acts. Reputable news channels such as BBC, CNN and Aljazeera give ISIS-related news in-depth news coverage. Similarly, world leaders such as the US president Barrack Obama and Britain’s Prime Minister Cameron call for press conferences and hold high-powered meetings, on ISIS and their activities.

  The social media have also become an ideal platform for ISIS to propagate their terrorist activities.  ISIS has been posting video clips of beheadings of western hostages.  ISIS streams the videos live to the entire world (Fulfrod, 2014). Similarly, ISIS has established its official websites where the group is suspected to be recruiting jihadists (Hashem, 2014).  ISIS is reaching out to young Muslim men and women are getting converted and convinced to join the terror group. The media have failed on its covered on ISIS and its activities.   Excessive media exposure has given the terror group a platform to articulate their sickening ideologies (Marrouch, 2014).  The formal and informal media should unite and give the group a media-blackout.  The group’s social sites e.g. twitter and Facebook should, for instance, be shut down. The media must stop excessive reporting on ISIS activities so that the group loses its social presence.  When the terror group loses its social presence, it is likely to be weakened as its “glorified” popularity will fade away.


Fulfrod, R. (2014). Robert Fulfrod: Meet ISIS, the most dangerous terrorist group in the world. National post. 6th September 2014

Hashem, A. (2014). The Islamic state social media strategy. Al-monitor

Marrouch, R. (2014). How ISIS is growing and the fight to stop it. CBS news

Masi, A. (2014). ISIS propaganda campaign. International business times. September 25th 2014

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Rosemary Charles is the Managing Director of EsssayWritingSite.org a globally competitive essay services which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

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