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Annotated Bibliography Featured

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CDC (2012) Vital signs: awareness and treatment of uncontrolled hypertension among adults United States, 2003-2010. Retrieved from on 8/30/2014  

The weekly morbidity and mortality report from Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) examines awareness and pharmacologic treatment of uncontrolled hypertension among U.S.A adults with hypertension. According to the study, the prevalence of hypertension among adult American Citizens (over 18 years) is 30.4%v (66.9% million Americans).  The study was comprehensive, and it included even those who have hypertension and are not unaware.  The results are from the analysis of NHANES data for seven years (2003-2010). 

Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, et al., (2010) Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association's strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond. Circulation; 121:586-613

Lloyd et al. offer detailed recommendations of the Goals and Metrics Committee of the Strategic Planning Task For of the American Heart Association.  The document offers the ideal definition of cardiovascular health and outlines the strategic 2020 objectives of the American Health Association. In addition, the document provides a detailed description of CVD and stroke on public health.

National Stroke Association (2010) What is Stroke? Retrieved from:  

The National Stroke Association webpage explains the signs and symptoms of Stroke. It acts as a guide to persons living with stroke and those caring for people with stroke. Some of the essential information the page provides include the definition of stroke, prevention strategies, recovery journey, and sign and symptoms.

The Office of Minority Health (2010) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from: on 8/30/2014

The office of Minority Health is under the Department of Health and Human Services. The office also work to improve the health of minority groups including racial and ethnic minority by developing health policies and programs that aims at eliminating health disparities.  The office is at the forefront of the implementation of ACA provisions that address health disparities and equity. The office assists in the implementation of HHS Action plan that aims at reducing disparities and coordinating national actions to improve the health status of minority groups.

National Stroke Association (2010) African Americans and Stroke. Retrieved from: on 8/30/214

The National Stroke Association has dedicated this web page to  explain the burden of stroke on African-Americans. It is one of culturally competent sites that has information customary tailored for African-Americans. In addition to offering general information about stroke, the site provides culturally responsive strategies to explain why African-Americans are at a great risk of stroke.

National Vital Statistics Report (2013). Retrieved from on 8/30/2014

The National Statistics Report is prepared by CDC to offer statistics regarding mortality and deaths.  The 2013 report outlines the major causes of death including infant mortality, CVD-related deaths and stroke-related deaths. The report provides insightful information that describes the stroke and related complications.

Neipris, Louis (2010) African Americans and Stroke Risk. Retrieved from: on 8/30/2014

Neipris explains why African-Americans are at a greater risk of contracting stroke and explore these factors in detail. He also provides strategies to reduce these risk factors. Most of the strategies he provides relates to health lifestyle (physical activities, good food choices, avoiding smoking and alcohol and good health practices).

University of Alabama at Birmingham. (2010, March 14). African-Americans have highest stroke rate, southerners more likely to die. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2014 from on 8/30/2014

This Article explains why African American 65 and younger from the south has an increased risk of having a stroke. The University of Alabama article provides findings from UAB’s causes for geographic variations and racial differences in stroke. The study indicates major ethnic disparities in terms of prevalence of stroke, access to care and availability of health services.

Howard, George et al., (2006).  Regional Differences in African Americans High Risk for Stroke: The Remarkable Burden of Stroke for Southern African Americans. Annals of Epidemiology. Vol. 17, Issue 9. Retrieved from: on 8/30/2014

Howard, Labarthe, Hu, Yoon & Virginia (2007) explore variations in geographic differences in stroke mortality for African American. The researchers calculated age-specific and sex-specific mortality rates between whites and blacks in 26 states. According to the study, there is a high stroke mortality ratio between African-Americans and whites.

Laino, Charlene (2010) U.S. Has Racial Gap in Stroke Rate: Study Shows African-Americans More Likely Than Whites to Have Strokes. Retrieved from  on 8/30/2014.

Laino provides explanations as to why African-Americans are at higher risk of dying from stroke. The study involved over 26,000 people above 45 years from across the U.S. The cross-sectional survey followed these participants for four years and offers critical stroke death patterns.

  Covington, King, Fennel I., Jones C., Hutchinson C & Evans A  (2010). Developing a community-based stroke prevention intervention course in minority communities: the DC Angels Project. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. Vol. 42(3):139-42.

Covington et al., (2010) provide recommendations from the DC Angels Project. The project aimed at developing a community-based stroke prevention strategy. The success from the project indicates that an educational intervention should target high-risk-area residents and use various venues, and community organizations to reach the people within the community.

Brenner DA, Zweifler RM, Gomez CR, Kissela BM, Levine D, Howard G, Coull B, & Howard VJ. (2010) Awareness, treatment, and control of vascular risk factors among stroke survivors. Journal of  Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. Vol. 19 (4):311-20.

Brenner and colleagues assessed the prevalence, treatment, and control of CVD diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes among stroke survivors. The cross-sectional analysis involved approximately 2,800 participants, including African-Americans. 

Roth D & Dhamoon M (2014). Racial disparities in long-term stroke outcomes: Evidence from nationwide epidemiologic studies.  Neurology, Vol. 83:384-385,

Roth and Dhamoon provide a nation-wide survey that indicates racial disparities in long-term stroke outcomes. The study focuses on the contributing factors that expose African-Americans to adverse stroke outcome.

Rahman, F., Kwan, G. F., & Benjamin, E. J. (2014). Global epidemiology of atrial fibrillation. Nature Reviews Cardiology. Vol. 118: 12.

Rhaman, Kwan and Benjamin use global data to describe the global prevalence, risk factors, management, financial implications and clinical burden of Atrial fibrillation. The study provides a detailed background that explains the significance of Atrial fibrillation on public health in the globe.  It also outlines the need for stakeholders to maintain credible data on Atrial fibrillation.

Shroff, G. R., Solid, C. A., & Herzog, C. A. (2014). Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke, and Anticoagulation in Medicare Beneficiaries: Trends by Age, Sex, and Race, 1992-2010. Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol. 3(3)

Shroff, Solid & Herzog used a cohort of patients for 12 years (1992-2010) to evaluate temporal trends in ischemic stroke and warfarin. The study highlights the significance of having the right treatment strategy to manage CVDs.

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