Wednesday, 20 December 2017 08:30

The relationship between planning and controlling

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The four main functions of management are interrelated and complement each other for the success of an organization. Each of the functions has its critical role in ensuring the success of the other.  Planning and controlling functions are intertwined and interdependent with each of the function relying on the other.  The success of planning relies on the presence of an effective control function.  Through the planning function, managers outline goals and objectives, and the actual activities that lead to the accomplishment of organizational goals.  Control systems in an organization ensure resources are utilized as planned and processes are in line.  The main purpose of control is to measure activities and take actions to ensure plans are being accomplished. Because plans are the measure against which controls must be revised, it is logical that the first step in the control process is to achieve plans. Plans can be viewed as a criterion or the standards against which humans compare the actual performance in order to figure out deviations.  Therefore, planning and control are incomplete and ineffective without each other.

 Comparison of management perspective.

Most contemporary management perspectives have emerged and evolved for the  past decades or so.  Starting with the classical perspective, these perspectives have grown and expanded to include the contemporary management perspectives.  The quantitative management perspective focuses on applying mathematical models and processes to manage situations.  It deals with the development of   mathematical models to assist in decision making and solving problems. The quantitative perspective has provided adequate decision making tools and techniques and has increased understanding of overall organization process. On the other side, system perspective of organizations views organizations as systems. The perspective allows managers to understand better the importance of their environment and the level of interdependence among subsystems within an organization.  The system perspective views an organization as an open system that interacts with the environment.  The perspective also emphasizes the importance of marinating harmony and collaboration among sub-systems.

The various management perspectives provide insightful information on how modern managers can approach management.  Different elements borrowed from these perspectives helps to make a holistic manager. For example, a manager may use the quantitative perspectives such as a decision making model to make an investment decision but system the system approach to ensure the investment gives the desired results.

Who is an effective leader?

The debate on what makes an effective leader has been existence since time in memorial. Scholars and theorists have come up with leadership styles to explain what characteristics make an effective leader. Although there is no agreement on what makes an effective leader, there are some common elements in the definition of a leader that hint on what is expected of a good leader. First, leadership is seen as the process of influencing others to achieve a common goal. Secondly, a leader must be vision, identify goals and objectives and rally others to commit toward those goals. Therefore, a leader must be enthusiastic, focused and goal-oriented.  He should be able to give direction and maintain a motivated team. Understanding teams dynamic is a critical competence of any effective leader.  These leadership traits may be inborn while others can be learnt or perfected in class.  Through experience and professional and personal development, an individual can perfect his or her leadership skills.


Lewis P., Goodman S., Fandit P & Michlitsch J (2010). Management: Challenges for tomorrow’s leaders. Cengage learning, USA. 

Griffin Ricky (2012). Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning.

Janet Peter is the Managing Director of MeldaResearch.Com a globally competitive custom writing service which is the premiere provider of Essay Writing Services, Research Paper Writing Services at Term Paper Writing Services at very affordable cost. For 9 years, she has helped a number of students in different academic subjects.

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