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Criminology Featured

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Criminology is the study of law and administration of criminal justice. Criminology ensures crimes committed are dealt with according to established laws. Criminology looks on the reasons for increased crimes, the causes and law enforcement on the same. Crimes committed range from commercial, public, and civil crimes. These forms of crimes have their modes of justices presented to the offenders. In criminology, we tend to establish the relationship of the crimes and what lead to their happening. The individuals committing crimes must have reasons on why they are committing them. The law enforces on their judgment must establish all the evidences relating to their verdict. The study is examining the relationship between questioning and facts finding mission in determining the evidences used in case.


The use of informants

The police officers use informants to gather information on crimes. The informants are common people what are used by the law enforcers to gather intelligence information on suspected individuals and criminals. The information gathered is used intelligently by the police to establish the relationship of the crime and the person who committed it. The informants are trained on how to collect this important information injustice application. The received information is not immediately used, but time is taken to gain enough evidence which can be used in administration of justice (Rafter, 2010). Informants have knowledge on justice and fair application of laws; therefore, they understand their duties as they law can be used against them for providing false information. They are well trained on how to ask questions that can lead to achieving their aims. The informants are not reliable source of facts to be used in case as they are human they can be prone to errors. The adjudication process may face the hard time in dealing with untrained and unsatisfied informants who cannot delivery information in time for the right action (Rock, 2014). Informants must be trained and paid well so that they may not collude with criminals and in committing and hiding crimes. Information delivered should be handled with caution so that it may not leak to the target groups to hamper justices.


Interrogation mode is highly used to gather intelligence information on crimes and criminals. Individuals suspected to be criminals are taken to police stations where they are questioned against available information linking them to certain crimes in the country (Rock, 2014). This process involves the officers in charge asking questions as they access the individual's mind. The police are professional in dealing with psychology of the suspected individuals. The individuals are asked questions that are assessed in relation to the matter at hand. For instance, persons detained for drug trafficking is interrogated on questions involving the acquisition of drugs, transportation, partners in the business, intended customers, and major distribution places. The officer would have received information declaring him guilty or not guilty. Then basis of the case for court are sought. The suspect may answer the question well while concealing some important information that may lead to apprehending the suspect. Though this method is important as it has some lapses that need to be addressed or used with other methods as surveillance method. Interrogation when done friendly through guidance and counseling it yields good results.

Reid questioning mode

The Reid questioning mode, Police officers, hold the suspect in the station for intensive interrogation. The questioning process involves two officers' one being a good cop and the other one being a bad cop in a private room, and everything is recorded in a tape. Here the mood, the tone and the physical movements of the suspect is well monitored and interpreted to gather the required information. The cops can employee these techniques; isolation, maximization, and minimization (Simon, 2014). In isolation the suspect is isolated from his family and friends, in the process the suspect can feel lonely and give in to answer the questions asked. In the maximization, the officer starts by stating the suspect is guilty so that he can decide to answer the questions to defend him or plea guilty. In the minimization, the cop starts by stating the suspect is not guilty and if he gives information leading to the real criminals arrest will be set free (Simon, 2014). Therefore, the police using their intelligence can target the criminals. Police officers with the tip of informant information and other sources like the past records of the suspect will combine to reach a conclusion. This procedure is good as it gives the suspect time to get organized and save the situation. The Reid mode when used professionally the suspect readily gives his part of the story, hence, can be applied in any case.

Torture method

Torture techniques are sometimes used in hardcore criminals who are not ready to cooperate with law enforcers. The cops use crude methods to screw information necessary for justice to be effected. Here the suspect is held in a helpless situation, where pain is inflicted to him to answer the asked questions and assist in administering justice. This technique is applied only in certain crimes where the suspects refuse to answer the questions asked (Rafter, 2010). Though the method is cruel, it yields the required information and assists the law enforcers to give a fair judgment based on the available evidence. This method can pick all the required information, through confrontational questioning; the pain inflicted cause trauma to the suspect. Also, it may lead to mental disturbance or mental illness if wrongly performed.

Surveillance method

Surveillance is recorded information on the individuals. This surveillance information includes; personal data, medical data, employment information, legal data, business data and any court cases. This information can be used it give out the required evidence for justice to prevail. Invasion of private information is necessary because it will prove if guilty or not guilty. The data analyzed will provide evidence for crimes committed. Thus, real offenders will be judged. Some crimes happen in places where CCTV cameras are in operation, thus the recorded information regarding the crime will be produced in court and used, in fact, finding mission. The surveillance will shorten the court procedures and provide real evidence.

Fact finding process

The fact-finding process is an important part that is used to determine the relevance of the evidence produced to the crime committed. This process is very sensitive as it dictates the administration of justice. Wrong facts will lead to wrong people given injustice. Chances of a judge giving a wrong judgment are there due to oral and written facts that may not have been well collected and recorded. The fact-finding mission is the sole determinant of the direction the case will take. The public expects the judicial practitioner to practice justice in a rational way and achieving the required aims of justice, so the courts are in stake when handling matters with unfairness due to facts produced. The adjudicator with the power of the fact-finding process should follow all the steps involved in order to come with valid information.

Fact finding analysis

Fact finding analysis, the principles controlling this process must be reviewed so that the person involved in the fact-finding mission must be included in the cases contrary to what is happening. The facts are produced minus the adjudicator involved explaining the steps involved and what methods he used to collect the facts and determine them. The adjudicator should be given time to engage the whole tribunal in asking questions to ascertain why the facts produced are important in the case. As this will need them to understand why some facts can be used while others ignored. The fact analysis stage all the involved members in the tribunal are given power to go through the evidences and facts supporting them to decide which evidences will be used and why?

The core issues of facts used

The core issue is in facts used to determine if the witness is saying the truth however this one is hard to reach it. The judge does not have the ability of reading the mind of the witness and consider his testimony true or false. This indicates how the fact-finding process must be looked into, and seriousness should be employed in order justice to prevail. The judge plays clues of wanting to know if the witness is honest or dishonest by looking at; his voice tone, eye conduct, physical movements and level of comfort. The judge with her years of experience she can clarify the facts she feels will help us and the one to reject. At the time, the judge will be biased to certain points, in relation to the case being handled (Gould et al., 2011). The issue of establishing the truth is difficult as there is no machine used to measure the level of truth in a person. It remains a challenge as we do not have the power to interpret what the suspect, the witness, and the offended is saying. The level of making an error is big as human judgment is relative. The members of the tribunal must come together to tackle issues emerging with a common goal of enforcing justice.

Statement analysis

Statement analysis in fact finding process is important as not all statements can be used to provide evidence. Statements recorded by the witness, the suspect, and interested parties must be accessed to gain the required judgment. The judges propose the use of real memories as opposed to framed one. The involved parties must use real memories of what happened how and what followed. The criteria that should be followed suggest that; general characteristics of allegations must be looked at, specific contents of the allegations, peculiarities of the contents, motivation related contents and offense specific elements (Falco et al., 2012). This formula can be used to reach at the facts that are used in a case. Characteristic of the allegation here we generally analyze; the location, time the crime occurred, type of crime, involved parties, the witness and the tools used. Specific contents of the allegation we look at; the framing of the statements, the witness information, the implied judges. Peculiarities of the contents involve; the added information, untallying evidence, lack of exhibits, and misunderstood recorded details. In the motivation, we look at; lack of memory, state of mental health, doubtful witness information and other external sources unrecorded. In the offense specific contents, we look at the characteristics of the crime committed and possible out-comes if found guilty. Statement analysis will help us know if the statement recorded is valid for fact finding.


The witnesses involved in the case are other aspects of determining the case verdict. Therefore, the witness quality of truth must be accessed. Witness must be all treated equally as bias may jeopardize our process of justice. A state of mind, physical movements, observation, memory, eyesight, taste and sensing must be accessed to determine if the witness is accurate of his testimony (Falco et al. 2012). The adjudicator’s demonstrated interest in the proceedings, respect for the parties, willingness to listen and consider, and effort to provide reasoned opinions will go a long way in assuring the value of the hearing process. The process of fair-minded fact-finding cannot be quantified and packaged.


To make a conclusion about question and fact finding pattern it requires a cognitive process. The evidence gathered are used as the base for deciding the direction of the case. Hence, evidences needed proper investigations and accurate analysis. The first step to determine the importance of evidence is to collect it with an admissible value. The judge must decide which evidence and facts are believed and what is not, this will ensure the use of only valid evidence as agreed by the tribunal. The evidence that is rejected does not have any weight to the case process. Contradictory evidence is scraped off the list as this may hamper justice and increase confusion. Whether certain facts are believed, it will depend on the harmony it produces with other evidences that find the favor of the judge. The investigating officer is called upon to make decisions regarding his investigation and what evidence he things useful to the judges. Difficulties faced on a fact-finding mission must be handled with care no matter if evidence is there or not so facts must be found for law enforcement (De Giorgi, 2014). The problems that can rise will be solved by using scientific forensic methods to in-still confidence. Decisions on evidence come from human minds but can be challenged to reach an amble agreement. The criminal justice system has to embrace technology in all matters related to justice, scientific evidence minimizes questioning as compared to physical collected evidence and recorded information. The methods of collection evidence from the suspect must use all the available methods by professionally trained personnel. The fact-finding mission must not rely on the available evidence but must improvise modern ways of collecting the facts without mistakes. The adjudicator must remain unbiased through the case, and his experience is important.


De Giorgi, A. (2014). Reform or Revolution: Thoughts on Liberal and Radical Criminologies. Social Justice, 40(1/2), 24-31.

Falco, D. L., & Martin, J. S. (2012). Examining Punitiveness: Assessing Views Toward the Punishment of Offenders Among Criminology and Non-Criminology Students.Journal Of Criminal Justice Education, 23(2), 205-232. doi:10.1080/10511253.2011.631931

Gould, L. A., Fowler, S. K., & del Carmen, A. (2011). Faculty Employment Trends in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Journal Of Criminal Justice Education, 22(2), 247-266. doi:10.1080/10511253.2010.517771

Rafter, N. (2010). Silence And Memory In Criminology—The American Society Of Criminology 2009 Sutherland Address. Criminology, 48(2), 339-355. Doi:10.1111/J.1745-9125.2010.00188.X

Rock, P. (2014). The public faces of public criminology. Criminology & Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 14(4), 412-433. doi: 10.1177/1748895813509638

Simon, J. (2014). Radical Need for Criminology. Social Justice, 40(1/2), 9-23.

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