Management (88)

Thursday, 22 February 2018 11:31

Conducting Risk Assessment and Analysis

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Company Name: Fair Sellers Company Limited

Products and Services: The e-commerce company specializes in selling fashion clothing, home decorations, shoes and accessories. The site is popular among many youths who prefer latest discounted fashions and branded clothes from internet.

Business Processes

Business processes refers to set of steps performed by a business so as to develop the value for customers. The process usually involves three key constituents: input, output and tasks. In business processes, inputs get consumed by a set of tasks, while yielding the outputs desired for customers.

Business processes in e-commerce get categorized as operating processes, support processes, and management processes. Operating (critical) processes are usually end-to-end, and cross-functional and they deliver value directly. They are essential activities in every organization. The support (necessary) processes on the other hand provide support to the operating/primary processes by providing infrastructure and/or managing resources. Such processes include IT management, facilities, human resource management and capacity management and they are mostly linked to functional areas. Finally, the management (desirable) processes are used in measuring, controlling and monitoring business activities, while ensuring that the operating and support processes satisfy financial, legal, operating and regulatory goals. They do not directly improve on business processes but are very essential in ensuring that the organization’s operation is efficient and effective.

Organization’s Assets

IT assets include the components that make up the computing devices. Most of the assets are important to the e-commerce company because most of the activities within the organization get achieved with the help of the assets. 


Threat identification and Assessment

Every business faces risks and uncertainties. As for the e-commerce, the challenges existing in the business are categorized as: customer-based, competitors, trends, technology and natural factors. Threats are known to slow down business growth and therefore it is important to understand them and knowing how to cope with them, by mitigating, avoiding or eliminating.

As for the customer behaviors, the changes in their behavior can affect the business growth as they dictate very crucial aspects such as when to market product, which marketing tool to use, type of product they require and when they need a product. Also, the customers may decide on the price of the product, since the business is in perfect competitive market structure, where the consumers have various choices to make among sellers of clothes and home decorations (Muneesh & Sareen, 2012).

Technology is the greatest issue of concern, as since the business is built upon technology, it requires adapting to current trends and maintaining its security level. The ecommerce business is highly likely to get attacks from hackers, sniffers, viruses and physical security, thereby leading to compromise of normal business operation, and in some extent, losses are highly likely to occur. The e-commerce site is vulnerable to suspicious login attempts by attackers and therefore the IT department should ensure that they use strong passwords and stick to the pattern. They should ensure that the passwords are changed regularly, for example weekly, after a fortnight or monthly. Additionally, the site is subject to fraud, which according to research, it has been prevalent since the year 2014, and it has caused small businesses a huge amount of money (Gupta, Walp & Sharman, 2012). The business should implement a highly secure site for ecommerce platform. E-commerce data is also subject to destruction, either deliberately, or by mistake. Hackers rely on the irresponsible actions done accidentally by employees or you such as using weak passwords and using similar passwords for multiple websites. Most online businesses’ data and/or backups may be erased, thereby leaving the business in an unstable situation. The business is likely to lose most of their customers or even incur great extra expenses when restoring its level.

If the business does not have better firewall, or security mechanism to detect, analyze and filter or block attacks and malicious software. One of the major painful moments is when you become a victim of ransom ware. Ransom ware hijacks the critical information in the computer and then demand for a high amount of money for them to release the data. The company should therefore ensure that its data is backed up regularly and security checks also performed (Czinkota, Ronkainen & Kotabe, 2009).

Finally, natural calamities may greatly impact on the business negatively and since they cannot be easily predicted, the company should develop a continuity plan for them to know how to deal with the situation. Such calamities include fire, earthquake, floods, tornado, hurricane or severe rainstorm.



Czinkota, M. R., Ronkainen, I. A., & Kotabe, M. (2009). Emerging trends, threats, and opportunities in international marketing: What executives need to know. New York: Business Expert Press. Retrieved from

Gupta, M., Walp, J., & Sharman, R. (2012). Threats, countermeasures, and advances in applied information security. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. Retrieved from

Muneesh, K., & Sareen, M. (2012). Trust and technology in B2B e-commerce: Practices and strategies for assurance. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference. Retrieved from


Thursday, 22 February 2018 09:54


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Delegation is an important management skill and helps in the proper handling of tasks by the employees. It is a process of giving decision-making responsibility to the lower-level employees. Delegation applies to individuals and teams, as well as to the specially formed groups of people for individual projects. Delegation is vital for effective leadership and management activities. Effective delegation can benefit the manager, the employee, and the entire organization. It improves the quality of work by giving the employees a direct knowledge of products and services to make decisions and complete the assigned tasks. However, the delegation has several drawbacks as well. Many managers lack the knowledge to delegate effectively making delegation detrimental to an organization. The essay discusses proper delegation and the techniques to avoid delegation errors as well as the reason for supervisors to delegate and the common errors encountered in the delegation. 


Proper delegation and techniques to avoid delegation errors

Delegation becomes increasingly more important as one progress through the management levels for increased productivity. There lack other skills that can increase productivity to the same degree as being able to delegate successfully. Thus, proper delegation takes time and effort, but the benefit accrued of enhancing employee involvement and empowerment is invaluable. Proper delegation increases the level of motivation of the team members and allows new and innovative ideas that result in the development of team member’s creativity and decision-making skills.   

            Proper delegation follows certain principles that include; results expected absolute responsibility, and parity of authority and responsibility. The principle of delegation by results expected requires the authority delegated to an individual be adequate to assure the ability to accomplish the task. The failure of having the level of authority makes them unable to complete the tasks. Hence, the proper delegation should involve communication of the devolved authority to all the necessary parties. It is necessary that delegation is not used as a method of avoiding ultimate responsibility and ownership of the tasks. The responsibility for the activities of the subordinates assigned the duties remains with the delegator of the tasks. Proper delegation requires that the level of authority delegated about the task be consistent with the level of responsibility and role of the employee (Gladwin & McConnell, 2014).   

            Proper delegation entails selecting and organizing the tasks as required. The departmental leader should select the appropriate people to perform certain tasks effectively and also accomplish the organizational goals. It is important to instruct and motivate the workforce and also maintain a reasonable control over them.

Why should supervisors delegate

            Supervisors should allocate adequate time to assist in the development of the business and requires proper planning for the short-term and long-term needs of the organization. However, in practice, the strategy is overwhelmed by the everyday operational tasks and problems, hence necessary to delegate. Supervisors ought to delegate the disruptive operational tasks to people who are equally capable of performing certain tasks. In return, delegation minimizes risks, and ensures continued operations as well as giving the team members an opportunity to increase their morale and motivation (Gladwin & McConnell, 2014).  

            Delegation enables the supervisor to keep the big picture in mind of what the organization wants to achieve. The reason for delegation should be to give more time to focus on the tasks that are of higher value to the organization. Delegation allows for the supervisor to develop skills of one or all of the team members by expanding their experience in the area (McKenna, 2016). Delegation offers the employees a fresh view of the task a chance to offer a more innovative solution to an issue better than the supervisor.

            Delegation has benefits both to the supervisor and the subordinates. The benefits to the supervisor include the eased work pressures, increased time for the broad responsibilities, and increased time for self-development. Supervisors delegate duties to the subordinates to avoid the accumulation of the minor details of their work which can be handled by other employees. They also have adequate time to handle the major responsibilities of the organization as well as self-development to improve their skills. The subordinates benefit from increased motivation, increased opportunities to develop, and also the challenge to perform better than usual. Thus, the delegation should seek to develop the subordinates and also increase the effectiveness of the leader (Cooper, 2013).

            Supervisors must delegate effectively to develop the employees. Leaders have certain tasks they ought to undertake, but the primary role is to ensure that the subordinates do what they have been assigned to accomplish for the organization. The supervisors know the responsibilities to delegate to allow time to plan, collaborate with others, and monitor the performance of the employees. Delegation is not the mere assigning of tasks to the employees. Instead, it involves assigning responsibility for outcomes alongside the authority to perform certain tasks and produce the desired results (Cooper, 2013).  

            Delegation empowers the workforce to perform certain tasks effectively. Empowerment results from sharing power by the upper-level employees with the lower-level employees. It involves providing training, tools, and management support required by the employees in accomplishing the tasks (Gladwin & McConnell, 2014). The workforce acquires the authority and capability to accomplish the work. The workforce develops accountability to meet the goals and objectives of the organization through delegation.      

Delegation errors

             Delegation failures are common due to lack of proper skills in handling it. Leaders ought to avoid the common pitfalls in delegation through careful monitoring and constructive feedback. Careful monitoring of the assigned tasks is a crucial aspect that ensures there are minimized errors in the tasks assigned to the subordinates. Feedback ensures that the subordinates can undertake their tasks with proper guidance.

            The three common errors in the delegation include under delegation, over delegating, and improperly delegating (Cooper, 2013). Under-delegation arises in the instances where full authority is not transferred; responsibility is withdrawn, or when the leader fails to equip and direct the delegates. For effective delegation, the leader ought to accord full authority to the subordinates and also equip them with the required resources and tools to undertake their tasks effectively. Some leaders do not give full rights of delegation to the subordinates thereby limiting their capacity and ability to perform their tasks as required. As such, the gains from delegation are not realized, and the process is flawed. Managers have a general understanding that they are delegating when they assign tasks to the employees, but it appears like dumping on the people (Hurley & Hanley, 2010). Real delegation ought to have assigned responsibility for the outcomes as well as the authority to perform tasks to produce the desired results.

            Over-delegation occurs when the delegator lose control of the situation by giving much authority and responsibility to the subordinate (McKenna, 2016). It is a form of ineffective delegation because the delegator does not have the absolute right of assessing the progress of the assigned tasks. The subordinates go overboard and make decisions without the direct involvement of the delegator making them irrelevant in performing the tasks. Good delegation does not deprive fully the responsibility of controlling the activities since the delegator has the final work in decision making. Over-delegation results to excessive autonomy in which the subordinate operates independently. As such, it is challenging to track to progress of operations in the assigned tasks.

             Improperly delegating is a common error in delegation and involves the use of untrained and incompetent staff in performing certain crucial duties in the organization. The subordinates entrusted with some responsibilities lack the capacity to deliver the intended results. As such, the organization has slowed growth since the responsibilities do not match with the employee’s abilities.    



            As identified in the discussion, delegation is an important aspect of management and leadership. Supervisors and leaders ought to delegate to develop the abilities and skills of the subordinates as well as contribute to the achievement of goals and responsibilities. Over and under-delegation are common errors in the delegation that leaders in various fields ought to avoid for effective delegation. The workers ought to be willing to acquire the resources and cooperation required for successful completion of the delegated tasks. The leader empowers the workforce to undertake the delegated tasks effectively for the common benefit of the organization. Good delegation save time develops the people skills, develops a successor, and motivates the employees. Poor delegation cause frustration, de-motivates, and also does not lead to the achievement of a purpose.  



Cooper, L. (2013). A beginner's guide to effective delegation: Veterinary Nursing Journal, 28(4), 136-137. doi:10.1111/vnj.12027

Gladwin, B. P. & McConnell, C. R. (2014) The Effective Corrections Manager: Correctional   Supervision for the Future (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1-   4496-4546-5

Hurley, M. H. & Hanley, D. (2010) Correctional administration and change management: Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis. ISBN: 978-1-4398-0392-9

McKenna, P. J. (2016). Strategic Prerequisite: How Effective Leaders Must Delegate. Of Counsel, 35(4), 8-12

Thursday, 22 February 2018 09:46

Active Lesson 2

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By asserting the fact that supervisors are the individuals who carry the organizational culture and that if they fail the entire organization fails, he confirms the fact that the close contact that they have with the employees has a huge role in dictating the success of the organization. In this case, supervisors play a huge role in emphasizing the values of capabilities as written and oral communications, strategic thinking, and management of change as well as problem solving (Campbell, 2006). They additionally play the role in directing such attributes as a resolution of problems in facilities, decision making and the comprehension of the criminal justice system. They also play a vital role in the development of interpersonal skills, initiating collaboration, managing conflicts as well as team building and character attributes that are vital to the correctional leaders (Campbell, 2006). Promotion of ethics among the correctional leadership ensures that these attributes and competencies are promoted with the organization and consequently promote the success of an organization.

The lack of ethics among the supervisors inhibits the promotion of competencies that enhance the success of correctional organizations. They make it impossible for the correctional leadership to develop professional guidelines that could strengthen and additionally cultivate individual growth and development. The situation that would lead to the failure of the organization as it will be impossible for the supervisors to manage and promote the development of their subordinates and thus making failure inevitable (Campbell, 2006).  From this assessment, it is evident that the Supervisors play a vital role, which chiefly relates to the development of the subordinates. The promotion of an ethical culture among the supervisors ensures that the subordinates observe the trend that has been set, and consequently the organization succeeds. The failure to uphold an ethical culture among the supervisors conversely results into a crop of de-motivated employees who will not observe the competencies that can promote the success of an organization leading to failure.

Ethical leadership matters in an organization. Organizational ethics is dependent on mutual respect, accountability as well as the competence of the diverse stakeholders and are essential to the success of the organization. The situation, in this case, follows that ethical leadership develops a situation whereby every member of the organization is given an excuse to attain their best performance successfully. The respect that members of an organization have for one another presents an opportunity for them to make contributions that are valued and acknowledged by all the stakeholders (Campbell,  2006). Ethical leadership further promotes the development of accountability from all members of the organization, encompassing the treatment of all the stakeholders equally, an attribute that promotes dedication and commitment to an organization. Furthermore, the competence that is a byproduct of ethical leadership by promoting the development of competent stakeholders, offering training and self-development opportunities ensures that an organization succeeds from the contributions made by the competent stakeholders.

Unethical leadership hinders the effectiveness of a correctional organization. Issues as incompetence, favoritism, lying, discrimination, bribery, theft, collusion, kickbacks, conflict of interest, as well as abuse of power are the main unethical behaviors that hinder the effectiveness of the correctional organizations (Campbell, 2006). The occurrence of these attributes leads to a case whereby the authority that the leadership should have lacks legitimacy and consequently the subordinates and other stakeholders lose trust and respect in the leadership. The implication of the lack of legitimacy and trust in leadership leads to the occurrence of a situation whereby the leaders cannot initiate programs that steer the organization to success and thus failing due to the unethical leadership.



Campbell, N.M. (2006). Correctional leadership competencies for the 21st century: Manager and supervisor levels. [Rev. ed.]. National Institute of Corrections. Retrieved from 

Thursday, 22 February 2018 09:31

Organizational Change Management Paper

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Failed Change at Kodak

            It has long been known for Kodak change failure. Kodak as an organization was, as the Economist writes or the Google of those days. Greatly inventive, perfectly innovative as well as successfully rolling out new, lasting innovations. This resulted in a 90% market share in film and 85% of camera sales in the United States. Into the 1990s; it was rated among the world’s highly valuable brands. As a matter of fact, in 1996, it was ranked as the world’s fourth highly-valuable brand after Disney, Coca-Cola and the McDonald’s. Then digital hit. At least, that was what many people appear to believe. But the truth is, Kodak had sat on Digital Camera as well as digital technology from 1973.  They were only afraid of the outcomes. Steven Sasson, the Kodak engineer, was credited with inventing the digital camera in 1975, only to put it underneath for years. When the company commenced developing its digital, it had become too little, too half-hearted as well as too late. From 2000, the velocity, as well as the size of the digital shift, went up to the point of pushing Kodak into a death situation. This company was trying to innovate. Utilizing the Innovation Pyramid framework, Kodak carried out innovation on level one which included Design and marketing as well as level two which was the Products. Kodak as a company failed, however, in the eighth level which encompasses business model innovation (Films for the Humanities & Sciences, Films Media Group & Maryland Public Television, 2008).  Therefore,   irrespective of its digital products launch, inadequacy in the transformation on business model level resulted to its eventual death. Hence, the organizational change failure on the part of Kodak emanated from the Voluntary Chapter 11 Business Reorganization or organizational bankruptcy.

 Stage Theory

            Stage theory is one of the theories that explain changes in organizations. This theory bases on an idea that organizations go through several steps or phases in the process of change. After all the stages get recognized,  initiatives to enhance change can end up being matched to different points in the change process. Therefore, this theory asserts that adopting innovation in an organization always follow some stages. It also asserts that every stage demands a particular set of strategies and initiatives that remain contingent on organization’s adopting, implementing, and sustaining as well as socio-environmental dictates. Despite the fact that Kurt Lewin remains credited for coming up with one of the initial stage models, current stage theory base on both Lewin's work as well as  Rogers'  Innovations Diffusion theory (Demers, 2007). This theory is perceived to have four stages of Stags that include. They include Awareness of an issue as well as possible solutions, Decision  on adopting  the innovation, Implementation  which  includes redefining the innovation  as well as  modification of  organizational structures for accommodation and finally the institutionalization or  devising  the innovation to be  part of the organization's  current practices. Currently, there is less research on factors that influence the way an organization graduates from one stage to another. There is also need for more research on activities that surface in each stage. Different organization leaders or agents of change in an organization do assume leading responsibilities in different stages. Initiatives that organizations utilize always depend on change stage as well as whether the social environment nature surrounding the change is supportive or not.

 Application of Stage Theory on Kodak

            According to stage theory, changes undergo different stages that need an understanding of the socio-economic environment.  From Kodak’s scenario, its top management never totally grasped the way the world around them was changing.  As a result, they hung on the obsolete assumptions on who took pictures, why as well as when (Senior & Fleming, 2006). It always thought that customers would never leave hard prints. They also thought that people valued fill- photos for high quality. It means that they saw digital as a direct substitute for film based photography. It remains interesting to see how little the mindset had changed even after 20 years. Digital cameras came to dominate not for offering best quality or people managing or remaining inclined to getting hard prints easily, but because people felt no need to have them. Hence, Kodak needed to handle a stage of letting the new user and entrepreneur’s generation take charge.  Kodak should have embraced uncertainty and devised preparations to be driven in the unforeseen directions.  This remains a far cry from how Kodak had spent its survival.  From the four stage theory, Kodak did not carry out thorough awareness of a problem as well as possible solutions in case their innovation failed. The decisions to adopt their innovation were late when other actors had dominated the industry. The Implementation of change by Kodak, which includes the redefining of innovation as well as modification of organizational structures to allow change, was poorly done. Kodak as a company led to its failure from the fact that it failed to institutionalize and make the digital innovation part of its ongoing activities. As a result, an abrupt and radical initiation of change becomes a problem.



Demers, C. (2007). Organizational change theories: A synthesis. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE   Publications.

Films for the Humanities & Sciences, Films Media Group & Maryland Public Television (2008):   The Transformation Age: Surviving a Technology Revolution with Robert X. Cringely. New York, N.Y: Films Media Group.

Senior, B., & Fleming, J. (2006): Organizational change. Harlow, England: Prentice  Hall/Financial Times.



Thursday, 22 February 2018 08:56

Discussion Questions

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#1 A new director decides to reorganize the department you work in. This reorganization comes about without input from the employees, and many of the nurses that you oversee are feeling resentful of the change. As a nurse leader, identify factors that may lead to conflict and ways you can manage them.

Various factors may have resulted in lack of satisfaction and resentment among the nurses in the organization arising from the reorganization. One of the primary factors is a lack of proper communication and consultation on the restructuring of the organization staff. The nurses may not have been given an opportunity to have their voices heard regarding clinical input hence leading to them been aggrieved. In clinical settings lower degrees of autonomy have higher feelings of resentment among the nursing personnel towards their jobs hence resulting in low work motivation. Poor communication among nursing staff as well as with other employees in hospitals can cause frustration, depression, hostility, confusion and isolation thus leading to the lack of delivery of quality patient care (Carpenito-Moyet, 2014). As an effective nursing leader, it is essential to cultivate a supportive organization through management strategies such as encouraging open communication in the organization and work autonomy. As a solution to the conflict, a nursing leader would communicate and give an explanation why a particular decision (in this case, reorganization) was necessary to undertake. The nursing leader would explain its effectiveness and benefits. Interdisciplinary education could be integrated into the hospital on the principles of communication skills.

Another possible reason for resentment in the organization is a lack of adequate staff in some of the departments due to the reorganization. Lack of adequate personnel in a clinical facility can lead to work overload and stress among nurses and hence reduced work morale thus contributing to poorer delivery patient care. The lack of organizational support for nurses and inadequate staffing also gets associated with increased risks of injuries to staff and increased turnover rates among the staff. As an effective leader, it is essential to present the problem and its adverse impacts to the hospital management so that more staff could be hired.


#2 Personal affiliations and networking are important for nursing leaders. Why are these important? How will they benefit you in your career future?

Networking is an essential technique used by nursing leaders to stay informed and connected concerning advanced practice nursing issues. Networking takes two forms namely formal and informal networking. Formal networks take the form of committees, coalitions, and consortia of persons who come together to share information, collaborate and plan strategy concerning mutual concerns. Formal networks open doors to new opportunities and also offer shared resources that ensure a competitive edge in the facility. Informal networking that takes place behind the scenes is crucial as it allows for contact with advanced practice nursing and others, who speak the same language, have similar viewpoints and also provide support and feedback at critical times. The ability of advanced practice nursing to stay connected to essential practice and education concerns through networking is core to the leadership competency.

According to Basavanthappa (2011), forming networks among nurses can assist them to unite and to value their profession. Networking gets required in three levels of the nursing practice namely staff nurse level, leadership level, and informational networks. The staff nurse level or grass root is critical to the unity and survival of the profession and also assists nurses’ work toward caring for each other and influencing their work. It is important at the leadership level because it can unite the staff for a common goal of increasing power in the health facility. It is at the leadership level that nurses contribute to the self-esteem of colleagues through support as well as an affirmation of their abilities and potential hence high staff morale and high-quality patient care. The last level referred to as informational networks are essential in creating necessary political action.

Personal affiliations and networking are crucial in a nurse’s career since they accelerate their career in nursing practice.



Basavanthappa, B. T. (2011): Essentials of mental health nursing. JP Medical Ltd.

Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2014): Nursing Care Plans--Transitional Patient & Family Centered Care. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Thursday, 22 February 2018 08:32

Project Management

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The student information tracking system encompasses an android application platform that is meant to manage the attendance of students via mobile. In most educational institutions, the management employs manual methods in taking the attendance of the students. The awarding of this system makes it possible for the management in the schools to take the attendance of the students via mobile applications and additionally be able to maintain an adequate assessment of the diverse students’ aspects. The systems permit the taking of attendance, editing attendance, viewing students’ bunks, sending vital documents in pdf format as exam timetables, questions among others (Shoewu & Idowu 2012).


The underlying objective of the execution of this project was in the assessment through tracking of the students’ school attendance via the use of a mobile application. Through this project, it is going to make it possible and easier for the attendance assessment team to evaluate the details of the student on either a monthly or weekly basis. The project execution saw the project team follow the execution to the successful completion via the abiding the deliverables that were initiated at the planning stage.

The Cost

The execution of the Android system was planned to be completed within six months and at the cost of $6 million. In this execution, the resources that were needed for the successful completion of the project included: 

 Following are the technologies and resources used for the project:

Windows Server 2008 R2

Java 7

SQLite Database

Oracle 12c

Hardware requirement (Minimum configuration):

Operating System: -Windows 7

Processor: 700 MHz Pentium or other compatible.

 Motherboard: Intel chipset or other compatible.

RAM: Minimum RAM:-256 MB

Hard Disk: 40 GB

 Monitor: 640x480 Displays (Graphics or B&W)

Android device

Following are the teams required to develop the project:

  • Project Management
  • System Architect
  • Development team
  • Administration team
  • Testing team
  • Human Resources
  • Deployment team

The Cost Variance for the Project

The cost variance encompasses the cost of the completed work when it is compared to the planned costs and is computed via the assessment of the difference between the earned value and the actual cost (Greene & Stellman, 2016).  From our project, the actual execution was to cost $6 million after six months duration. The assessment of the cost variance was completed after two months of project execution. The estimation of the execution after two months had been thought to be 20% of completion at a total expense of $2 million, although the initial project was 30%. The assessment of the cost variance offering a true picture of the situation:

The planned value = the percentage of the planned execution *BAC= 30%*$6000, 000= 1,800,000

Earned value = the percentage of actual completion* BAC= 20%*6000, 000= 1, 200, 000

Thus the cost variance for our project thus is EV-AV= $1,200, 000- $2,000,000= -$800, 000

The fact that our project has a negative cost variance is an implication that there are attributes that came into play that caused us to spend more within the first two months of the execution that should have been the case. The fact that we have spent more than we ought to have spent the first two months implies that the entire project successful completion is going to be more expensive and this it is imperative that we start sourcing for more funds if the project is going to be completed successfully (Greene & Stellman, 2016). 

The Cost Performance Indicator (CPI)

The cost performance indicator encompasses the index that offers an assessment of how the resources for our project are being utilized in completing the project (Milosevic & Martinelli, 2016). The calculation of the project CPI encompasses:

CPI= Earned value (EV)/ cost value (CV)

From our case, the projected completion of our project after two months is 30% at a cost of $2 million. However, our execution within that time has seen the project record a 20% completion, at the cost of $2 million. The overall completion is estimated to take six months and at the costs of $6 million.

Actual costs $2 million

Earned value = 20% of $6,000,000= 1,600,000

CPI = EV/PV=1,600,000/2,000,000= 0.8

Thus the CPI for our project is 0.8

The fact that the CPI is less than one implies that our project execution is over-budgeted and that we have to put measures in place in ensuring that the execution is with the budget and be able to keep up with the costs schedule (Whitaker, 2016). In this case, the over-budget that exists in our project is 20%, and we have to put measures in place to address the over budget.



The project schedule variance offers an indication of how much ahead of behind the set schedule our project displays. The computation of the schedule variance encompasses:


The EV for our project is 1,800,000 while the PVAC is 1,600,000

Thus SV =1,800,000-1,200,000= $600,000

The schedule performance indicator encompasses an index that indicates the efficiency with which the resources available for the project are being utilized. The formula for the calculation of the SPI follows that:

SPI= the earned value/ the planned value

In our project, the earned value is 1,600,000 while the planned value is 1,800,000

Thus our SPI will be 1,600,000/1,800,000= 0.9.

The fact that our SPI is less than one is an indication that the project execution team is less efficient in their use of the available resources as well as the time that has been allocated to the project.



The above situations have been precedent by the fact five core members of the project management and executive team resigned shortly after the commencement leading to delayed execution and additional recruitment costs (Vanhoucke, 2012). The additional issue that led to the inability to meet the projected schedule and time is the poor communication between the members. The resolution of the issues will encompass offering attractive incentives and employing a communication expert to address the poor communication that is present among the members.

The Projected Forecast

The projected completion of the project is going to take an additional three months as a result of the delayed resolution of the team issues. The hiring of qualified project members took time as not many people with the required skills were accessible.

The fact that two months of the completion of the project has seen us complete only 20% of the work, with the initial budget being $6 million is an indication that we are behind schedule and over-budgeted. We are additionally running at a 20% over-budget as it was indicated in the CPI. The actual costs to date are $1,600,000. The computation of the EAC follows that; EAC=AC+BAC-EV

EAC=$1,200,000+$6,000,000-$1,800,000= $5,400,000

The computation of the ETC, on the other hand, encompasses:

ETC+EAC-AV= $ 5,400,000-$2,000,000= $3,600,000

From the above assessments, it is apparent that the assessment of the EAC implies that we are going to spend a total of $5.4 million in addition to the already used $1.2 million to complete the project successfully. The assessment of the ETC, on the other hand, implies that the project execution team is going to need additional $3.6 million for the completion of this project from this point.  I do not forecast any changes to the scope as it could result in creep that will require additional money.



Greene, J., & Stellman, A. (2016). Head First PMP. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Milosevic, D., & Martinelli, R. (2016). Project Management ToolBox: Tools and Techniques for the Practicing Project. John Wiley & Sons.

Shoewu, O. & O.A. Idowu (2012), Development of Attendance Management System using Biometrics, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 13(1):300-307.

Vanhoucke, M., (2012). Project Management with Dynamic Scheduling: Baseline Scheduling, Risk Assessment. Springer Science & Business Media

Whitaker, S. (2016). Pass the PMP® Exam: Tools, Tips and Tricks to Succeed. Apress.





Thursday, 22 February 2018 07:36

Project management leadership

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Class Summary

Being a leader requires knowledge and skills. The importance of leadership skills cannot be overemphasized in what has become a competitive environment. The success of a business or an organization can be traced in effective leadership. The class was paramount in providing essential knowledge on leadership. The lesson learned is that leadership is invaluable when it comes to personal, professional and organizational success. The class is essential in the constantly shifting landscape, where leaders have to be agile and resilient.

Leadership vs. Management

Leadership and management are two different means of organizing people. Leaders are involved in setting the vision and a new direction for a group that they follow. Managers engage in controlling and directing people and resources according to established values principles. Leaders use passion and stir emotions while managers use formal, rational methods. Leaders have the capacity to motivate and influence people to achieve a specific vision. On the other hand, management significantly focuses on work and tasks. Management activities include planning; controlling, budgeting, organizing, coordinating, and decision-making and problem-solving(Bârgău, 2015).

In their approach to risk, leaders tend to be risk-taking while managers tend to be risk-averse. While leaders are facilitative in decision making, managers tend to be involved in the process. A leader may be transformational, participative and consultative while a manager may be authoritative, dictatorial, transactional, consultative, autocratic or democratic. In general, leaders derive their power from influence and charisma while managers derive their power from the position and formal authority(Bârgău, 2015).

 While there is a clear delineating of the differences between leadership and management, leadership is considered an important facet of management. Although not necessary, it is helpful that a manager is also a good leader. Conversely, leaders perform better when they have some degree of management skills as it is necessary in envisioning the implementation strategic visions. Thus, there is a correlation between leadership and management. The bottom line is that leadership and management should be interchanged depending on the circumstance(Bârgău, 2015).

Personal Skills

One of my strengths is the ability to envision. I tend to always dream up big things. I am not limited by conventions. I have the ability to approach each problem with a unique perspective. I also tend to think outside the box when given difficult tasks. I have rarely met a problem that I cannot solve with my creativity.Additionally, I am a good team player. Having a great idea and making up a team is the first step in achieving a goal. Effective interpersonal communication skill is one of my best personal traits.

I can effectively communicate to people in different situations. I am also self-motivated and determined to succeed in most of what I do.  I show initiative to improve things around me including correcting old processes, solving problems and setting up new processes. With my communication skills, I quickly convince others of the effectiveness of a novel idea and remove problems in implementation.  Being a good team player, I lead people to achieve difficult tasks and motivate team members to work together to complete the task, listen to their opinions, and incorporate their views in implementing the task.

I often tend to be quick and decisive when faced with a problem.  While I execute decisions with confidence and strength, I often tend to disallow opposition to deter me from achieving set goals. Sometimes, this can be viewed as a weakness. Although such determination is often required when solving critical problems or making urgent or important decisions, such a strong-willed, uncompromising approach is often perceived as aggressive and self-serving. I am also a sensitive person who takes things to heart. As a result, I get too disappointed when things are not done in the correct way.

Leadership experience

I have encountered various opportunities that required me to exercise leadership throughout my life. I have exercised my leadership skills through leading a class project in my high school class. In the classes, everybody had to be part of a group to do projects. The performance of each group was assessed by the instructor. Being my group leader, I did my best to ensure that my group took the first position. One of the skills I used was to motivate group members to participate in the activity. I took the initiative to encourage group members to speak up and contribute their ideas to the group. The brainstorming enabled the group to come up with ways that would enable the group to achieve its goals. In this situation, I used my charisma to get things going.

As a problem solver, I divided the workload among group members. I would obtain each member’s phone number so as to coordinate and schedule meeting times. Since I am an outspoken person, I managed to get the group to interact, and that helps members to speak up and provide their ideas. The experience taught me what it takes to succeed as a leader. I gained a hard work ethic from my leadership experience and my fellow group members. I learned the importance of working as a team as well as the importance of having a common vision among team members. Most importantly, I gained self-confidence. Failure motivates me to try again and work harder. Whether I succeed or fail, I learn from my experience and try to work harder. This and other experiences have helped me gain important qualities of being a good leader. Some of the valuable leadership skills that I obtained and strengthened are: how to be a better listener, to be a team player, not to be afraid of constructive criticism and to be a problem solver.

Leadership skills used

Some of the valuable leaderships skills used include team building skills, decision-making, and problem-solving skills.  Team building skills are important for any leader. To effectively meet goals, a good team must function as a single unit. Not only are team members required to work together towards a common goal, but they are also required to support and complement each other so that tasks seem effortless. Thus, a good team should have a shared vision and shared interest to accomplish, both of which are different from a shared goal. The need for accomplishment by the leader provides a driving force. The vision provides a goal, directions and a compass for reaching the goal. Tem building skills enable the leader to keep everyone moving in the desired direction and at the desired speed.

Problem solving involves perceiving and resolving a gap between an existing situation and the desired goal. A fundamental part of my leadership role was to find ways to solve problems. Being a confident problem solver was of importance to the success of the group. Much of that confidence came from having good processes to use when approaching the problems. Decision making is important as Problem-solving often involves numerous decisions. There are different techniques and processes that may be used to improve decision-making and the quality of decisions made. I find decision-making as being natural to me. I, therefore, tend to focus on improving the quality of my decisions. Even though I have applied various important leadership skills, I still find that I have a lot more to learn to become a better leader. 


People willingly follow leaders due to their personality traits and charisma. Leaders are comfortable taking risks and have high levels of imagination. Managers are obeyed due to the formal authority vested in them. They tend to focus on structures, goals, availability of resources and personnel. The personalities of managers lean towards strong will, persistence, analysis and intelligence. As a result, employees are inclined to be more loyal towards leaders compared to managers.  As a leader, I have found it important to recognize my strengths and weaknesses so as to maximize my potential as well as the potential of others in the team. The awareness of my weakness has enabled me to make an outstanding contribution and leverage my strengths. Other strengths include my ability to prioritize, good organization skills, planning skills, multitasking and assuming duties and responsibilities. I also possess the capacity to cope with failures and try to learn from previous mistakes.


Bârgău, M. A. (2015). Leadership Versus Management. Romanian Economic Business Review, 10(2), 181-188.


Thursday, 22 February 2018 05:33

Organization cultures

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The impact of teams and groups on organization culture has become more important for organizations and employees together.  Organizations which apply the concept of working in teams and groups are better suited to face globalization challenges and have better chances of becoming more productive. Organizations that place a high value on work groups and teams place a high value on innovation and encourage employees to continuously take risks and innovate to improve the performance of work. There have been different degrees of emphasis on group and personal achievement. The embracing of working as teams or groups to achieve set goals is reflected in the organization’s culture. Additionally, today’s, organizations require the handling of shifting power bases and conflicting agendas. Power and politics impact organization culture through structure, organizational designs, and matrix structure. Through these factors, power impacts organizational culture.


Organizational culture is a system of shared values, assumptions, and beliefs which govern how individuals behave in organizations. The values have a strong influence on how individuals in the organization behave and perform their work. Strategy, mission, structure, human resource practices and leadership are significant determinants of organizational culture. Organization culture determines how employees accomplish their tasks and goals. Essentially, organizational culture is an important explanatory variable for behavior and performance in the organization. Additionally, a strong organizational culture provides both the employees and organization with stability and direction. Organization can be significantly powerful enough to influence performance, attitude, behavior and turnover. According to various studies, there are several fundamental characteristics that organizations may use to define culture including risk taking, innovation, team orientation, people orientation, outcome orientation, stability, and aggressiveness. Cultures also provide a sense of identity and stability and define boundaries. It also helps in the establishment of standards in regards to what individuals should conduct themselves.  Thus, the importance of organizational culture cannot be overemphasized. It governs day to day behavior. The power that arises from organizational culture may be viewed as a control mechanism, which organizations use to manipulate external and internal perception.  Each organization has various understandings that should be taken into account and implemented by its employees. Often, conformity to organizational culture is used as the primary basis for a reward by the enterprises. The role of culture in influencing workplace behavior is of increasing importance in the contemporary workplace, as enterprises have flattened structures, widened spans of control, introduced teams, empowered employees and reduced formalization.  The resulting culture provides shared meaning and ensures that every member of the organization is pointed to the same direction. The paper will focus on the impact of work groups and teams and power and politics.

Work groups and teams

Often, organization culture is considered the precondition of teamwork organizations. Today, there is a new recognition and recognition of the importance of working in teams and groups. Organizations now pull together workforce to improve quality and effectiveness.  Working in groups and teams is a major success factor of organizations. The impact of teams and groups on organization culture has become more important for organizations and employees together.  Organizations which apply the concept of working in teams and groups are better suited to face globalization challenges and have better chances of becoming more productive. There are various ways in which Work groups and teams impact on organization culture. While working in groups and teams help the organization gain benefit in terms of employee productivity and operations, working in groups and teams helps in bringing out great values for the organization(Griffin & Moorhead, 2011).

The last decade has experienced a remarkable transformation of organizational structures throughout the world. Although there are strategic, economic and technological imperatives that drive the transformation, the shift to team-based work structures from work organized around individual jobs is one among more compelling aspects that have contributed to the ongoing shift. Increasing global competition, innovation, consolidation and other form of restructuring has created global pressures that have influenced the emergence of groups and teams as basic building blocks of organizations.These pressures have driven a need for expertise, diverse skills, and experience. They have necessitated more flexible, rapid and adaptive responses. Groups and teams have enabled these characteristics. In addition, companies have globalized operations through mergers, joint ventures and expansion and acquisitions placing increased importance on mixed culture and cross-cultural teams. Advanced communication and computer technologies provide better tools and link employees with their groups and team in real-time and also enable teams to be virtual.

As organizations become more and more group or team-based, issues related to diversity form a major challenge for management. However, diverse teams and group give rise to a culture where team work is valued.  The increased use of groups as a work unit contributes to organizations becoming more diverse in terms of ideological and demographic differences. A diverse workforce brings to the organization diverse ideas and innovations to the benefit of the organization.  Such a culture promotes an environment where many people view working in groups and teams as an effective practice. It may appear, particularly to those that have a good team and group experiences in the past, that teams and groups achieve outcomes in a faster and effective manner.  The organization, therefore, may be characterized by designing of effective teams that involve team players that will manage and utilize teamwork for success. Culture is created and is constantly managed and diversified if necessary(Jones, 2010).

Teams and groups can provide a setting where issues can be worked out, and diverse people can come together to share their backgrounds and cultures. Organizations that place a high value on work groups and teams place a high value on innovation and encourage employees to continuously take risks and innovate to improve the performance of work. Organizations that emphasis on working with teams and groups place a high value on innovation expect employees to continuously improve on performance. These organizations focus on results and how they are achieved. These practices are reflected in the organizational culture that guides the organization.

In the contemporary organizations, there have been different degrees of emphasis on group and personal achievement. Some employees and managers in organizations may overlook some concepts of teamwork especially when management sees less essence of teamwork as an effective tool of performance. Such may be reflected in productivity and poor performance in the industry market.

Organizations that recognize the importance of group and team work use different strategies to make the practice part of the organization culture. Such practices may include bonuses or raises and non-financial incentives that are not only effective in rewarding teamwork. These types of payoffs make employees realize the value of teamwork. Other types of incentives include offering tickets and gift cards, extra days off, free meals in the organization, prime parking spots and special recognition of groups or teams. All group or team members should equally benefit when a team succeeds without regard to their role in the team. If only the most visible team members are rewarded, other employees may not see the advantage in working together. Ultimately, the organization embraces working as teams or groups t achieve set goals. The practice is reflected in the organization’s culture(Alvesson &Sveningsson, 2015).

Power and politics

Organizational politics are unofficial, informal and often behind-the-scenes efforts that attempt to influence an organization, sell ideas, increase power, or achieve other targeted objectives within the organization. Often, organizational politics are often associated with underhanded deliberate tactics executed by ill-meaning persons in search of their own individualistic agenda. There may be agendas that the basis of office politics and do not have to be ill-meaning and implementation does not have to need underhanded tactics.  Power and politics are common workplace phenomena in today’s business environment, and persons have more to worry other than simply completing assigned tasks. Organizational power and office politics influence routine operations as well as determining the atmosphere within the organization. The degree of impact that power and politics have in the organization directly reflects the workplace’s formal and informal culture(Pfeffer, 1992).

Today, organizations require the handling of shifting power bases and conflicting agendas. Effective politics that focus on not only winning at all costs rather maintaining relationships while attaining results creates good values within the organization. Although they are considerably portrayed as negative, organizational politics are not intrinsically bad. Instead, it is necessary to be aware of the potentially destructive facets of organizational politics so as to reduce their negative impacts. Of course, employees in the organization can waste time excessively engaging in political behavior. However, without political skills and awareness, the organization may become immersed in destructive power struggles, parochial politics and bureaucratic infighting which may significantly retard organizational innovation, initiative, morale, and performance.  Power and politics impact organization culture through the structure, organizational designs, and matrix structure.

The organizational structure forms a vital component of the routine operations of an enterprise. The organization structure benefits the enterprise as a result of all it encompasses. It defines how tasks are divided, coordinated and grouped. Major elements addressed during the design of the organization’s structure include departmentalization, work specialization, a chain of command, centralization and decentralization and spans of control. Such components are a direct reflection of the organization’s power and politics which contribute to culture.  Organization design may be simple, matrix and bureaucratic. The design of an organization suggests how decisions are made and enforced. The organizational design is often decided based on the size of the organization and marketplace(Shore et al., 2010).

Simple structures are widely used by organizations in which the owner directly manages the routine operations. One individual controls the organization and takes full responsibility for organization’s success and failure. Such a structure is fast, flexible and inexpensive to sustain and accountability is clear. However, a simple structure used by organizations limits the enterprise of its full potential. A large organization may face difficulties as one individual makes important decisions and oversees the daily operations. When an organization reaches this point, it might consider changing its design in order to retain its competitiveness.

Other organizations may use bureaucracy as a design based on the concept of standardization. Such a structure is inherently characterized by highly routine activities achieved through much-formalized rules and regulations, specialization tasks, decision making that follows the chain of command and narrow spans of control.  A bureaucracy allows an enterprise to carry out standardized tasks in a highly efficient manner. Given that decision making in such as structure is centralized, management does not need great decision-making ability. Unfortunately, there are fewer opportunities for adjustment in a bureaucracy. A matrix Structure is the result of the combination of two forms of departmentalization. The structure allows for the sharing of resources and exchange of ideas. One difficulty associated with the form of organization is the lack of coordination which may delays deadlines, hinder productivity and fluctuates the budget. Politics and power influence the forms of structures that organizations adopt. This ultimately influences organization culture through how activities are carried out in these structures(Robbins &Judge, 2012).

Power can also be viewed through the influence that a party has over another. Power allows an individual agent the capacity to influence the attitudes and behavior of target people.  Thus, power is used routinely to influence decisions of a magnitude. One important basis for evaluating the success of an attempt to influence is through immediate outcome intended. Power may be in the form of position power or personal power. Position power is derived from control over rewards or punishment, legitimate authority, and control over physical work environment. Typically a person’s position in the organization gives them inherent opportunities. Personal power is derived from task expertise, friendship, and loyalty.  Determinants of power interact in complex ways. Objectives performed by personal power and position power may be classified into coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, referent power or expert power. Power changes over time through different changing conditions and components. Through these factors, power impacts organizational culture(Levi, 2016).

An organization structure determines how communication takes place and establishes channels between different departments. Management decisions are based on the information relayed from knowledgeable and experienced employees. The most suitable structure is one that takes into consideration the size of the organization.  Examples of self-serving behaviors that may be reflected in an organization’s culture arising directly from power and politics include going through unofficial channels to obtain special favors, bypassing the chain of command to obtain approval for a special project, or lobbying high-level executives to influence decisions. Such types of actions may undermine fairness in the organization as not every member may engage in politicking to meet their own objectives. Such practices are often reflected in the organization’s culture(Schein, 2010).

Organizations adopt different ways to break or prevent political fiefdoms. One of the most effective tactics used by organizations is instilling a rational attitude that emphasis on enterprise goals over personal self-interest. Such tactics form the basis for rewards and in return control politics and power in organizations. However, employees should also understand that making changes involves politics and power. Other organizations help empower low-level employees to make decisions so as to prevent or break political fiefdom. One of the highest forms of empowerment is delegation. It requires a commitment that reflects an employee’s initiative to act and behave as required. When this is adopted in different areas of the organization, it becomes part of the values and culture of the organization(Osland & Turner, 2011).


Organizational culture is the overall personality that guides how employees act and think. It is central to the beliefs, values, interpersonal attitude and behaviors of stakeholders that that determine how the organization carries out its activities. Culture is an important factor not only in attaining organizational goals but in creating a positive public image, attracting and keeping right workforce and building good relations with stakeholders. Today’s organizations are characterized by intensified competition, rapid technological developments, and self-changing values.  The role of an organization’s culture in such an environment is vital.  The culture established in an organization shapes decisions, appropriate behaviors and how they interact with each other in the organization and the efficiency of how things are done. It also impacts how individuals, work groups, and the organization carry out tasks. Culture is created and is constantly managed and diversified if necessary. Work groups and teams and Power and politics are common workplace phenomena in today’s business environment, and persons have more to worry other than simply completing assigned tasks. Organizational power and office politics influence routine operations as well as determining the atmosphere within the organization. The degree of impact that power and politics have in the organization directly reflects the workplace’s formal and informal culture.



Griffin, R.W. and Moorhead, G., 2011. Organizational behavior. Nelson Education.

Pfeffer, J., 1992.  Power: Politics and influence in organizations. Harvard Business Press.

Jones, G.R., 2010. Organizational theory, design, and change. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T., 2012. Essentials of organizational behavior. Boston: Pearson.

Schein, E.H., 2010. Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). John Wiley & Sons.

Osland, J. and Turner, M., 2011. Organizational behavior reader. Pearson.

Shore, L.M., Chung, B.G., Randel, A.E., Dean, M.A., Ehrhart, K.H. and Singh, G., 2010. Workgroups: A review and model for future research. Journal of Management, p.0149206310385943.

Levi, D., 2016. Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications.

Alvesson, M., and Sveningsson, S., 2015. Organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge.

Hartnell, C.A., Ou, A.Y. and Kinicki, A., 2011. Organizational culture. A  competing values framework's theoretical suppositions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), p.677.




 When it comes to stakeholders in correctional institutions, leaders, managers, and administrators remain key in ensuring the facilities gives the best.  These are three different entities that remain pivotal in assisting offenders. Correctional Leadership is important in establishing as well as maintaining humane prisons. Good correctional facilities are not brought being by good philosophy, laws, or lawsuits, though; these are very vital (Shirkani, 2013).  Correctional leaders are individuals who are intelligent and competent with the ability to inspire correctional personnel. Even the unconstitutional confinement lawsuits conditions that lead to sweeping remedial orders only end up succeeding if professional correctional personnel who are willing and able to take court-mandated reforms are available. Correctional leaders are people who manage to make use of court initiatives as opportunities of improving physical correctional plant as well as administration. Contrary, if correctional officials are unfriendly, incompetent or recalcitrant, reform can’t get achieved. Correctional leaders are people who can have the ability to define, achieve goals, solve issues effectively, creatively, and efficiently, and elicit subordinates’ great efforts. Correctional leaders need to be individuals who are highly motivated, humanistic, energetic, mature, reflective as well as innovative (Gladwin& McConnell, 2014). They must have the ability to relate well with, and bring out the best in, subordinates as well as inmates. Correctional leaders must pose robust organizational management skills that base on expertise in resources, personnel management, labor relations as well as public administration.

Correctional administrators are different entities from correctional leaders. In many cases, they are wardens who oversee operations of correctional facilities.  Correctional administrators manage the budget, personnel and procedures for purposes of securing the facility. Administrators' roles have continued to shift toward a broader focus on inmate security and the prison personnel and surrounding community safety (Gladwin& McConnell, 2014). Correctional administrators must always have a wide knowledge set as well as skills.  They must become not only knowledgeable of corrections as well as criminology,  but also lead correctional officers as well as other workers, manage budgets and provide a safe environment that keeps inmates closely supervised.  In the United States, for instance,  the main duties of a correctional administrator encompass administration of safety as well as security procedures, management of human resources, management of critical incidents, management of facility budget, fostering of a healthy environment as well as presiding over correctional facility(Hurley & Hanley, 2010). This represents a move from traditional competency attributes in 1998 that focused on human resource and budgetary issues first.  Hence, safety, as well as security procedures, remains the chief responsibility of administrators.

Correctional managers present the third correctional stakeholder. Work in this correctional management gets assigned the responsibilities that involve the provision of routine social casework in classifying and assigning offenders committed to particular correctional agency or advanced social casework involving reintegration of offenders back to society.  Correctional managers utilize interview approaches as well as assessment tools to determine the offender’s risks as well as programmatic needs.  They prepare case history reports as well as recommendations on program assignments (Gladwin& McConnell, 2014). Correctional managers also individuals who review work as well as conduct records of assigned offenders to ascertain the progress or need of altering assignments or security classification.  They also serve as members of the classification board for assigned caseload. Correctional managers play a role of advising offenders on personal issues, work resources, vocational abilities, educational as well as training needs, family issues as well as adjustments in the institution. They also deliver programs to offenders that are devised to help in successful community reintegration after incarceration. Correctional managers do help in or prepare reports including parole reports or presentence investigation reports. They also receive and take necessary action on incoming as well as outgoing mail to and from assigned offenders. Ability to develop monitors as well as amend offender transition initiatives in according to reintegration programs and services is also an attribute of correctional managers. They are also persons who are responsible for establishing a collaborative network of other partners to offer support, pre as well as post-release services to offenders. These partners include family members and community-based resources as well as social service agencies (Hurley & Hanley, 2010). Therefore, Correctional Manager job consists of levels that are distinguished based on the work type and complexity, and the responsibility assigned to supervise others.

Whether a leader, a manager or an administrator, qualities that define the best of them are identical. The first thing that makes a great correctional leader, manager or administrator is a teamwork promoter. Working collaboratively and supporting co-workers always extend further as compared to the success of an individual. Since they work with others, Morale always improves with camaraderie as well as teamwork. Ability to have practical problem-solving strategies is another trait that defines a great correctional leader, manager, or administrator.             Excellent correctional officers get compelled to evaluate the current, assess the environment and determine a perfect strategy for viable reaction (Hurley& Hanley, 2010). Since correctional facilities are faced with many challenges, great officers need to have this ability. Great correctional officers must be decisive (Duffee, 1986).  Great correctional officers must have the ability to deal with uncertainty; process information quickly weighs evidence with the intuition and pursues a direction promptly. The great correctional officer must also be resilient. They must have the ability to learn from failures, setbacks, or mistakes and use them as a learning avenue. They must have the ability to cope with loss or failure as a way of gaining strengths to allows them bouncing back in a more efficient way over time. The reason is that failure is great lessons in life as well as on any job. The great correctional officer must always be individuals who put other people’s needs and interests before theirs. Great correctional leaders do not act out of ego, misuse their powers or authority but successfully manage the environment. When they ask others to do something delegates, need to internalize that what is asked is for the greater good.

Ability to practice open-mindedness is another aspect that defines great correctional officers.  Correctional officers must have flexible as well as a fluid mindset as a way of adapting to dynamics as well as a new challenge. This ability is always fostered by remaining open to new views as well as pursuits.  The reason is that correctional clients have dynamic needs that need daily adaptation to new situations (Hurley & Hanley, 2010). Dedication as an attribute plays an important role in responsibilities. By giving a commitment to their roles, they do earn not only the respect of correctional facilities but also instill same hardworking ability among correctional workers and inmates. Working hard halts inmates ‘offending behavior and keeps the correctional facility as well as the staff safe.  Great correctional officers leave with surety that they have done the best they could.

Correctional Leadership is aspects that need transformational leadership. This is where leaders, as well as their followers, raise one another to greater levels of morality as well as motivation in service delivery (Duffee, 1986). Transformational leadership theory suits correctional institutions from the fact that correctional facilities need to work together for the better of not only offenders but the employees as well as the society. In a correctional setting, transformational leaders can utilize all available avenues to ensure that offenders are rehabilitated and reintegrated into the society.

Finally, whether on a correctional leader, manager or administrators, communication remains key determiner of success. Good communication remains a no secret to successful correctional responsibilities. Good communication helps in effective writing of reports and documentation. Communication helps in offender assessment, the establishment of partnership and rehabilitating offenders. It also helps in handling emerging issues that can hinder correction (Duffee, 1986).  Good communication can also make offender develop trust in correctional officers to share their challenges which in the end helps to change them.



Duffee, D. (1986). Correctional Management: Change and control in correction organizations.      Prospect Heights, Ill: Waveland Press.

 Hurley, M. H. & Hanley, D. (2010): Correctional administration and change management. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis. ISBN: 978-1-4398-0392-9

Gladwin, B. P. & McConnell, C. R. (2014): The Effective Correction Manager: Correctional         Supervision for the Future (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN: 978-1-   4496-4546-5

Shirkani, J. (2013). Ego vs. EQ: How top leaders beat eight ego traps with emotional         intelligence.


Strategic leadership

The strategy that the managers of a company tend to pursue usually has a key impact on the performance of the company about that of competitors (Schilling et al. 2013). For the company, the managers will need to have a strategic plan that defines the strategy of the company and the decision-making process on allocating resources so as to pursue the strategy. In the process, it will be essential to ensure strategic leadership so as to help increase the performance of the company; thus, increasing the value of the enterprise to its owners. During the process of strategic planning, the managers will have to ensure that they pursue the strategies that will have an increase in the profitability of the company and ensure the growth of profits. Therefore, the strategy selected for this company has to be one that will have a positive impact on the company regarding productivity and profitability.

Business model

A business model refers to a plan implemented by the company so as to generate revenue and also to make a profit from operations. In this case, the company will consider an innovative model that will involve excellent new products. When considering the innovative model, the company will continue creating stylish, innovative products that will enable the company to be at the top of the industry (Schilling et al. 2013). With the use of the model, the company will ensure that it creates, delivers, and captures value. With such a powerful business model, this company will be able to provide the customers with value for the money and it will see a growth in the business.

SWOT analysis

For this company, there are some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in doing the business. Some of the strengths include the ability to sell the product directly to the customers. In this case, customers can inquire with us and ensure that they receive what they demand. There is also the strength of higher responsiveness to the demands of the customer. A major weakness is that the company does not have enough cash to purchase all the necessary resources. Therefore, the lack of funds is a weakness for the company that can be harmful in achieving the objective. An opportunity is the customer’s increasing knowledge of what they want in the products we sell and also the internet as being the marketing tool. A major weakness is a strong competition in the industry.

Competencies and competitive advantage

In this industry, the company will always look forward to finding ways so as to stay competitive. The company will ensure that it delivers value to its customers. Innovation will be a major factor that will enable the company to be competitive in the industry. In this way, the company will ensure that it produces cutting edge and very cool designs. It is the focus of this company never to stop innovating. Customer service will also enable the company to achieve a competitive edge in the market, and efficiency is a competency for this company as the management will ensure the ability to complete the client engagement on budget and on time. Thus, the company will ensure that it responds to the customer inquiries on time so as to avoid the risk of losing customers to our competitors. So as to develop competitive advantage in the business and functional level, the company will need to achieve superior efficiency, innovation, and quality (Jones & Hill 2012). We plan on building a company commitment to efficiency, upgrading skills of employees through training and education, strong leadership among others. Through superior quality, it will help this company lower its costs, charge a premium price, and even differentiate its products.

Michael Porter’s model

The porters five forces tool help the company in understanding the strength of its current competitive position and strength of the position the company is considering moving to (Stredwick & Kew 2005). When using the porter’s model, it will be possible for the company to understand where power lies and in this way, the company may take advantage of the strength and improve weaknesses and also avoid taking the wrong steps. When using the model, the company can know whether the new business that it is starting has the potential of being profitable. The five forces include the buyer power, competitive rivalry, supplier power, threat of substitution, and the threat of new entry. When using the model, it is possible for the company to know the elements that do shape competition in the industry. For instance, when looking at competitive rivalry, it tends to be very high in the industry. Therefore, in case a company raises prices, they will be quickly undercut because competition tends to have a strong downward pressure on the prices.  The threat of substitution is low, but the threat of new entry is high because when the company seems to be making a sustained profit, it is likely for new competitors to come into the industry easily; thus, reducing profits.


Jones, G & Hill, C (2012). Strategic management. Cengage Learning

Jones, G Hill, C & Schilling, M (2013). Strategic management theory. Cengage Learning

Stredwick, J & Kew, J (2005). Business environment: managing in a strategic context. CIPD Publishing



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